فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای زراعی ایران - سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 55، 1396)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 55، 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • علمی پژوهشی
  • حمیدرضا سعیدی گراغانی، ابوالفضل رنجبر فردویی، مجتبی سلیمانی ساردو، محمد جواد مهدوی صفحات 1-7
    گیاهان مرتعی از اهمیت و نقش ویژه ای در صنایع دارویی برخوردارند. کاهش کمی و کیفی منابع آب همراه با شوری خاک از مهمترین عوامل بازدارنده در تکثیر و رشد گیاهان بشمار می رود. لذا این امر نیازمند شناخت و بررسی شرایط مطلوب رشد گیاهان می باشد. زیره سیاه (Bunium persicum Boiss) یکی از گیاهان مهم دارویی ایران است که دارای خواص ضد نفخ، مقوی معده، اشتهاآور و مدر بودن می باشد. تنش های شوری و خشکی از عوامل مهم کاهش عملکرد این گیاه محسوب می شود. به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش های شوری و خشکی دو آزمایش به صورت مجزا در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار بر روی بذر گونه زیره سیاه انجام شد. تنش خشکی شامل پنج سطح (شاهد، 2/0- ، 4/0- ، 6/0- و 8/0-) مگاپاسکال ایجاد شده توسط محلول پلی اتیلن گلیکول 6000 و تنش شوری نیز در شش سطح (شاهد، 50، 100، 150، 200 و dS.m-1300) اعمال شد. بعد از اعمال تیمارها شمارش بذور جوانه زده به صورت روزانه انجام شد و درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه، ساقه چه و گیاه چه و نیز ضریب آلومتری و بنیه بذر تعیین گردید. نتایج آنالیز آماری نشان داد که تنش های خشکی و شوری، درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی، شاخص بنیه ی بذر، ضریب آلومتری، طول ساقه چه، ریشه چه و گیاه چه را به طور معنی داری کاهش می دهند، به طوری که جوانه زنی در تیمار 06/- مگاپاسکال خشکی به طور کامل متوقف شد. داده های تحقیق نشان می دهد که زیره سیاه گونه ای حساس نسبت به تنش های محیطی از جمله خشکی و شوری در مراحل ابتدایی جوانه زنی و رشد بذور می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: بنیه بذر، تنش محیطی، ضریب آلومتری، طول ساقه چه
  • سید فاضل فاضلی کاخکی، علی طیبی صفحات 8-18
    به منظور تولید بیش از یک کپسول در هر گره برگ گیاه کنجد، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده علمی کاربردی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی مشهد در سال 1393 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل: بذر از گره برگ تک کپسول و بذر از گره برگ سه کپسولی و فاکتور دوم سه غلظت سولفات آهن (صفر، 50 و ppm100) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که وزن تازه و خشک اندام هوایی در بوته های حاصل از بذر هایسه کپسولی بیشتر از بوته های حاصل از بذر تک کپسولی بود. تعداد کپسول در بوته در تیمار بذر های سه کپسولی 2/ عدد بوده که نسبت به تیمار بذر تک کپسولی حدود هشت درصد تعداد کپسول در بوته بیشتری داشت. اعمال غلظت ppm 100 سولفات آهن دربوته های حاصل از بذر های تک کپسولی بیشترین درصد گره تک کپسولی را داشت، در صورتی که اعمال غلظت ppm 50 سولفات آهن در بوته های حاصل از بذر سه کپسولی بیشترین تعداد گره چند کپسولی را داشت. بیشترین وزن تازه و خشک اندام هوایی از اعمال غلظت ppm 50 سولفات آهن در بوته های حاصل از بذر های سه کپسولی به دست آمد. بیشترین وزن دانه در بوته از اعمال ppm 50 سولفات آهن در بوته های حاصل از بذر های سه کپسولی و به مقدار 2/13 گرم در بوته به دست آمد. وزن دانه در بوته با درصد گره چند کپسولی (**80/0=r) و وزن خشک اندام هوایی (**90/0=r) هم بستگی مثبت و معنی داری داشت. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از سولفات آهن می تواند سبب افزایش تعداد کپسول در هر گره برگ شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع، درصد گره تک کپسول، سه کپسول، وزن دانه در بوته
  • حمزه اسداللهی، مهدی راستگو، ابراهیم ایزدی دربندی، علی قنبری صفحات 19-30
    اختلاط علف کش ها یکی از راهکارهای مهم در افزایش کارایی آن ها می باشد. به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر علف کش های فورام سولفورون و نیکوسولفورون و اختلاط آن ها بدون ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم و با استفاده از ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم بر علف هرز سلمه تره در ذرت، پژوهشی در قالب سه آزمایش جداگانه طی سال های 91-1390 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. آزمایش اول جهت تعیین مقدار کاربرد علف کش های فورام سولفورون و نیکوسولفورون در شرایط گلخانه انجام شد. آزمایش دوم به منظور ارزیابی اثر نسبت های مختلف اختلاط دو علف کش ( 75% فورام سولفورون+ 25% نیکوسولفورون، 50% فورام سولفورون + 50% نیکوسولفورون و 25% فورام سولفورون+ 75% نیکوسولفورون) مبتنی بر دز توصیه شده بدست آمده از آزمایش اول انجام شد. آزمایش سوم شامل تیمارهای آزمایش دوم به همراه ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم بود. نتایج نشان داد که هر دو علف کش بدون ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم در مقادیر کاربرد بالا باعث کنترل سلمه تره شدند. در اختلاط هایی که نسبت برابری از فورام سولفورون و نیکوسولفورون وجود داشت (50% فورام سولفورون+50% نیکوسولفورون) میزان آسیب به سلمه تره نسبت به سایر اختلاط ها افزایش یافت به عبارتی اختلاط این دو علف کش با همدیگر دارای اثر هم افزایی در کنترل علف هرز سلمه تره است. همچنین اختلاط دو علف کش به همراه ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم دارای اثر هم افزا بر کنترل سلمه تره بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که اختلاط این دو علف کش با و بدون ماده افزودنی سولفات آمونیوم هیچ تاثیر نامطلوبی بر روی ذرت ایجاد نکرد.
    کلیدواژگان: اختلاط در مخزن، ذرت، علف کش های بازدارنده استولاکتات سینتاز (ALS)، مواد افزودنی
  • علیرضا کوچکی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، فرانک نوربخش، علیرضا نه بندانی صفحات 31-45
    تعیین آرایش کاشت و تراکم بوته مناسب باعث بهره وری بهتر از منابع و افزایش عملکرد در واحد سطح می گردد، لذا در همین راستا آزمایشی در مزرعه‏ تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی در دو سال متوالی (1391 و 1392) انجام شد. در این آزمایش از طرح اسپلیت پلات بر پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار استفاده شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل تراکم بوته (30، 40، 50 بوته در مترمربع) و فاکتور فرعی آرایش کاشت (مستطیل، مربع، لوزی) بود. اثر متقابل آرایش کاشت و تراکم بر ماده خشک کل، عملکرد، تعداد دانه در کپسول و تعداد کپسول در بوته معنی دار بود. همچنین شاخص برداشت، وزن هزار دانه و تعداد شاخه در بوته نیز تحت تاثیر تراکم بوته قرار گرفت. حداکثر ماده خشک در آرایش کاشت لوزی با تراکم 50 بوته در مترمربع حاصل شد که به ترتیب 8 و 13 درصد بیشتر از آرایش کاشت مربع و مستطیل بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به آرایش کاشت لوزی و تراکم 50 بوته در متر مربع به میزان 1100 گرم در مترمربع در سال 1391 بود. بیشترین تعداد دانه و کپسول در بوته در آرایش کاشت لوزی با تراکم 30 بوته در مترمربع به ترتیب به میزان 47 و 2/19 عدد در سال 1391 به دست آمد. با افزایش تراکم بوته از 30 به 50 بوته در مترمربع، وزن هزار دانه حدود 13 درصد کاهش یافت. افزایش تراکم بوته از 30 به 50 بوته در واحد سطح منجر به کاهش شاخص برداشت از 31 به 28 درصد شد. براساس نتایج این آزمایش، آرایش کاشت لوزی با تراکم 50 بوته در مترمربع برای کشت کنجد در مشهد مناسب می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تعداد کپسول، عملیات مدیریتی، ماده خشک کل، وزن هزار دانه
  • حمیدرضا سالمی، علیرضا توکلی، داود افیونی صفحات 46-60
    به منظور بررسی ضرایب همبستگی، تجزیه علیت صفات، شاخص های تحمل به خشکی و بهره وری آب ارقام مختلف گندم آبی تحت سطوح مختلف کم آبیاری، تحقیقی بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی و به صورت اسپلیت پلات (کرت های خرد شده) در سه تکرار و به مدت سه سال زراعی در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی کبوترآباد اصفهان به اجرا در آمد. سه سطح تنش شامل: آبیاری کامل، تامین آب به میزان 80 درصد آبیاری کامل (20 درصد کم آبیاری)، تامین آب به میزان 60 درصد آبیاری کامل (40 درصد کم آبیاری) در کرت های اصلی و شش رقم گندم شامل: پیشتاز، شیراز، سپاهان، مرودشت، مهدوی و بک کراس روشن در کرت های فرعی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. عملکرد دانه، بهره وری آب، عملکرد کاه و کلش، زیست توده، شاخص برداشت، درجه باردهی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در سنبله، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، طول سنبله و وزن هزار دانه اندازه گیری و برآورد گردید. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه به ترتیب با درجه باردهی، تعداد سنبله در مترمربع، زیست توده، شاخص برداشت و ارتفاع بوته دارای همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار بود. همبستگی عملکرد دانه با بهره وری آب، کاه وکلش و وزن هزار دانه غیرمعنی دار بود. نتایج تجزیه علیت و تعیین اثر مستقیم و غیر مستقیم اجزای موثر بر عملکرد دانه نشان داد که صفت تعداد سنبله در متر مربع مهم ترین عامل موثر در افزایش عملکرد دانه ارقام گندم بود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که با اعمال تیمار 40 درصد کم آبیاری مقادیر شاخص تحمل، شاخص بهره وری متوسط، میانگین هندسی بهره وری، شاخص تحمل تنش و میانگین هارمونیک برای رقم پیشتاز به ترتیب 71/0- ، 94/1، 92/1، 82/1 و 06/1 و برای رقم سپاهان به ترتیب 63/0- ، 83/1، 79/1، 59/1 و 92/0 و بالاترین مقادیر بودند. اعمال کم آبیاری به میزان 40 درصد آبیاری کامل با دارا بودن برتری نسبی از لحاظ بهبود بهره وری آب مصرفی (آب آبیاری) بر دیگر تیمارها نیز برتری داشت. لذا در شرایط کم آبیاری بایستی از ارقامی استفاده شود که از تعداد پنجه بارور و تعداد سنبله در متر مربع بیشتری برخوردار باشند تا بتوانند جبران افت عملکرد در واحد سطح ناشی از اعمال کم آبیاری را بنمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری کامل، اجزای عملکرد، بهره وری آب، تنش، شاخص تحمل
  • سیدعبدالله محمدی، حمیدرضا خزاعی، احمد نظامی صفحات 61-73
    مدیریت نامناسب آبیاری و نیتروژن اصلی ترین عوامل کاهش دهنده عملکرد ذرت محسوب می شوند. به منظور مدیریت مصرف کود نیتروژن توسط کلروفیل متر در ذرت رقم SC604، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 92-1391 به صورت کرت های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا درآمد. عامل اصلی در دو سطح تامین 100 درصد و 70 درصد آبیاری، عامل فرعی در دو شاخص نیتروژن 90 و 95 درصد، و عامل فرعی فرعی کود نیتروژنه (با منبع اوره 46 درصد) در دو سطح 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار و شاهد (150) مقایسه شدند. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (6/4)، تعداد دانه در بلال (435)، زیست توده (814 گرم در متر مربع) و عملکرد اقتصادی (397 گرم در متر مربع) در شرایط آبیاری کامل و شاخص نیتروژن 95 درصد مشاهده شد. برهمکنش آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر شاخص سطح برگ، وزن دانه در بلال، زیست توده و شاخص برداشت اثر معنی داری داشت. شاخص نیتروژن 95 درصد و سطح کود نیتروژن 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نسبت به شاخص نیتروژن 90 درصد و سطح کود نیتروژن 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار 11% شاخص سطح برگ، 41% تعداد دانه در بلال و 18% زیست توده را افزایش داد، اما با شاهد تفاوت معنی داری نداشت. هر چند بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، وزن دانه در بلال، زیست توده و عملکرد اقتصادی در شرایط 100 درصد آبیاری با شاخص نیتروژن 95 درصد و کود نیتروژن 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد اما نسبت به شاهد تفاوت معنی دار نداشت. به نظر می رسد در شرایط آبیاری و کم آبیاری، شاخص نیتروژن 95 درصد با کود نیتروژن 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار از کارآیی بالاتری در افزایش عملکرد اقتصادی برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، شاخص نیتروژن، عملکرد اقتصادی
