فهرست مطالب

Traditional and Integrative Medicine - Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2017
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahdi Alizadeh Vaghasloo, Ayeh Naghizadeh, Mansoor Keshavarz Pages 54-60
    Apart from being a sign in diagnosis, the pulse is a unique conceptual issue in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) that deserves to be discussed in detail. A positional and local motion originating from the source of vital spirit, and consisting of two movements and two rests, the pulse increases the vital spirit and produces the psychic spirit. Analyzing the pulse provides a framework to evaluate conditions of the heart and its vital force, conditions of the matter in the vascular wall and both inside and outside the vascular lumen, and the status of tissue demand for ventilation. There are many factors, both physiologic and pathologic that can bring about specific changes in various parameters of the pulse. Therefore, the comprehensive pulse diagnosis of TPM inquires and is founded on assessing ten features of the pulse, namely parameters of pulse expansion dimensions, pulse strength, pulse speed, pulse frequency, vessel fullness, vessel consistency, overlying skin and tissue quality, pulse uniformity, regularity vs. irregularity of pulse diversity, and pulse weight or music. Overall, the pulse is a demonstration of blood perfusion in tissues, which in turn determines the temperament of organs. This concept has led the authors to the “Doctrine of Priority of Blood Production and Distribution over the Formation of Temperaments and Dystemperaments”. Derived and assessed by the study of pulse in TPM, this doctrine may be used to forecast different temperaments and dystemperaments within an individual by evaluation of the blood and its distributional status via the pulse. This doctrine may solve the paradoxical findings of non-homogenous dystemperaments in single individuals, and reduce misdiagnosis and treatment.
    Keywords: Pulse, Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), Avicenna, Blood Production, Distribution Doctrine, Temperament, Nabz
  • Seyede Nargess Sadati Lamardi, Sara Tahroodi, Mahnaz Khanavi, Reza Hosseini Doust Pages 61-60
    The genus Ajuga [Kamafitos] has been used as wound healing in traditional Persian medicine. Recent studies have shown that some species of this plant has antibacterial effects. Methanol 80% and aqueous extract and partition fractions of n-hexane, diethyl ether, and n-butanolic from a methanolic extract of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella were evaluated for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using cup-plate method. Furthermore, (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC was determined using micro plate method. Gentamicin and vancomycin were used as positive control and methanol 5% was used as negative control. Zone of inhibition (mm) and the MIC (µg/ml) were measured in three times. Based on the results, all extracts and fractions showed antibacterial effect against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, among them the diethyl ether fraction exhibited the most antibacterial effect against S. aureus (zone of inhibition =18mm) and B. subtilis (zone of inhibition =16.5mm). Also, n-butanolic fraction showed the most antibacterial effect against E. coli (zone of inhibition =16mm) and methanolic extract presented the most antibacterial effect against B. subtilis (zone of inhibition =15mm). S. aureus was the most sensitive (MIC>333µg/ml) and P. aeruginosa was the most resistant (MIC>4000µg/ml) bacteria to the extracts. The above results revealed that most of the extracts and fractions from this plant possess antibacterial activity against micro-organisms specially S. aureus. According to traditional use of Ajuga species as wound healing medicinal plant, it can be used for treatment of various skin infections and possibly reduction of healing time.
    Keywords: Ajuga chamaecistus subsp tomentella, Antibacterial, Cup-plate method, MIC
  • Mohammad Hooshangi, Shabnam Mohammadi, Jalil Alizadeh, Maryam Mohammadi, Ali Bolghanabadi, Mahbobeh Rahmani, Somaye Mansouri, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh Pages 67-73
    Since students of the of medical universities would have role in health centres and hospitals in the future, they must be aware about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, related side effects, risks and possible complications. Due to the growing use of CAM in Iran, this study aims to evaluate the level of awareness, attitude, and performance of students of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. Thisacross-sectional study was performed on 249 medical students(155 girls and 94 boys)of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences in 2014 with mean(SD) age of 20.90 ± 2.18 years. A standard questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered into SPSSv. 20 software. The p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.The level of awareness was low with an overall score of 22.56 ± 6.54, and only 22.1% had a positive attitude. About as 46.2% of students used traditional medicine, especially herbal medicine, to treat a cold, and3.2% had the experience of traditional medicine courses.About24.9% of them were in favour of having a course on traditional medicine and 26.9% were interested in traditional medicine. About57.42% of students advised traditional medicine, especially for treatment of muscle pain, and more than 80% believed thattraditional medicine courses are useful. More than 60% preferred methods of traditional medicine to modern medicine, while, 22.1% believed that traditional medicine has side effects. Also, 34.5% believed that traditional medicine is alow-cost option. Based on the poor knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary medicine, it is necessary to enhance students’ awareness through CAM courses in the university.