  • الهه تشکری فرد، فاطمه تقوی قاسمخیلی، همت الله پیردشتی، محمد علی تاجیک قنبری، محمد علی بهمنیار صفحات 74-86
    به منظور بررسی اثر قارچ Trichoderma atroviride بر ویژگی های رشدی دو رقم کلزا در سطوح مختلف نیترات مس، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با دو سطح کاربرد و عدم کاربرد قارچ، چهار سطح نیترات مس (صفر، 50، 100 و 150 میلی گرم بر لیتر) و دو رقم کلزا (هایولا 401 و ساری گل) در سه تکرار به صورت گلدانی در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سال 1389 اجرا شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تعداد غلاف در شاخه اصلی در رقم هایولا 401 با افزایش آلاینده در خاک روند کاهشی داشت اما در رقم ساری گل، بالاترین میزان این صفت (حدود 36 عدد) در سطح 50 میلی گرم بر لیتر نیترات مس مشاهده شد. حضور قارچ تریکودرما، تعداد غلاف شاخه فرعی را در رقم هایولا 401 و ساری گل به ترتیب حدود 64 درصد و 5/2 برابر افزایش داد. همچنین بیشترین تعداد غلاف در شاخه فرعی در تیمار کاربرد تریکودرما و سطح 150 میلی گرم بر لیتر نیترات مس حدود 3/1 برابر نسبت به عدم کاربرد تریکودرما مشاهده شد. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته به ترتیب حدود 100 و 120 سانتی متر در ارقام هایولا 401 و ساری گل با کاربرد قارچ در سطح 100 میلی گرم بر لیتر نیترات مس به دست آمد. حضور تریکودرما در خاک در سطح 150 میلی گرم بر لیتر نیترات مس توانست طول غلاف شاخه اصلی را در رقم هایولا 401 (حدود 16 سانتی متر) بیشتر از رقم ساری گل (حدود 7 سانتی متر) افزایش دهد. در مجموع، به نظر می رسد که قارچ تریکودرما باعث بهبود ویژگی های رشدی گیاه کلزا در سطوح بالای عنصر مس در خاک می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آلودگی، تریکودرما، عملکرد دانه، فلزات سنگین
  • جلال قنبری، غلامرضا خواجویی نژاد، قاسم محمدی نژاد صفحات 87-102
    به منظور ارزیابی پایداری و سازگاری اکوتیپ های مختلف زیره سبز بر مبنای اثر متقابل اکوتیپ و تاریخ کاشت، اکوتیپ های مختلف زیره سبز شامل سمنان، فارس، یزد، گلستان، خراسان رضوی، خراسان شمالی، خراسان جنوبی، اصفهان و کرمان در پنج تاریخ کاشت مختلف (5 دی، 20 دی، 5 بهمن، 20 بهمن و 5 اسفند) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. آزمایش در سال زراعی 91-1390 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان اجرا شد و در پایان فصل رشد عملکرد دانه اندازه گیری گردید. تجزیه واریانس مرکب حاکی از تفاوت معنی دار بین تاریخ های کاشت، اکوتیپ ها و اثر متقابل اکوتیپ در تاریخ کاشت بود. بیش از 46 درصد از تغییرات در عملکرد دانه به اثر متقابل اکوتیپ در تاریخ کاشت اختصاص یافت؛ براین اساس بررسی پایداری و سازگاری بر اساس روش های ناپارامتری، رگرسیون ابرهارت و راسل و پارامترهای تک متغیره انجام شد. براساس روش های ناپارامتری (میانگین رتبه (R)، انحراف معیار رتبه (SDR) و نسبت شاخص عملکرد (YIR)) اکوتیپ های کرمان و خراسان شمالی به عنوان اکوتیپ های پایدار و بر مبنای پارامترهای واریانس محیطی (S2i) و ضریب تنوع ژنوتیپی (CVi) اکوتیپ های خراسان رضوی و سمنان پایدار و اکوتیپ های کرمان و یزد ناپایدار شناخته شدند. براساس نتایج حاصل از روش ابرهارت و راسل و پارامترهای اکووالانس ریک و واریانس پایداری شوکلا، اکوتیپ های اصفهان و گلستان به عنوان اکوتیپ با پایداری عمومی متوسط، کرمان اکوتیپی با سازگاری خصوصی با تاریخ کاشت پنجم اسفندماه (محیط مساعد)، سمنان سازگار خصوصی با تاریخ کاشت پنجم دی ماه (محیط نامساعد) و خراسان شمالی حساس ترین اکوتیپ نسبت به تغییر در شرایط محیطی معرفی می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتیپ، پایداری، زیره سبز، سازگاری، همبستگی رتبه
  • سمیرا مالکی خضرلو، مهدی تاج بخش صفحات 103-112
    به منظور بررسی برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و کیفیت علوفه تاج خروس زراعی تحت اثر برخی پیش تیمارهای بذری، آزمایشی بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار و سه تکرار در سال 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه انجام شد. تیمارها شامل پیش تیمار بذری کود کبوتری (یک در ده)، و نیاز تغلیظ شده 39/68 % (سه در هزار)، کود نانو کلات سوپر میکرو (سه در هزار)، آب مغناطیسی، همیوپاتیx 12 و شاهد بودند. بذرها به مدت 8 ساعت در تیمارهای ذکر شده غوطه ور شدند و پس از رساندن به رطوبت اولیه جهت کشت به مزرعه منتقل شدند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ، تعداد شاخه فرعی، قطر ساقه و کیفیت علوفه بودند. برداشت در مرحله گلدهی از مساحت یک متر مربع هر واحد آزمایشی انجام شد. نتایج نشان دادند، اثر پیش تیمار بر کلیه صفات غیر از ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه و درصد خاکستر معنی دار شد. با توجه به مقایسه میانگین ها، بیشترین تعداد برگ (395 عدد در مترمربع) و تعداد شاخه فرعی (3/203 عدد در مترمربع) در پیش تیمار آب مغناطیسی به دست آمد. در صفات معرف کیفیت علوفه، بیشترین پروتئین (4/25%)، کربوهیدرات قابل حل در آب (8/11%)، ماده خشک قابل هضم (5/51%) در کودکبوتری، بیشترین فیبر محلول در شوینده خنثی (7/59%)، اسیدی (03/46%) و بیشترین فیبر خام (6/26%) در شاهد به دست آمد. درمجموع پیش تیمارهای کود کبوتری و آب مغناطیسی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و کیفیت علوفه تاثیر بیشتری در مقایسه با سایر پیش تیمارها داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: آب مغناطیس، پیش تیمار، تاج خروس زراعی، کود کبوتری
  • حامد جوادی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، محمد جواد ثقه الاسلامی، غلامرضا موسوی صفحات 113-123
    به منظور بررسی اثر تراکم و تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد خرفه آزمایشی در سال زراعی91-1390 در بیرجند به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. چهار سطح تاریخ کاشت (15 فروردین، 30 فروردین، 15 اردیبهشت و 30 اردیبهشت) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سه سطح تراکم (5/5، 3/8 و 6/16 بوته در متر مربع) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تاخیر در کاشت، باعث کاهش تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، وزن 1000دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد علوفه تر گردید. اثر تراکم بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه (به استثناء وزن 1000دانه) معنی دار بود و افزایش آن باعث کاهش تعداد کپسول در بوته و تعداد دانه در کپسول و افزایش عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد علوفه تر و عملکرد علوفه خشک گردید. اثر متقابل تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بر عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد علوفه خشک معنی دار بود. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش جهت دست یابی به حداکثر عملکرد دانه می توان از تاریخ کاشت 15 فروردین و تراکم 6/16 بوته بر متر مربع استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: خرفه، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد علوفه
  • ندا وهبی، یحیی امام، هادی پیرسته انوشه صفحات 124-135
    هرچند تاثیر مفید کاربرد تنظیم کننده های رشد در شرایط تنش خشکی به طورکلی پذیرفته شده است، لیکن، انجام پژوهش های کاربردی با هدف مقایسه انواع تنظیم کننده ها برای بهینه کردن مصرف آن ها ضرورت دارد. به منظور بررسی اثر سه تنظیم کننده رشد کلرمکوات کلراید، سالیسیلیک اسید و جاسمونیک اسید بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم رقم روشن تحت شرایط متفاوت تنش رطوبتی (دامنه ای از شدت های ملایم تا شدید خشکی) پژوهشی در دو شرایط کنترل شده و مزرعه در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز انجام شد. آزمایش های گلخانه ای و مزرعه ای به ترتیب به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و آزمایش کرت های یک بار خردشده بر پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اعمال تنش رطوبتی و افزایش شدت آن سطح برگ پرچم، طول سنبله، تعداد دانه در سنبله، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد، لیکن کاربرد تنظیم کننده های رشد سبب بهبود همه اجزای عملکرد دانه و در نهایت افزایش عملکرد دانه گردید. با این وجود، تاثیر کلرمکوات کلراید از سالیسیلیک اسید و جاسمونیک اسید بیشتر بود، به طوری که محلول پاشی این سه تنظیم کننده با افزایش عملکرد دانه به ترتیب به مقدار 7/20، 8/13 و 24/7 درصد در آزمایش گلخانه ای و به مقدار 3/18، 2/12 و 1/8 درصد در آزمایش مزرعه ای همراه بود. به طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که گرچه تنش رطوبتی عملکرد دانه گندم را کاهش داد، لیکن تنظیم کننده های رشد توانستند بخشی از این افت عملکرد را جبران کنند. به علاوه، محلول پاشی کلرمکوات کلراید قابلیت بررسی بیشتری را به عنوان رهیافتی برای افزایش تولید در شرایط محدودیت رطوبت داراست.
    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد دانه، کندکننده رشد
  • سیداحمدرضا رضوی، محسن جهان، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، کمال حاج محمدنیا قالیباف صفحات 136-149
    به منظور بررسی جذب و کارآیی مصرف نور در گیاه دارویی پنیرک (Malva sylvestris L.) تحت تاثیر منابع مختلف کودهای آلی، زیستی، شیمیایی و کشت مخلوط با شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1392-1391 به صورت کرت های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. عامل کرت اصلی کود آلی گاوی شامل دو سطح: کاربرد و عدم کاربرد آن و عامل کرت فرعی منابع مختلف کودی شامل: 1- کود زیستی نیتروکسین® 2- کود زیستی بیوسولفور® 3- کود زیستی بیوفسفر® 4- ترکیب سه کود زیستی نیتروکسین، بیوسولفور و بیوفسفر 5- کود اوره 6- کشت مخلوط یک ردیفی با شنبلیله و 7- شاهد بود. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کود دامی باعث کاهش ضریب استهلاک نور (K) شد و کمترین میزان K در بین تیمارهای آزمایش مربوط به تیمار ترکیب هر سه کود زیستی + کاربرد کود دامی بود. همچنین تیمارهای آزمایشی تاثیر معنی داری بر میزان تشعشع جذب شده تجمعی در پنیرک داشت، به صورتی که بیشترین میزان جذب تشعشع در تیمار ترکیب سه کود زیستی با 6/986 مگاژول بر متر مربع به دست آمد، در حالی که کاربرد و یا عدم کاربرد کود گاوی تاثیر معنی داری در میزان تشعشع جذب شده توسط پنیرک نداشت. میانگین کارآیی مصرف نور در تیمارهای آزمایش برابر 26/1 گرم بر مگاژول بوده و تیمار کود زیستی نیتروکسین با 09/1 گرم بر مگاژول دارای کمترین و ترکیب سه کود زیستی + کاربرد کود دامی با 5/1 گرم در مگاژول دارای بیشترین میزان کارآیی مصرف نور بود. در مجموع، به نظر می رسد که ترکیب سه کود زیستی نیتروکسین، بیوسولفور و بیوفسفر توام با کاربرد کود گاوی توانایی رقابت با کود شیمیایی اوره از لحاظ شاخص های مکانیستیک آنالیز رشد گیاه نظیر جذب تشعشع و کارآیی مصرف نور را دارا است.
    کلیدواژگان: آزوسپیریلوم، ازتوباکتر، باسیلوس، سودوموناس، ضریب خاموشی نور، کسر جذب نور، کودگاوی
  • اسماعیل قلی نژاد صفحات 150-167
    این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثرات همزیستی با دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا بر درصد و عملکرد روغن، درصد و عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد دانه 8 توده محلی کنجد در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی در سال زراعی 93-1392 به صورت فاکتوریل- اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی هنرستان کشاورزی ارومیه اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری معمولی: آبیاری بعد از 70 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه، تنش ملایم: آبیاری بعد از 90 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه و تنش شدید: آبیاری بعد از 110 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه)، فاکتور دوم شامل عدم تلقیح و تلقیح با دو گونه قارچ میکوریزای Glomus mosseae، Glomus intraradices و فاکتور سوم شامل 8 توده محلی کنجد (جیرفت 13، محلی طارم زنجان، محلی مغان، ناز چند شاخه، TC-25، TS-3، داراب 14 و دشتستان 5) بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد تاثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری، میکوریزا و ژنوتیپ بر صفات مورد مطالعه معنی دار بود. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی، عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن، درصد پروتئین، عملکرد روغن، عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد بیولوژیک به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. تنش شدید خشکی عملکرد روغن و عملکرد پروتئین را به ترتیب به میزان 67 و 66درصد کاهش داد. استفاده از دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا نسبت به حالت عدم استفاده از قارچ باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه و بهبود صفات کیفی دانه شد. رابطه بین صفات کیفی دانه با عملکرد دانه مثبت و معنی دار بود و بالاترین ضریب همبستگی برای عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد روغن با عملکرد دانه (**99/0=r) به دست آمد. در بین توده های محلی کنجد مورد بررسی، ژنوتیپ های محلی مغان و طارم زنجان از نظر عملکرد دانه (به ترتیب 31/206 و 96/177 گرم بر مترمربع)، روغن (به ترتیب 70/147 و 34/121 گرم بر مترمربع) و پروتئین (به ترتیب 57/76 و 70/62 گرم بر مترمربع) در هر سه شرایط مختلف آبیاری، برتر از سایر توده ها بودند. این توده ها به عنوان توده های محلی برتر معرفی می-گردند. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، جهت بهبود صفات کیفی مانند درصد روغن و پروتئین تلقیح با قارچ های میکوریزا به خصوص گونه G.mosseae توصیه می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: دانه روغنی، عملکرد بیولوژیک، قارچ موسه آ، قارچ اینترارادیس، کمبود آب
  • اسماعیل رضایی چیانه، سرور خرم دل، آرزو مولودی، امیر رحیمی صفحات 168-184
    به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر کود نانو کلات روی و تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا بر برخی خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک گیاه گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ای واقع در استان آذربایجان غربی، شهرستان نقده در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل چهار سطح خشکی (آبیاری بعد از 60، 110، 160 و 210 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A) و فاکتور فرعی شامل چهار سطح کودی (عدم مصرف کود، قارچ مایکوریزا (Glmus intraradices)، نانو کود روی و ترکیب قارچ مایکوریزا + نانو کود روی) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل تعداد طبق در بوته، تعداد دانه در طبق، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد زیستی، عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن، محتوی پرولین و قندهای محلول گلرنگ بود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد (تعداد طبق در بوته، تعداد دانه در طبق و وزن هزار دانه) به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت، ولی کاربرد منابع کودی اثرات نامطلوب ناشی از تنش خشکی را تخفیف داد، به طوری که در تمام سطوح آبیاری مصرف جداگانه نانو کود روی، مایکوریزا و کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا+ نانو کود روی باعث افزایش صفات مورد بررسی گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار آبیاری پس از 60 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر با کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا + نانو کود روی (2588 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین مقدار آن از تیمار آبیاری پس از 210 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر در شرایط عدم مصرف کود (1836 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. اگرچه درصد روغن با افزایش تنش خشکی کاهش یافت، اما کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا+ نانو کود روی درصد روغن را به طور معنی داری (11 درصد) نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) افزایش داد. با افزایش تنش خشکی و کاربرد نانو کود روی و مایکوریزا میزان قندهای محلول و پرولین به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که تلقیح با مایکوریزا در شرایط کمبود آب، می تواند با توسعه سیستم ریشه ای و افزایش سطح جذب ریشه، جذب آب و عناصر غذایی را توسط گیاه افزایش داده و سبب افزایش مقاومت گیاه در برابر کم آبی شود، از طرف دیگر، با توجه به نقش عنصر روی در گیاه، وجود مقدار کافی از این عنصر در شرایط تنش کم آبی می تواند از طریق تنظیم سازگاری، موجب تخفیف اثرات تنش خشکی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، فناوری نانو، عملکرد دانه، قندهای محلول، کود زیستی
  • زهرا امین، سیف الله فلاح، علی عباسی سورکی صفحات 185-203
    کاربرد کودهای آلی از مهم ترین راهبردهای تغذیه ای در مدیریت پایدار بوم نظام های کشاورزی می باشد. از این رو به منظور بررسی تاثیر کود آلی و کودهای شیمیایی بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه دارویی سیر، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال زراعی 1394-1393 با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای کودی N100P، N150P و N200P (به ترتیب 100، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن از منبع کود اوره+ نیاز فسفری)؛ N100PS، N150PS و N200PS (به ترتیب 100، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن از منبع کود اوره+ نیاز فسفری+ نیاز گوگردی)؛ BCM100 ، BCM150 و BCM200 (به ترتیب 100، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن از منبع کود گاوی با کاربرد پخش سطحی)؛ SCM100، SCM150 و SCM200 (به ترتیب 100، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن از منبع کود گاوی با کاربرد زیر سطحی) بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل، کارتنوئید، وزن خشک برگ، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد سیرچه در بوته، وزن سیرچه و عملکرد سیر بود. نتایج نشان دادند که کاربرد کود شیمیایی N150PS بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a با میانگین 66/3 میلی گرم بر گرم را سبب شد. بین تیمارهای SCM100 و SCM150 با تیمار N100P از نظر تاثیر بر میزان کاروتنوئید اختلاف معنی داری وجود نداشت. بر اساس مقایسات گروهی، وزن خشک برگ در تیمارهای کود آلی در مقایسه با کودهای شیمیایی 3/16 درصد کاهش نشان داد. در حالی که، کاربرد گوگرد منجر به افزایش 57/3 درصدی وزن خشک برگ در مقایسه با تیمارهای بدون گوگرد شدند. تیمارهای شیمیایی N200P و N200PS به ترتیب با میانگین 9965 و 9715 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بیشترین عملکرد غده سیر را به دنبال داشتند، همچنین کاربرد زیرسطحی کود دامی توانست به میزان 63/5 درصد عملکرد این گیاه را نسبت به کاربرد سطحی افزایش دهد. به طور کلی می توان بیان نمود برای کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی در اکوسیستم های زراعی، کاربرد زیرسطحی کود دامی برای تولید کمی گیاه دارویی سیر توصیه می گردد، ولی چنانچه هدف دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد غده سیر باشد حداقل 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار از منبع کود شیمیایی لازم است.
    کلیدواژگان: رنگدانه فتوسنتزی، کاربرد زیر سطحی، کود گاوی، گوگرد، مدیریت پایدار
  • حمید ملاحسینی، امیرهوشنگ جلالی صفحات 204-215
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی پتاسیم و دفعات آن، در کاهش اثرات شوری آب آبیاری (1/6 دسی زیمنس برمتر)، آزمایشی در سال 1392 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی اصفهان با استفاده از آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای محلول پاشی شامل تیمار شاهد، سولفات پتاسیم (ppm10 K2 SO4) و اکسید پتاسیم (ppm5/2K2O) و دفعات محلول پاشی شامل سه مرحله ی کامل شدن رشد رویشی (شروع گل دهی)، مرحله رشد سریع غده ها (ظهور کامل گل ها) و مرحله حجیم شدن غده ها (دو هفته پس از مرحله ظهور کامل گل ها) بود. برهمکنش محلول پاشی پتاسیم و دفعات محلول پاشی، به جز بر صفات تعداد غده در بوته و درصد ماده خشک غده، بر سایر صفات مرتبط با عملکرد و همچنین کارآیی مصرف آب تاثیر معنی دار داشت. تیمار سولفات پتاسیم با سه نوبت محلول پاشی و تیمارهای اکسید پتاسیم با دو و سه نوبت محلول پاشی، به ترتیب با عملکردهای قابل فروش 45450، 42700 و 47150 کیلوگرم غده در هکتار نسبت به سایر تیمارها برتری معنی دار داشتند. میانگین وزن غده در تیمارهای سه نوبت محلول پاشی سولفات پتاسیم، و دو و سه نوبت محلول پاشی اکسید پتاسیم، نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب 19، 17 و 21 درصد افزایش وزن داشت. سه نوبت محلول پاشی سولفات پتاسیم و سه نوبت محلول پاشی اکسید پتاسیم با کارآیی مصرف آب 5/4 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب نسبت به تیمار شاهد 27 درصد افزایش داشت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد محلول پاشی پتاسیم می تواند به عنوان یک راهکار عملی برای کاهش اثرات شوری در گیاهی با نیاز پتاسیم بالا مانند سیب زمینی مطرح باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اکسید پتاسیم، سولفات پتاسیم، عملکرد، کارآیی مصرف آب
  • علی سپهری، حسن شهبازی صفحات 216-230
    اثر تاریخ کاشت و مصرف کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی بر شاخص های فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه بادام زمینی طی آزمایشی به صورت اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی92-91 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان بررسی شد. سه تاریخ کاشت اول خرداد ،10 خرداد و20 خرداد بعنوان کرت اصلی و مصرف کود زیستی و شیمیایی در چهار سطح شامل مصرف کود شیمیایی فسفاته کامل و50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه+ کود زیستی نیتروژنه، کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه کامل و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفاته+ کود زیستی فسفره، 50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه و50 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفاته+ کاربرد توام کودهای زیستی نیتروژنه و فسفره و استفاده کامل 100 در صد از کودهای شیمیایی بعنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد اثرات تاریخ کاشت، کود و اثرات متقابل تاریخ کاشت و کود برای حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول، حداکثر ماده خشک کل، دوام سطح برگ، عملکرد دانه در سطح یک درصد معنی دار شد. برای میزان سبزینگی برگ، روز تا گلدهی، روز تا غلاف دهی، روز تا رسیدگی اثرات متقابل تاریخ کاشت و کود معنی دار نبود. در تاریخ کاشت دوم برای حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول، حداکثر ماده خشک کل، دوام سطح برگ روند تیمارهای مصرف انفرادی کود زیستی نیتروژنه و کود زیستی فسفره مشابه تاریخ کاشت اول بود، ولی از لحاظ مقدار کاهش داشت. در تاریخ کاشت سوم شاخص های حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول، حداکثر ماده خشک کل نسبت به تاریخ کاشت اول به ترتیب 64، 76 و 71 درصد کاهش نشان دادند. حداکثر مقادیر شاخص های مذکور در تاریخ کاشت اول و با تیمار مصرف 100% کود شیمیایی و کاربرد توام کود شیمیایی و زیستی نیتروژنه+ فسفره حاصل شد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص های رشد، عملکرد، کاربرد تلفیقی کود، کود زیستی
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  • H. R. Saeedi Goraghani, A. Ranjbar Fordoei, M. Soleimani Sardo, M. J. Mahdavi Pages 1-7
    IntroductionRange plants have important and crucial roles in medicinal industry andtogether with scarcity and low quality of the water and soil resources, prevent a quick recovery of the soil plant covering. Because of these restrictions, it is important to consider the use of salt and drought tolerant species for plantation and to preserve plant cover. In this sense, the use of native species such as black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss) may be of interest due to their medicinal characteristics and potential ability to adapt to adverse conditions (dry and saline conditions). Black cumin (B. persicum) as a medicinal plant plays a vital role in Iranian medicine so there is a need to know about the factors affecting their growth and propagation.