    Keywords: Complementary medicine, Student knowledge, Attitude, Practice
  • Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Masoud Mirmasoumi, Gholamreza Amin Pages 74-77
    Faranjmoshk is one of the seeds that are sold in Iranian herbal markets for various medical purposes including anxiety, spleen disorder and inflammatory bowel disease. For the variety of discussions around different botanical characteristics ofFaranjmoshkin different references,there is no exactscientific name for these seeds. Moreover,Faranjmoshk, basil and lemon balm seeds are incorrectly equaled in somearticles. It is important to distinguish between them.The aim of the present study was to determine the exact scientific nameof Faranjmoshk.For these purpose,purchased seeds from different cities were grown under greenhouse condition up to flower formation. According to morphological analysis of grown plant,available seeds in herbal markets were belonging to Clinopodiumgraveolens (M.Bieb.) Kuntze. Thus, it is different from lemon balm and basil. Since no phytochemical analyses and pharmacological studies have been performed on Clinopodiumgraveolensdespite of various medicinal uses in traditional Persian Medicine, it is suggested to design studies to evaluate its phytochemistry and pharmacology.
    Keywords: Faranjmoshk, Clinopodium graveolens, Scientific name, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology
  • Bahram Mehrtash, Marzieh Beygom Siahpoosh, Majid Hajikarimi Pages 78-82
    Licorice is a popular herb in herbal medicine specially to treat gastric ulcers. It is one of the most widely prescribed herbs in Persian medicine. Excessive consumption of licorice may lead to cardiac arrhythmia due to a hyper mineralocorticoid state and hypokalemia. In a 22-year-old man from Iran, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease, sinus arrhythmia occurred after using average dose of licorice for Irritable bowel syndrome without hypokalemia. According to Persian medicine, this case owned a hot temperament of heart so, licorice for this patient was not a good choice to treat his Irritable bowel syndrome because its temperament is hot and it could make the temperament of this patient’s heart hotter and even result in faint. Neglecting from Individual features such as heart temperament, especially in addition to existence of sensitizer factors may lead patient to show cardiac arrhythmia without hypokalemia after using of licorice in average dose. This evidence belongs to only one case and actually, to receive a strong conclusion, more essential studies are required but it could be an evidence to think about evaluation the safety of licorice. It seems that our knowledge about herbal medicine is not so enough so we should use them with caution.
    Keywords: Licorice, Arrhythmia, Persian medicine
  • Hassan Hajtalebi, Hassan Khani Iurigh, Hamid Reza Hajtalebi Pages 83-89
    Distal fractures of tibia along with fibula and ankle dislocation is one of the orthopedic problems seen in the area of fracture treatment. These fractures and dislocations can cause various complications such as non-union, bad union, ischemia caused by vascular damage, skin necrosis, and soft tissue damage of fracture, in addition to compartment syndrome, and venous congestion. The patient in this case study is a 12-year boy who suffered from right lower limb trauma due to a motorcycle accident. The patient underwent orthopedic surgery for internal fixation of bones and right ankle stability. After the surgery, the patient's right leg was swollen with severe venous congestion. The patient did not respond to conventional treatments, and so, the physician ordered leech therapy- according to a letter written by the physician to the traditional medicine clinic. The leech therapy was for the treatment of venous congestion in the patient’s right leg. Due to a severe trauma, major surgery, and post-operative venous congestion, the patient suffered from the melancholy in the surgical area, and the bottom of foot, and consequently, the whole body. The patient's venous congestion and severe swelling were significantly decreased after four stages of leech therapy on the basis of Iranian Traditional Medicine in two weeks with 10 leeches, and significant recovery was recorded. After two months of treatment by his physician, the patient underwent a successful surgery for a skin graft on anterior leg, and then was fully recovered. According to the process of patient’s recovery and significant treatment of patient’s leg edema and congestion after leech therapy, it seems that combining the Iranian modern and traditional medicines can be a solution to such diseases.
    Keywords: Double Distal Fracture of Tibia, Fibula, Ankle Dislocation, Iranian Traditional Medicine, Iranian Leech Therapy
  • Fatemeh Sadat Hasheminasab, Mohammad Hossein Ayati Pages 90-97
    Strabismus surgery, as a common operation, is associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting, which may increase in intraocular eye pressure and this can have some bad influences on outcomes of ophthalmic surgery. Different methods such as acupoint stimulation have been utilized to reduce this complication. This paper is a review on the effect of different types of acupoint stimulation in prevention of nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. This review evaluates and summarizes the outcomes of 8 papers, published from 1991 to 2015, which were identified through a careful search in PubMed and Google Scholar. There are many factors that can affect testing results of acu-stimulation methods for controlling nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. Although many studies have confirmed acupoint stimulation as a useful method, there are some papers with different results. Most of studies indicate that the application of acupoint stimulation in a suitable clinical setting can reduce nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. More studies in various clinical-conditions should be scheduled to improve evidence-based guidelines.
    Keywords: Acupressure, Acupuncture, Nausea, Vomiting, Strabismus surgery, Anesthesia