    Materials and MethodsTo investigate the effects of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin two separate experiments were conducted. Drought stress was applied through incubation in four different concentrations of PEG 6000 that provide solutions with water potentials ranging from -0.2 to -0.8 MPa (including control and four levels of dryness). Salinity treatments (including control and four levels of salinity) were prepared by adding molar concentrations of NaCl to provide a range of salinity from 50 to 300 mM. Germination percentage and speed was calculated by computation of germinated seeds every day. Growth parameters (rootlet, shoot and seedling length total), allometric index and seed vigority were obtained accordingly.
    Results and DiscussionSeeds under both drought and salt stress showed significant reduction in germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and alometric and seed vigor indices. This trend was much pronounced under high levels of NaCl and low levels of water potentials, so that germination at Ψs = -0.6 MP was completely stopped.
    ConclusionsAssessment of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin is very important in the management of its planting. With increasing salinity and drought levels, the germination reduced significantly. Although due to higher germination of seeds in different levels of salinity rather than drought, this species seems to be more sensitive to drought stress.
    Keywords: Bunium persicum, Drought stress, Germination, Salt stress
  • S. F. Fazeli Kakhki, A. Taiiebi Pages 8-18
    IntroductionSesame (Sesamum indicum L.) belongs to pedaliaceae family and is one of the most important oilseed crops that will grow in relatively dry region. Each leaf node will have one capsule but in some sesame ecotypes the number of capsule per leaf node can increase (Langham and Wiemers, 2002). Factors such as agricultural operations, growing substrates and variety affect yield and harvest index. Iron is one of the main micronutrient that can affect growth and development (Miller et al., 1982). This research was conducted to study the effects of leaf nutrition on the number of capsules per leaf node of sesame.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to study the effects of leaf nutrition on the number of capsules per leaf node in sesame plant (sesamum indicum L.), an experimental was conducted at Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Education Center, Iran, 1n 2014. This study was done as a factorial arrangement with two factors, kind of seed and the concentrations of ferrous sulphate on the basis completely randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was two seed types (one type has been taken from leaf node with three capsules and the other seeds were taken from leaf node with one capsule in sesame plant). The second factor was three concentration of ferrous sulphate (0, 50 and 100 ppm) that applied in %50 vegetation, flowering and capsule phase. Morphological and yield components traits were measured. Data were analyzed with MSTAT-C software and means comparison were done with Duncan multiple range test in 5 percent probability.
    Results and DiscussionThe first factor (type of seed) showed significant difference on height, length of branch, fresh and dry shoot weight, dry weight of capsule, number capsules per plant, 1000 seed weight and seed weight per plant. Plants growing from the seeds with three capsules in leaf node (Cap2) had the maximum height with 88.2 cm that was 20% more than plants that growth from seeds with one capsule in leaf node (Cap1). The maximum seed weight per plant also obtained from Cap2. The application of ferrous sulphate concentration with 50 ppm increased the number of three capsule nodes in plant but 100 ppm ferrous sulphate had the lowest three capsule nodes per plant. The results of interaction treatments showed that using of 50 ppm ferrous sulphate in Cap2 treatment had the maximum plant height with 89.9 cm. In two treatments Cap1 and Cap2 applying ferrous sulphate concentration with 50 ppm had the maximum number capsule per plant with 84.7 and 88.3 capsule per plant, respectively.
    This study showed that biosynthesis of plant metabolite was controlled not only by genetic but also by environmental conditions. Iron is an important component in many plant metabolisms such as chlorophyll and tylakoid synthesis and in development of chloroplast. Goos and Johanson, (2000) showed that two foliar applications of iron compounds (Fe-EDDHA) increased yield in three soybean genotypes. Jana and Jahangir (1987) suggested that using of iron micronutrient with 0.1 ppm produced maximum height in bean. It seems that particular properties of Iron such as Redox properties, capable to establish complex with different ligands, a component of electron transport system and take part in many enzymes structure had important roles in plant metabolism and application of suitable amount can increase growth and yield of plant.
    ConclusionsThe results showed that foliar application of ferrous sulphate can increase the number of capsules per leaf node as using of 50 ppm ferrous sulfate in plants that grow up from seeds with three capsules in leaf node (Cap2) produced the most multiple capsule percent in leaf node. Maximum seed weight per plant with amount 13.2 g.plant-1 was obtained from applying 50 ppm ferrous sulfate in Cap2 plants. Positive and significant correlation was found between seed weight and multiple capsule percent in leaf node (r=0.82**) and with shoot dry weight (r=0.80**). In addition, the results showed that ferrous sulfate can increase the number of capsules per leaf node.
    Keywords: Height, Leaf node capsule, Seed weight, Three capsules
  • H. Assadollahi, M. Rastgoo, E. Izadi Darbandi, A. Ghanbari Pages 19-30
    IntroductionMaize (Zea mays L.) is a major crop in Iran and ranks third, behind wheat and rice. Grain yield in maize can be severely reduced by competition with weeds (Mosavi, 2001). A broad spectrum of grasses and broadleaved weeds infests maize fields. Amaranthus spp. (pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (common lambs quarters), Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (Velvetleaf), Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Canada thistle), Convolvulus arvensis L. (field bindweed), Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. (johnsongrass), Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. (Barnyardgrass), Cyperus rotundus L. (purple nutsedge), Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (Large crabgrass) and Setaria spp. (foxtail) are among the most common and problematic weeds in maize in Iran (Zand et al., 2009). Today, high-yielding agriculture heavily depends on herbicides, as they constitute a vital and integral component of weed management practices (Zand et al., 2008). Tank mixing two or more herbicides is a common practice that is increasingly used in most agronomic crops to control a wide spectrum of weeds, reduce production cost, and/or prevent the development of herbicide-resistant weeds (Zand et al., 2008). Herbicides may interact, before or after entering the plants, and the outcome of the interaction can be synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. It would be ideal to select herbicide combinations that have synergistic effects on weeds and/or antagonistic effects on crops. Additives, compounds that to facilitate the mixing application or influence herbicide add to herbicide formulation or tank sprayer, in other words additives can increase the effects of herbicides to reduce their consumption (Streibig et al., 1998). Foramsulfuron and nicosulfuron are among the newly released dual purpose sulfonylurea herbicides. The use of these herbicides offers the opportunity for a new mode of action for weed management in maize. These herbicides act through inhibition of acetolactate synthase, the first enzyme in the pathway in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids, valine, leucine and isoleucine in chloroplasts. They first affect meristemic tissues where growth ceases soon after treatment. Chlorosis and the necrosis of these tissues soon follow, with dieback to the mature parts of the plant taking a further 3–4 week. These herbicides have been reported to be very effective on grasses, broadleaved weeds, and rhizomatous perennial temperate weeds in maize. Another priority of these herbicides over those currently used on maize is that they act at very low doses. This will reduce the environmental safety concerns lie back behind application of herbicides (Nurse et al., 2007; Prostko et al., 2006).
    Materials and MethodsIn order to evaluate the effect of foramsulfuron and nicosulfuron combination without and with ammonium sulfate as an adjuvant on lamb’s-quarters (Chenopodium album L.) control in maize, a study was conducted in three separate experiments, in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2011-2012. For this purpose, 4 plants of Lambs-quarters (Chenopodium album L.) and 2 maize crops was planted in separate pots and were sprayed in 4-leaf stage. The first experiment was conducted separately for each of weeds lamb’s quarters to determine the dose for foramsulfuron and nicosulfuron in greenhouse conditions, based on the dose-response experiments. The second experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of different combination ratio of two herbicides (75% foramsulfuron 25% nicosulfuron, 50% foramsulfuron 50% nicosulfuron, 25% foramsulfuron 75% nicosulfuron) based on the results of the first experiment. The third experiment included the second experiment treatments plus ammonium sulfate as adjuvant.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that both herbicides without ammonium sulfate and at high doses lamb’s-quarters control. Combination ratio with equal doses of two herbicides (50% foramsulfuron % nicosulfuron) increased lamb’s-quarters damage more than other ratios. In other words, the combination of these two herbicides had synergistic effects on lamb’s-quarters control. Also combination of them with ammonium sulfate had synergistic effects on lamb’s-quarters control, so that in this experiment among different mixing ratios of the two herbicide, mixing ratio of 50% foramsulfuron % nicosulfuron dry matter reduce lamb’s-quarters compared to other ratios increased mixing. It should be mentioned that mixing these two herbicides with and without the additive ammonium sulfate had no adversely affect maize crop.
    ConclusionsIt can be concluded that the combination of herbicides foramsulfuron and nicosulfuron with and without additive ammonium sulfate not only has antagonism effect in the mix, but also synergism effects are observed in the mixture of two herbicides with better efficiencies additive combination of two herbicide.
    Keywords: ALS herbicides, Ammonium sulfate, Herbicide combination, Lambs-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), Maize
  • A. Koocheki, M. Nassiri Mahallati, F. Nourbakhsh, A. Nehbandani Pages 31-45
    IntroductionCrop density enhancement is a method to increase yield per unit area. The spatial distribution of plants is related to radiation absorption. Therefore, it could play an effective role in photosynthesis and yield, since Crop Growth Rate (CGR) is a function of used radiation energy in photosynthesis. Totally, increasing radiation absorption efficiency and yield need sufficient leaf area and suitable distribution of leaves in canopy. Ahmad et al., (2002) planted sesame with different inter row- spacing (30, 45 and 60 cm), they reported that the maximum plant height and economic yield were obtained from inter row- spacing of 45 cm. Rahnama and Bakhshandeh (2006) planted sesame with different inter row- spacing (37.5, 50 and 60 cm) and the results showed that the number of capsules per plant, seed weight as well as seed oil per plant, increased with increasing inter row- spacing. Karasan et al., (2007) reported that decreasing inter row- spacing resulted in seed yield enhancement and reduction in number of capsules per plant.
    Material and MethodsAn experiment using split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design was performed. The experiment was carried with three replications in two years (2012 and 2013) at the agricultural research station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. For this purpose, the main plot was the density per square meter with three levels (30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter) and the sub main plot was planting pattern (rectangle, square and rhombic). The size of each plot was 2×3 meters. The distance between plots and blocks were 0.5 and 1 meter, respectively. Intra row- spacing for rectangle planting pattern for densities of 30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter was 6, 5 and 4 cm, respectively. In square and rhombic planting patterns, 2 lines was planted in each row and inter row- spacing for densities of 30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter were 18, 16 and 14 cm. economic yield measured at the end of growth season. In order to study the arrangement and planting density over two years of experiment, combined analysis was performed with SAS ver 9.1 and diagrams were plotted by using EXCEL 2010. Comparison of data mean was performed with LSD test at the level of 5%.
    Results and DiscussionsInteraction between planting pattern and density had significant effect on total dry matter, yield, the number of seeds per capsule and the number of capsules per plant. Harvest index, 1000 seed weight and the number of branches per plant were affected by plant density. Maximum dry matter was obtained from rhombic planting pattern with density of 50 plants per square meter and it was 8 and 13% more than squares and rectangles planting pattern, respectively. The highest yield was achieved from density of 50 plants per square meter in rhombic planting pattern at a rate of 1100 g m-2 in the year 2012. Maximum number of capsules per plant and seed were achieved from density of 30 plants per square meter in rhombic planting pattern with amount of 47 and 19.2, respectively in the year 2012. Increasing plant density from 30 to 50 plants per square meter decreased 1000 seed weight about 13 percent. Increasing plant density from 30 to 50 plants per unit area leads to lower harvest index (from 31 to 28 percent).
    ConclusionsIn order to achieve the highest total dry matter and economic yield, diamond planting pattern and density of 50 plants per square meter were better than the other. With reducing the density per unit area, biomass per plant increases due to less competition for light, nutrients and water. The maximum number of seeds per capsule and number of capsules per plant were obtained from diamond planting pattern with a density of 30 plants per square meter so it seems that at low densities, growth and branching of the plant increases because of enough space but there is no efficient use of the environmental resources. It's concluded that 50 plants per square meter in the diamond pattern is a suitable combination of treatments.
    Keywords: Management practices, Number of capsule, Total dry matter, 1000 seed weight
  • H. R. Salemi, A. R. Tavakoli, D. Afiuni Pages 46-60
    IntroductionWater crisis as a main factor of agronomy limitation exists in all over the arid and semiarid regions such as Isfahan province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin. This study aimed to use path analysis and indices of drought to evaluate the correlation coefficients between main physiological parameter (grain yield) with yield components and water use efficiency of winter wheat under three water conditions.
    Materials and MethodsThe experiment was carried out in Kaboutar Abad Agricultural Research Station, Isfahan in the central region of Iran (32º 31’N, 51º 51’E is located at the altitude of 1545 m above the sea level) with a split plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in three cropping seasons on irrigated wheat cultivars. The treatments were included three levels of irrigation (60%FI, 80%FI and full irrigation) as main plots and six wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Shiraz, Sepahan, Marvdasht, Mahdavi and BC-Roshan) as sub plots. Grain yield, straw and stubble, biological yield, harvest index (H.I.), productivity degree (P.D.), water use efficiency (WUE), plant height, grain number per spike, spike number per m2 and TGW were determined. Winter wheat cultivars were sown at the beginning of November and harvested in mid-June of the following year. The seed rate was 400 seed m-2, with a row spacing of 0.75 m. The first irrigation was by furrow method, implemented one day after seeding. Seeds emergence was observed about 5 days later. The N application was 250, 200 and 300 kgha-1 of N (urea at 46% N) for each year divided into installments (10 days before planting, 30 days after planting, and every 30 days until the last irrigation). The P2O5 (phosphate ammonium and super-phosphate triple) application to soil was 200, 100 and 50 kg ha-1 during the 3 years, respectively. At this stage, cultivation was done to mix the fertilizers with top soil manually. Pests and weeds were controlled, following the recommendations given by Isfahan Pest Management Department. At harvest, the final total grain yield per plot was determined. The amount of evapotranspiration for irrigation scheduling was determined by using a crop coefficient (KC), ETpan from measured daily open Class A pan evaporation data, and pan coefficient values from FAO 24 (Doorenbos & Pruitt, 1977). Irrigation water requirement was calculated as the difference between ETc (=KC times ET0) and the effective rainfall amount. In this study, pan evaporation and rainfall amount data collected from the Kabutar Abad meteorological station located at the agricultural research center were used for calculating irrigation water application quantities. The irrigation schedule was timed to meet the crop water requirement. The depth of irrigation water and consequently the volume of water were applied weekly and irrigation amounts equaled the previous week’s evapotranspiration (ETc) from the crop. Then, taking into consideration the discharge of the irrigation siphons, the relevant irrigation duration for each treatment was also determined. For path analysis and determining direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield, three years data were used (3 Irr * 6 cultivars * 3 years).
    Results and DiscussionResults showed significant correlations of grain yield with: productivity degree (r=0.798**), spike number per m2 (r=0.71**), biological yield (r=0.629**), harvest index (r=0.538**), and plant height (r=0.284*), respectively, and there was not significant correlation between grain yield with water use efficiency, straw yield, TGW and grain number per spike. On based of indices of drought tolerance (Tolerance Index=TOL, Mean Productivity=MP, Geometric Mean Productivity=GMP, Stress Susceptibility Index=STI and Harmonic Mean=HM), %60 of full irrigation for Pishtaz wheat cultivar was substantially increased water productivity (WP). Amounts of TOL, MP, GMP, STI, HM and WP for Pishtaz cultivar were -0.71, 1.94, 1.92, 1.82, 1.06 and 2.26 kg mm-1 and for Sepahan cultivar were -0.63, 1.83, 1.79, 1.59, 0.92 and 2.17 kg mm-1, respectively. Path analysis results showed that increase in grain yield was resulted from increase of spike number per square meter.
    ConclusionsThe results showed that there is positive and significant correlation between grain yield and productivity degree, the number of spikes per square meter, biomass, harvest index and plant height. The most direct effect is related to the grain number per spike per square meter.
    The 60% of full irrigation treatment for Pishtaz and Sepahan cultivars in terms of indices of drought tolerance (Tolerance Index, Mean Productivity, Geometric Mean Productivity, Stress Susceptibility Index, and Harmonic Mean) was preferred. These results can be considered in future breeding studies.
    Keywords: Full irrigation, Stress, Tolerance index, Water productivity, Yield components
  • S. A. Mohammadi, H. R. Khazaei, A. Nezami Pages 61-73
    IntroductionPoor management of irrigation and nitrogen are major factors in reducing yield. Although 94 percent of total water extractable and 64 percent of water used in agriculture, only 21 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated. In such circumstances irrigation to increase production per unit of water and efficient use of scarce water resources will be necessary and inevitable. Nitrogen is a limiting factor in crop production along with water in arid and semiarid regions. Many research have shown that the management of nitrogen during the growing season is essential. The need to establish the proportion of nitrogen and soil moisture availability is essential. In situations where sufficient water is not available, favorable conditions of work and not wasting resources, particularly water and nitrogen use efficiency leads and water and reduces the nitrogen use efficiency. The aim of this study, was to use chlorophyll meter for determination the timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer plant in order to optimize the use of nitrogen under deficit irrigation.
    Materials and MethodsAn experiment was conducted as split split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2013 cropping season. Irrigation treatments were arranged in main plot with two levels including: 70 and 100 percent water supply, Nitrogen Index in sub plots by two levels including: 90 and 95 percent and sub-sub factor in both the 50 and 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare. Density of 66,600 plants per hectare was considered. In each block a control plot was considered that the amount of nitrogen that was always at an optimal level, so that the total amount of nitrogen, 25 percent more than the amount recommended by soil test (360 kg per hectare).The control plot was used for the comparison with other treatments SPAD device. According to the nitrogen index was determined with using of 1 equation (Arshadi and Khazaei, 2008):Analysis of variance was performed using SAS computer software packages. The main effects and interactions were tested using the Duncan's multiple range test at 5% level.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the highest leaf area index number of kernels per ear (435), biomass (814 g.m-2) and economic yield (397 g.m-2) obtained for full irrigation and nitrogen index of 95%. The interaction between irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on leaf area index, grain weight per ear, biomass and harvest index was significant. Although 95% of nitrogen index and 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare compared to 90 percent of nitrogen index and 50 kg of nitrogen per hectare, 11% leaf area index, 41% number of grain per ear and 18% biomass increased but it was not significant. Although the highest leaf area index, grain weight per ear, biomass and economic yield has been in treatment of 100 percent irrigation, 95 percent nitrogen index and nitrogen fertilizer 100 kg.ha-1 it was not significant. It seems that in full irrigation and defficit irrigation, 100 kg nitrogen per hectare and 95 percent nitrogen index has high effect on economic yield.
    ConclusionsThe results showed that the water requirement of 100 and 70%, 95% of nitrogen index and 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare compared to the, 90% nitrogen index and 50 kg of nitrogen per hectare increased leaf area index, grain weight, biomass. When the index is less than 95% nitrogen, it can be used to detect a lack of nitrogen in corn. In this experiment, rate of nitrogen and N timing showed significantly affect on qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics.
    Keywords: Economic yield, Nitrogen index
  • E. Tashakorifard, F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli, H. Pirdashti, M. A. Tajick Ghanbary, M. A. Bahmanyar Pages 74-86
    IntroductionAccumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils can be a threat to crop production due to plant toxicity. In the recent years, hyperaccumulator plants are cultivated to cleaning up the soils which contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals. However, the biomass of these plants is low and metal specific. Many studies have shown that microorganisms can be used to significantly reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of Trichoderma atroviride on the growth characteristics of tow cultivars of rapeseed in different levels on copper.
    Materials and MethodsIn this study, a pot experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with three replicates. Treatment were T. atroviride fungi at two levels of inoculated and non-inoculated plants, four levels of copper nitrate including 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg l-1 and two cultivars of rapeseed consist of Hayola 401 and Sarigol. Trichoderma atroviride was prepared from Mycology Lab of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resource University. PDA medium (potato extract, dextrose and agar) was kept for a week at 25˚C to propagation of fungal strain. The used medium was previously sterilized in autoclave for 30 minutes. So, this fungus propagated in Wheat's bran for five days. Healthy and uniform seeds of rapeseeds were separated from rogues and infertile ones. Seeds disinfected in hypochlorite sodium 0.5% for five minute and then washed with distilled water three times. After preparing fungus spore suspension of 108 CFU per ml water, 50 g wheat' bran mixed to the soil of each pot. Twenty sterilized seeds sown in 2 cm of soil depth in 25×30 cm pot with 10 kg capacity. Copper nitrate was used to pollute treated soil. During this experiment did not used any pesticides and herbicides and all weed controlled manually. Some growth and yield related parameters such as plant height, number of secondary branches, pod number and length of primary and secondary branches, were determined. All statistical analysis were performed using SAS software (version 9.1) and mean comparisons were made by the least significant difference (LSD) test.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that increasing copper content in growth medium markedly decreased pod number in main branches in Hayola 401 while in Sarigol the maximum pod number was recorded at the 50 mg l-1 of copper nitrate. The presence of the Trichoderma, however, increased pod number in branches. Sarigol resulted more pod numbers in branches than Hayola 401 (2.5 times vs. 64%). Also, the maximum pod numbers in branches (about 1.3 fold as compared to the uninoculated control) were observed in Trichoderma inoculated plants which received 100 mg/L of copper nitrate. The maximum plant height in Hayola 401 and Sarigol (0 and 100 mg l-1 of copper nitrate, respectively) recorded when those plants inoculated with Trichoderma. The presence of the Trichoderma in the growth medium significantly improved the pod length of in main branches in Hayola 401 rather than Sarigol.
    ConclusionsMany researches showed that rapeseed is a hyperaccumulatore plant for heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, nickel, zinc and lead. On the other hand, many researchers confirmed that soil beneficial microorganisms such as Trichoderma spp. could improve the growth and yield attributes of plant especially in polluted soil. In conclusion, inoculation of rapeseed plants with Trichoderma could enhance the growth characteristics of rapeseed particularly under high levels of copper in the soil. Sarigol, however, respond better than Hayola 401 in terms of yield and yield components. Since, important aspect of bioremediation is inhibition of pollutants passes through a food chain, thus, coexistence of beneficial microorganisms that capable to transform contaminants into nontoxic products are very important.
    Keywords: Contamination, Grain yield, Heavy metals, Trichoderma
  • J. Ghanbari, Gh. R. Khajoei-Nejad, Gh Mohammadi-Nejad Pages 87-102
    IntroductionCumin is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and today, it is in the second level of popularity between spices in the world after black pepper. Cumin is an aromatic plant used as flavoring and seasoning agent in foods. Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological and have been used for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epilepsy and jaundice. Knowledge of GEI is advantageous to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase efficiency of breeding program and selection of best genotypes. A genotype that has stable trait expression across environments contributes little to GEI and its performance should be more predictable from the main several statistical methods have been proposed for stability analysis, with the aim of explaining the information contained in the GEI. Regression technique was proposed by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963) and was improved by Eberhart and Russell (1966). Generally, genotype stability was estimated by the slope of and deviation from the regression line for each of the genotypes. This is a popular method in stability analysis and has been applied in many crops. Non-parametric methods (rank mean (R), standard deviation rank (SDR) and yield index ratio (YIR)), environmental variance (S2i) and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi) Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance (Shukla, 1972) have been used to determine genotype-by-environment interaction in many studies. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecotype × sowing date interaction in cumin and to evaluation of genotypic response of cumin to different sowing dates using univariate stability parameters.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to study of ecotype × sowing date interaction, different cumin ecotypes: Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Khorasan-Shomali, Khorasan-Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman in 5 different sowing dates (26th December, 10th January, 25th January, 9th February and 24th February) were studied. The experiment was conducted during growing season of 2011-2012 in Agricultural Research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran; and grain yield was measured in the end of the growing season. Combined ANOVA, Bartlett test and mean comparison (Duncan's multiple range test) was performed using SAS 9.1 software. Considering the significant interaction between ecotypes and sowing dates, non-parametric methods (rank mean (R), standard deviation rank (SDR) and yield index ratio (YIR)), and different methods of univariate stability parameters include: environmental variance (S2i), genotypic variation coefficient (CVi), Wricke's ecovalence, Shukla's stability variance, and Regression technique (Eberhart and Russell parameters) was applied to study Ecotype × Sowing date interaction. Calculation of different stability parameters were done by S116 and Excel softwares. In order to investigate the relationship between stability statistics, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated by using SPSS 17.0 software.
    Results and DiscussionCombined ANOVA revealed that significant differences among sowing dates, ecotypes and ecotype by sowing date interaction. More than 46 percent of variation in yield was devoted to the ecotype by sowing date interaction; on this basis, stability and adaptability studies were performed based on non-parametric methods, Eberhart and Russell regression method and univariate parameters. Based on non-parametric methods (rank mean (R), standard deviation rank (SDR) and yield index ratio (YIR)) Kerman and Khorasan-Shomali were identified as stable ecotypes, and based on environmental variance (S2i) and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi) parameters Khorasan-Razavi and Semnan ecotypes were diagnosed as stable while Kerman and Yazd ecotypes were categorized as unstable ecotypes. According to the results from Eberhart and Russell, Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance parameters Isfahan and Golestan ecotypes were categorized as relatively stable ecotypes. Kerman ecotype showed specific adaptability to 24th February sowing date (favorable environment) while Semnan had specific adaptability reaction to 26th December sowing date (unfavorable environment). Khorasan-Shomali showed highest sensitivity reaction to different environments (sowing dates). According to the Spearman correlation the regression coefficient (bi) showed moderate correlation coefficient with Wi and σ2i statistics (rs = 0.567) and with other statistics in this study showed little correlation. Similar results in the study of Becker and Leon (1988) have been reported. Correlation between the deviation from regression (S2di) with Wi, σ2i, S2i and CVi statistics was positive and significant at 5% probability level. YIR and R statistics showed negative rank correlation and coefficient of determination (ri2) and SDR don’t show any significant correlation coefficient with other parametric statistics. Therefore, in this study, the results of these statistics did not match with parametric methods to introduce stable ecotypes.
    ConclusionsIsfahan and Golestan ecotypes were categorized as relatively stable ecotypes. Kerman and Semnan ecotype showed specific adaptability reaction to 24th February sowing date (favorable environment) and 26th December sowing date (unfavorable environment) respectively. Khorasan-Shomali showed highest sensitivity reaction to different sowing dates.
    Keywords: Adaptability, Cumin, Ecotype, Rank correlation, Stability
  • S. Maleki Khezerlu, M. Tajbakhsh Pages 103-112
    IntroductionAmaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is a broad-leaved plant that was considered as new plant in many world countries such as Iran. Studies have showed that nutritional quality of amaranthus are higher than cereals and forage crops. Using treatments before planting will result in high germination rate, fast and appropriate establishment, and play important role on agronomic yield of crops. Study of seed organic pretreatment for morphological characteristics and quality according to forage desirable quality of amaranthus, as new plant in Iran, production deficit and forage qualitative reducing in this country on recent years, can be positive step to introduce this plant as forage security source.
    Materials and MethodsTo study the means of morphological characteristics and forage quality of amaranthus under seed pretreatment, a trial was arranged as randomized completely block design with six treatments and three replications in research field of agricultural college of Urmia university. Treatments were including seed priming of pigeon manure (10%), concentrated vaniaze (68.39%) (three in thousand) super macro plus nano chelate fertilizer (three in thousand), magnet water, Homeopathy 12x and control. The seeds were soaked in the listed treatments for 8 hours, therefore those were brought to the initial moisture content for 24 hours at 25 ◦C and transfered to field for planting. Ground preparation was concluded in the beginning of June as furrow-ridge. Seed were placed in 1-2 cm soil depth. Evaluated traits in current study were including plant height, secondary bough number, stem diagonal and forage quality. Harvest was at flowering stage in one square meter of each experimental unit. Samples were dried and milled. Therefore, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) technology was used for forage quality measurement.
    Results and DiscussionResults of analysis variance indicated that treatment effects on plant height and diagonal stem were not significant, but was significant for leaf number and secondary bough number. Using priming led to plant height and stem diagonal increasing, but were statistically not significant. The highest leaf number was related to magnetic water pretreatment (395 leaves in square meter), then pigeon manure (362.3 leaves in square meter). The highest secondary bough was related to magnet water pretreatment. After primed seed establishment in soil, the seeds were germinated more monotonous, faster and better than no-treatment. Actually, plants derived from primed seeds were developed root systems on the shortest time as compared with seeds without pretreatment because of desirable suction of nutrition material and water, and ecological and biological sections production. Treatment effect was significant for all traits except to ash percent. The most crud protein percent and soluble carbohydrate and digestibility dry matter was related to pretreatment of pigeon manure respectively 25.4%, 11.8% and 51.5%. The highest percentage of soluble fiber on neutral detergents and soluble fiber on acidic detergent, and crude fiber were obtained for control respectively by 59.7%, 43/03% and 26/6%. Crude protein value of forage was significantly related to digestibility percent that is one of the most important factors determining forage quality. Increasing crude fiber will result in reduction of protein and nutrition value of crops. Amaranthus was placed on desirable qualitative degree for crude protein percentage and digestibility according to grass species categories for indicators values of forage quality.
    ConclusionsAccording to forage desirable quality of amaranthus, as new plant in Iran, production deficit and forage qualitative reducing in Iran, seed enrichment with desired elements led to better germination and growth, high production and quality of crop. According to obtained results in current study, using organic seed pretreatment led to qualitative and quantitative enhancement of amaranthus forage. Therefore, seeds treatment before planting using organic fertilizers produced in the field will lead to fertilizer preparation related the cost saving, and income value will be economically more than the cost and cost-effective for farmers.
    Keywords: Amaranthus, Magnetic water, Pigeon manure, Primin
  • H. Javadi, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, M. J. Seghatoleslami, Gh. R. Mosavi Pages 113-123
    IntroductionPurslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is one-year and C4 plant of the family Portulacaceae. Purslane is a drought- and salt-tolerant plant, which contains high amounts of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins. Make it a prime candidate to form edible landscape in areas with dry conditions and salty soils, which are often present together where land is irrigated. Purslane seeds provide nutritional value, and have beneficial health effect on body specially in preventing cardiovascular, cancer and hypertension (high blood pressure) diseases, because it contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and other nutrients such as antioxidants, tocopherols and dietary fibre.
    Materials and MethodsThis study was conducted in the 2011 growing season at Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Birjand (Latitude: 32°53'N; Longitude: 59°13'E and Elevation above sea level: 1480 m), Iran. Climate in this area is semi-dry to dry (annual rainfall is about 176 mm, maximum and minimum temperature are 39.1 and -17 degrees centigrade, respectively). The soil of the field was Sandy clay loam with pH 8.38 and with an EC of 2.74 m. mohs.cm-1. In this study, the effect of four sowing dates (4 April, 21 April, 5 May and 20 May) and three plant densities (5.5, 8.3 and 16.6 plants m-2) were investigated as main plot and sub plot, respectively in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 3 replications. Each plot was 2.4m×6m with six planting rows. The space between rows, plots and replications was 0.4, 0.8 and 2 m, respectively. The field had been left fallow in the previous year. Sowing was done manually and was wet planting. Irrigation was employed with an interval of 4 days immediately after planting for uniform emergence until establishment of seedlings and after that continued weekly. To achieve the desired density, the seed was planted with high density, then the operation in two stages six and eight-leaf thinning, the density was obtained. According to the results of soil test, 100 kg/ha Triple superphosphate and 100 kg/ha soleplate potassium was applied to the soil before final disking. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied 300 kg/ha (as 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at first harvest and 1/3 at second harvest) in the form of urea. Weed control was done manually in three stages. There was no specific pests and diseases during the growing season. In this study, we evaluated traits such as number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and forage yield. All statistical calculations were carried out by MSTATC software and the means of the studied traits were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% probability level.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that delay in sowing date, reduced the number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and forage yield. For each 15-day delay in planting, seed yield reduced by 12.6%, 49.7% and 31.8% respectively. In planting 15 April, optimum environmental conditions such as light, temperature and longer growing period, resulted in hgher plant photosynthetic and thus biomass and grain yield increased. Effects of plant density on all measured traits (with the exception of 1000 seed weight) were significant. Increasing plant density decreased all measured traits with exception of number of capsules per plant and number of seeds per capsule. The planting density of 16.6 plants m-2 compared to 8.3 and 5.5 plants m-2, reduced the grain yield 55.6 and 67.4 % respectively. In the low densities, due to low leaf area, photosynthetic rate and biomass decreased and the seed yield was low. Interaction between sowing date and plant density on biological yield and dry matter yield were significant. Highest biological yield was of sowing date 15 April and plant density 16.6 plants m-2 and the lowest, in plant density of 5.5 plants m-2 in all sowing dates studied. Highest dry matter yield obtained from sowing date 15 April and plant density of 16.6 plants m-2 and the lowest, was for sowing date 21 April and plant density of 5.5 plants m-2.
    ConclusionsSowing date of 4 April and plant density of 16.6 plant m-2 can be recommended to obtain high seed and biomass yield of purslane.
    Keywords: Protulaca oleracea L., Seed yield, Forage yield, Harvest index
  • N. Vahabi, Y. Emam, H. Pirasteh-Anosheh Pages 124-135
    IntroductionDrought stress is most important abiotic stress reducing growth and production of wheat worldwide. Protective role of plant growth regulators (PGRs) against drought stress has been accepted in general, however, comparison of PGRs types to determine the optimum one is crucial. Many PGRs are known to alleviate the negative effects of drought stress in plants. However, limited research has been conducted to investigate the potential benefits of exogenous application of different PGRs in wheat plants grown under drought stress. Chlormequat chloride (CCC), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) could consider as three major PGRs using in cereals.
    Materials and MethodsTo examine the effect of three PGRs consisted of CCC, SA and JA on yield components and grain yield of wheat cv. Roshan under different water stress conditions (a range of light to severe drought levels) two separated experiments were conducted at controlled and field conditions at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University during 2012-2013 growing seasons. Concentration of CCC, SA and JA were 19.0, 1.0 and 0.1 mM, respectively. Drought stress levels were 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of field capacity in greenhouse and were 100%, 2/3 and 1/5 of field capacity in the field experiment. Field capacity was determined as 25% (g g-1) for the experimental field. Greenhouse and field researches were carried out in factorial experiment based on completely randomized design and in split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design, respectively. Four and three replications were used greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Roshan as a bread wheat cultivar with standard height was used. Foliar application of 3 PGRs was done at double ridges stage in both experiments; however, irrigation treatments were applied at double ridges stage and early anthesis at greenhouse and field experiment, respectively. For plot irrigation a tape system was used and amount of irrigation was measured by a water meter.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that water stress decreased flag leaf area, ear length, grain number per ear, biological yield and grain yield in the greenhouse and biological yield and grain yield in the field experiment. The maximum of flag leaf area was obtained at anthesis and after that there was no increase in green area. In the other hand, ear length and grain number per ear were fixed at anthesis and so drought stress had less negative impact on flag leaf area, ear length and grain number per ear under field conditions. Increasing the level of drought stress was considerably associated with greater reduction in grain yield and yield components. However, PGRS application improved yield components and consequently enhanced the grain yield. The higher flag leaf area in PGRs-treated plants might be due to lowering developmental rate or delaying plant maturity and senescence. So, by improving leaf area, PGR application resulted in increased photosynthetic rate leading to a higher yield. Although all PGRs had positive effect on growth and yield of wheat nevertheless, the effect of chlormequat chloride followed by salicylic acid was greater than jasmonic acid; so that foliar applications of chlormequat chloride, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were associated with 20.7%, 13.8% and 7.24% increase in grain yield, respectively, under controlled conditions. These values were 18.3%, 12.2% and 8.1% for the field experiment. Such compensatory effects of PGRs could be due to various reasons. Chlormequat chloride can stimulate root growth, reduce transpiration, increase water use efficiency, and prevent chlorophyll destruction. Similarly, SA application may result in stomatal closure, increased WUE, increased chlorophyll content, increased respiratory-pathways and intercellular CO2 concentration, and stimulatory changes in other physiological and biochemical attributes. Jasmonic acid is also essential components for the signaling pathway triggering the expression of plant defense genes in response to abiotic stresses. This PGR had a significant role in osmotic adjustment under drought stress conditions.
    ConclusionsOverall, drought stress depending on time and severity of application had several adverse effects on wheat cultivar including decreased flag leaf area, ear length and grain number which led to reduced biological yield and grain yield. However, exogenous application of SA, CCC or JA reduced at least some of the harmful impacts of drought stress and in some cases compensated losses or damages caused by the drought, resulting in purging of differences between the control and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, chlormequat chloride might have a wide scope for further investigations as an approach to increase grain yield under limited water conditions.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Growth retardants, Yield components
  • S. A. R. Razavi, M. Jahan, M. Nassiri Mahallti, K. Haj Mohammadnia Ghalibaf Pages 136-149
    IntroductionOver one billion people, mostly in developing countries, use medicinal plants for the whole life or some part of it or at least prefer them to the synthetic drugs. According to a study of World Bank, trade in medicinal plants will have a share of over 5$ trillion in global trade in 2050. Growing population during last century and the demand for harvesting medicinal plants from natural areas, particularly those which commonly used, endangered these species with the risk of extinction. Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant commonly used as a natural remedy and other industries e.g. cosmetic industry. On the other hand, negative impacts of synthetic agricultural inputs on human health, the need for producing healthy commodities, replacing chemical agricultural inputs with some environmental friendly ones, and paying attention to new concepts like sustainability, lead agroecologists to introduce ecologically alternatives to farmers, in order to be replaced with chemical fertilizers. Using Plant growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi symbiotic with many vascular plants, is one of these alternatives. Mechanistic crop growth analysis including radiation absorption and use efficiency was compiled in agricultural researches from 1950, farther than classical analysis. Thus, the goal of this experiment is to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency of Common Mallow under the effect of different sources of biological, chemical and organic fertilizers and intercropping with Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum).
    Materials and MethodsThe experiment was conducted as a split plot design based on RCBD with three replications at the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2013. The main plot factor had two levels: 1-application of cattle manure and 2-no application of cattle manure, and the sub plot factor had seven levels as: 1- Nitroxin®, 2-Sulphur solubilizing bacteria (SSB) 3-Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), 4- Nitroxin SSB PSB, 5- Chemical fertilizer, 6-Row intercropping with Fenugreek, and 7- Control. Inoculation of seeds with boifertilizers done in standard situation recommended by their producers and the CFU of all biofertilizers were more than 108. On 25 of March, 25 ton.ha-1 of cattle manure distributed by hand in needed plots. The sowing operation was done on March 30.The total area of a plot was 12 square meters and the distance between and on the rows were 50 and 20 cm, respectively. Leaf area index, dry matter and the radiation above, and transmitted through, the canopy measured each 14 days (with a Linear Septometer, SunScan, Delta T Co., UK). Then the total radiation absorption for each plot was calculated by the relevant equations. Finally, radiation use efficiency is estimated with measuring the slope of the regression line between cumulative absorbed radiation and dry matter of the plant.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that application of cattle manure increased LAI, particularly in the early stages of Common Mallow growth, and the highest level of LAI was on the treatment of “Nitroxin SSB PSB Cattle manure” and “Chemical fertilizer cattle manure” with 2.49 and 2.37, respectively. This is while, in the absence of cattle manure, chemical fertilizer had more effect on increasing LAI compared to the biofretilizers. Application of cattle manure also reduced the light extinction coefficient (K) of the plant, while “Nitroxin SSB PSB Cattle manure” treatment had the least K value (K=0.47, R2=0.98). ANOVA results showed all experimental treatments had a significant effect (P≤ 0.001) on the cumulative absorbed radiation of Mallow during the growing season. The most accumulated absorbed radiation occurred under Nitroxin SSB PSB treatment (by mean of 986.6 MJ.m-2), while application and no-application of cattle manure had no significant effect on radiation absorption. The total calculated mean of RUE was 1.26 g.MJ-1. Nitroxin inoculation resulted in the least RUE (1.09 g.MJ-1) and Nitroxin SSB PSB inoculation plus cattle manure application had the highest RUE (1.5 g.MJ-1).
    ConclusionsGenerally, according to the goals of the experiment which were comparing some ecological inputs with chemical fertilizer from the point of mechanistic crop growth analysis factors such as radiation absorption and RUE, it seems that mixture of the three biological fertilizers of Nitroxin SSB PSB plus application of cattle manure can compete with chemical nitrogen fertilizer in such factors.
    Keywords: Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Cattle manure, Light extinction coefficient, Pseudomonas
  • E. Gholinezhad Pages 150-167
    IntroductionDrought stress is considered to be one of the most adverse abiotic stresses that influence plant growth and their physiological and biochemical aspects. In addition, drought stress influences the social and economic life of humans. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a drought tolerant plant. Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest and very important oil seed crops. It is usually cultivated in arid and semi - arid regions of the world for its quality edible oil and is very responsive to changing environmental conditions. Mycorrhizal symbiosis plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agricultural and natural ecosystems and reduces the effects of drought stress in plants by helping water absorption. AM fungi colonize the root cortex of plants and develop an extrametrical hyphal network that can absorb nutrients and water from the soil. So the objective of this study was evaluation of the influence of different levels of drought stress and two kinds of mycorrhizal fungi on oil percentage and yield, protein percentage and yield and seed yield of eight landraces sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was conducted by using factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Urmia agricultural high school in 2014-2015. The main factor consisted of different levels of irrigation, normal irrigation (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)), moderate drought stress (irrigation after 90 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)) and severe drought stress (irrigation after 110 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)), sub plots including two kinds of mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and non-inoculated (control). Sub-sub plots consisted of eight landraces of sesame names Jiroft13, Zanjan Tarom landrace, Moghan landrace, Naz of several branches, TC-25¡ TS-3, Darab 14 and Dashtestan 5.
    Results and DiscussionThe results of analysis showed that the effect of different levels of irrigation, mycorrhizal fungi and genotypes on studied traits were significant. Means comparison showed that with increasing severity of drought stress, seed yield, oil percentage, protein percentage, oil yield, protein yield and biological yield decreased significantly. Severe drought stress reduced oil yield and protein yield about 67 and 66 percent, respectively. Oil and Protein yield loss are due to seed yield loss because of water scarcity and applying water stress. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi species (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices) in comparison with non-inoculated (control), seed yield improved about 33 and 11 percent, respectively. The reason for that may be related to the effect of mycorrhizal on absorption phosphorus and sulfur, lasting more leaves the plant, maintaining and increasing the leaves size and improving the photosynthesis by more chlorophyll. Reason of increasing biological yield in normal irrigation conditions was also due to the development of more and better durability of the leaf surface which causes physiological source sufficient to make greater use of light and dry matter production.
    With using two kinds of mycorrhizal fungi) Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices) in compared to non-inoculated (control), seed yield and seed qualitative traits increased. Among sesame landraces under studied in this research, Moghan landrace and Zanjan Tarom landrace based on traits such as seed yield, oil yield and protein yield had superiority on other landraces. Based on results of this study, for improvement oil and protein percentage using mycorrhizal fungi especially, G.mosseae species would be recommended.
    ConclusionsThe results of this study showed that drought stress and water deficit substantially reduced the quality traits such as oil content, protein content, oil yield, protein yield and seed yield of landraces of sesame. Application of mycorrhizal fungi in three different conditions increased seed yield and quality of all landraces. According to the results, not only the use of mycorrhizal fungi increased seed yield under drought stress but also in optimum irrigation conditions using mycorrhizal fungi, especially the species G. mosseae can be improved quantitative and qualitative yield. Landraces had different reactions to drought stress. Landraces Moghan and Tarom Zanjan had superiority on other genotypes and can recommend as suitable genotypes for planting.
    Keywords: Biological yield, Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, Oilseed, Water deficit
  • E. Rezaei Chiyaneh, S. Khorramdel, A. Movludi, A. Rahimi Pages 168-184
    IntroductionZinc is an essential element for plants and animals and plays an important role in plants metabolic system. This element activates enzymes and involved in protein, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid metabolism. Zinc has a major role in cell defenses against ROS and as a protective factor against several chemical compositions of oxidation such as membrane lipids, protein, chlorophyll, and enzyme having sulfhydryl and DNA. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays many important roles in various physiological and metabolic processes in all living organisms. It functions as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes and proteins involved in cell division, nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis.
    Nanoparticles have received considerable attention due to their increased uptake and high rate of penetration in plants. Nanomaterials are classified as materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nonmaterial could to be applied in designing more soluble and diffusible sources of Zn fertilizer for increased plant productivity.
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) an oilseed crop is a member of the family Compositae or Asteraceae. Safflower, a multipurpose crop that has been grown for centuries in India for the orange-red dye (carthamin) extracted from its brilliantly colored flowers and for its quality oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, 78%). Safflower flowers are known to have many medicinal properties for curing several chronic diseases, and they are widely used in Chinese herbal preparations.
    The mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most important symbiosis on earth. The majority of these mycorrhizal interactions is mutually beneficial for both partners and is characterized by a bidirectional exchange of resources across the mycorrhizal interface. The mycorrhizal fungus provides the host plant with nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrogen, and increases the abiotic (drought, salinity and heavy metals) and biotic (root pathogens) stress resistance of the host.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to evaluate the effects of nano-zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis on some agronomic and physiological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress conditions, an experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan Province, Naghadeh city during growing season of 2013-2014. The main factor consisted of four irrigation levels (irrigation after 60, 110, 160 and 210 mm evaporation from pan) and sub factor included four fertilizer levels (nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal鶩 fertilizer and control). Studied traits were number of head per plant, number of seed per head, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, oil percentage, soluble sugars and proline contents.
    For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) were performed using SAS version 9.9 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
    Results and DiscussionThe results declared that increasing drought stress decreased yield and yield components (such as number of head per plant, number of seed per head and 1000-seed weight) significantly. But, application of fertilizer sources decreased the drought effects, so in irrigation levels, application of nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal鶩 fertilizer increased these traits. The highest seed yield (2588 kg.ha-1) was obtained in irrigation after 60 mm evaporation of pan with using mycorrhizal鶩 fertilizer and the lowest amount (1836.6 kg.ha-1) from irrigation after 210 mm evaporation of pan and control. Oil percentage decreased by increasing drought stress, but oil percentage with application of mycorrhizal鶩 fertilizer significantly increased (11%) compared to control (without application fertilizers). Increasing drought stress and use of nano zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal symbiosis, increased significantly soluble sugars and proline contents. Elicitation of results showed that inoculation of mycorrhizal under water stress conditions could be increase water and nutrients uptake by increasing uptake of root and could improve plant tolerance against to drought stress. On the other hand, given the role of zinc in plants in drought stress conditions, the existence enough amount of this nutrient is effective to adjust consistency.
    ConclusionsThe results of the study showed that the application of Nano chelated zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi had significant improvements on some physiological characteristics of safflower beside, yield and yield components also increased. Because of more zinc uptake and symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi, water and minerals uptake increased thus decreased negative effects of drought stress. Due to global attention to sustainable agriculture, environment and human health, nanotechnology and biofertilizers can be as alternative fertilization methods. According to recent years conditions as decline in groundwater, reduce rainfall and water shortages, revising oilseeds nutritional management is necessary.
    Keywords: Biological fertilizer, Nano technology, Proline, Seed yield, Soluble sugars
  • Z. Amin, S. Fallah, A. Abbasi Surki Pages 185-203
    IntroductionGarlic is the second and the most commonly used plant after onion from allium which is very important according to the food value because of its medical and mineral properties. On the other hand, macro nutrients such as nitrogen can cause better accumulation of dry matter with the development of leaf area and the efficient use of solar radiation and distribute it in the leaves and shoots. The usage of organic fertilizers such as cow manure is one of the most important nutritional strategies in the sustainable management in agricultural ecosystems.
    Materials and MethodsThe experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications, at the research farm of agricultural college of Shahrekord University in 2015. Treatments consisted of N100P, N150P , and N200P (100,150, and 200 kg N/ha in the form of urea phosphorus requirement, respectively); N100PS, N150PS , and N200PS (100, 150, and 200 kg N/ha in the form of urea phosphorus requirement sulfur requirement, respectively); BCM100, BCM100, and BCM100 ((100, 150, and 200 kg N/ha in the form of cow manure as broadcast application); SCM100, SCM100, and SCM100 ((100, 150, and 200 kg N/ha in the form of cow manure as subsurface application). In this experiment, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, dry weight of leaf, plant height (38 , 68 and 98 days after planting ), number clove per plant, clove weight and garlic yield were measured. All analyses were performed based as randomized complete block design. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and mean comparison was performed by LSD test. The F-test was considered significant at p Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the effects of fertilization treatments on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, dry weight of leaf, plant height (38, 68 and 98 days after planting), number of clove plant and clove weight were significant. Treatment of 150 kg N/ha in the form of urea plus sulfur with an average of 3.66 mg/g was the highest amount of chlorophyll a but it did not have significant difference with BCM100 treatment. Additionally, the formation of chlorophyll b in garlic with the use of organic fertilizer (BCM100 treatment) is similar to those of which 50 kg per hectare more nitrogen was used in the form urea fertilizer. Total chlorophyll of whole plots receiving organic manures decreased by 10.5% compared with chemical fertilizers, also organic treatments BCM200 and SCM200 did not have significant difference for total chlorophyll. Based on these comparisons, the amount of total chlorophyll of sulfur treatments was by 5.81 higher than treatments with lack of sulfur. Carotenoids in cow manure treatment (SCM100 and SCM150) with 100 kg N/ha in the form of urea did not have significant difference. But the amount of carotenoids of other organic and chemical treatments compared with these treatments significantly decreased. For plant height (38 days after planting) in BCM100 (10.86 cm) and BCM200 (11.83 cm) treatment did not show a significant difference with the SCM100 and SCM200 treatments. The plant height (68 days after planting) in N100PS with an average of 34.3 cm had a significant increase compared with other fertilizing treatments. Differences of receiving plots of organic fertilizers compared with chemical fertilizers for leaf dry weight has a decrease of 16.3%. Chemical treatments (N200P and N200PS with the average of 9965 and 9715 kg per hectare, respectively) had the highest yield, as well as subsurface application could increase the mean of yield by 5.63 percent in compared with the broadcast application.
    ConclusionsIn general it can be concluded which the subsurface application of cow manures in compared to broadcast application had the highest amount of garlic production. Also, in the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (200 kg nitrogen per hectare), the highest yield was obtained with treatments of chemical fertilizers. However at the level of 150 kg nitrogen per hectare, manure particularly subsurface application was superior to other nitrogen resources. Thus, in order to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural ecosystems, subsurface application of manure is recommended to suitable produce garlic plant, but if the goal is to achieve the maximum yield of garlic bulb at least 200 kg N ha-1 in the form of chemical fertilizer is required.
    Keywords: Cow manure, Photosynthetic pigment, Subsurface application, Sustainable management
  • H. Molahoseini, A. H. Jalali Pages 204-215
    IntroductionThe potato of commerce (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an annual dicot species. It is an autotetraploid with 4x=48 chromosomes. In Iran the consumption per capita of potato is over the 35 kg. Potato production is usually done without reducing yield in the irrigation water salinity 1-2 dS m-1, but 4.2 dS m-1 salinity reduces yield by 26 percent. 10, 25 and 50 percent yield reduction have been reported in soil electrical conductivity 2.5, 3.8 and 5.9 dS m-1, respectively . Between the ability of plant species to maintain potassium levels and their tolerance to salinity is positive correlation and on this basis nutritional irregularity due to increased salinity can be compensated by increasing of potassium fertilizer. In tolerant plant species, during times of increased salinity, selective absorption of potassium increased. The ability of plants to maintain a certain level of K/Na within the cell is essential for salt tolerance and sometimes of these ratios is used as indicators of salinity tolerance. Potato yield in response to salt stress, according to a variety of uses, can be reduced from 20 to 85 percent. Harmful effects of salinity in the beginning stages of tubers and tuber growth stage are important, therefore, tuber number and tuber size are two important components of yield which may reduce in the effect of salinity. Accelerate the aging process of the shoot, unwanted earliness, are of the reasons for the reduction in tuber size.
    Materials and MethodsA field experiment was conducted in the agricultural and natural resources research center (31° 32´ N, 51° 51´ E), Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. According to twenty years statistics, rainfall and temperature means for experiment location were 110 mm and 25 °C, respectively. The experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were three levels of foliar K application (control, K sulphate 10 ppm, and 2.5 ppm of potassium oxide), and the number of times foliar spray were included in one (start flowering), two (full emergence of flowers), and three (two weeks after full flowering stage) times. Potato (CV. Ramus) was planted in plots 1.5 × 6 m in February 24 and harvested in 24 May in the both years. Row and plant spacing’s were 75 and 20 cm, respectively. Irrigation (furrow) was applied when the soil moisture in the root zone declined to 60-65 percent of field capacity. To determine the irrigation time tensiometers placed at 15- and 30-cm depths responded to changes in soil water. To measure the tuber yield (after eliminating the edges), the whole tuber yield was measured on each plot. Tubers with size less than 35 mm were considered as non-salable tuber yield. An irrigation water productivity index based on the formula Tanner and Sinclair (1983) was calculated. Irrigation Water Productivity = Y/WC. In this formula, Y is the product of economic performance and WC is the consumed water. During the interval between the first and last spray, pressure chamber apparatus(Arimad-2 Japan) for measuring the youngest leaves water potential was used (hours 8-6 am). During the growing season, weeds were hand-weeding. The data were subjected to analysis of variance by SAS and means Fisher’s Protected LSD (5%) was used for mean separation.
    Result and DiscussionsThe results of this study showed that salable yield with three times K sulfate spraying (Ps×3S), and potassium oxide treatments sprayed with two and three times (Po×2S and Po×3S) were significantly more than to other treatments, but did not find statistically significant differences among these three treatments. Tuber weight was the most important component that significantly affected by the interaction of potassium sprayed and its frequency. Three times foliar sprays of potassium sulfate (Ps×3S) and two and three times potassium oxide foliar application (Po×2S and Po×3S), showed 19, 17 and 21% increase in compared to the control treatment, respectively. Control, and even once treated by foliar potassium (Sulphate or potassium oxide) had lower harvest index values than the other treatments. The negative effect of irrigation with saline water on assimilate partitioning to the tuber is cause of the reduction of harvest index. Water use efficiency with foliar application of three times potassium sulfate or potassium oxide was 27% higher than the control treatment (4.5 kg m-3). The use of sufficient potassium in such a situation is not only necessary to maintain osmotic potency, the continuation of assimilates in phloem, and loading these vessels but also plays an important role in detoxification of sodium ions. In salinity stress, accelerated aging and earliness shoot unintentionally, are the reasons for the reduction in tuber size.
    ConclusionsThe results showed that foliar application of potassium, especially in two or three times (depending on the type of fertilizer application) can result in harmful effects of salinity and leads to an increase in tuber yield. In relation to foliar K application, some cases are necessary: First, due to the sensitivity of potato to fungal diseases, foliar application of fungicides and K fertilizers can be simultaneously tested in salt stress conditions. Second, the salinity considered for this study was 6.1 dS m-1. This amount of salinity to the potatoes is too much so it may be recommendable to spray less frequently at lower salinity levels.
    Keywords: Harvest index, Salinity, Water use efficiency, Yield
  • A. Sepehri, H. Shahbazi Pages 216-230
    IntroductionPeanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an annual herbaceous plant in Fabaceae which grown in tropical to temperate regions worldwide for extracting its seed oil and nut consumption. Select the optimum planting date is one of the most important agricultural techniques that comply with the seed yield is maximized . For instance, delay planting date can reduce the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods per plant. The delay in planting date reduces total dry matter (TDM), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and yield in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Daneshian et al., (2008) reported that the delay in planting date reduced sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield due to high temperatures in early growth which shortened flowering time and reduced solar radiation. On the other hand, due to increase importance of environmental issues has been attending biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers has formed by beneficial bacteria and fungi that each of them are produced for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate, potassium and iron ions of insoluble compound. The use of nitrogen fertilizer with slow-releasing ability stimulated shoot growth in soybean (Glycine max) and be created more LAI in the reproductive process, particularly during grain filling stage and finally increased seed yield . Therefore, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the interaction of biological and chemical fertilizers in the purpose of achieving sustainable agriculture with emphasis of the effects of various planting dates on physiological parameters and growth of peanut in Hamadan.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to investigate the effects of planting date on important physiological indices of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) under the influence of biological and chemical fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan during 2013 growing season. This study was done as a split plot experimental design based on randomized complete block with three replications. Peanut cultivar was Fleury Spanish which was prepared by the Research Center of Guilan. Three planting date included 22 May, 31 May and 10 June were used as main plot and four levels of fertilizers included 50% nitrogen chemical fertilize nitrogen biofertilizer complete phosphorus chemical fertilizer, 50% phosphorus chemical fertilizer phosphorus biofertilizer complete nitrogen chemical fertilizer, 50% nitrogen chemical fertilizer and 50% phosphorus chemical fertilizer nitrogen -phosphorus biofertilizers, and 100 % chemical fertilizer were tested as sub plot. In order to evaluate the effect of planting date and various fertilizer application on changes trend of LAI, CGR and TDM, different models (1, 2, 3) were fitted to the data.
    Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS; ver. 9.1 software and mean comparison was done through Duncan test.
    Results and DiscussionThe result of analysis of variance indicated that, the main effects of planting date and biofertilizer for traits such as days to flowering, days to podding, days to maturity were significant at the 1% level. However, their interaction was not significant. For mentioned traits, the 22 May planting date was better than the other planting dates. It seems that in the third planting date, plant flowering was occurred earlier than the first date. High temperature with delayed planting shortened the peanut growing season and it accelerated flowering period. Moreover, complete chemical fertilizers (100%) was highest for mentioned traits and combine using of chemical fertilizer and nitrogen phosphorus biofertilizers had the least difference compared to complete chemical fertilizer. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria help the plant to absorb more nutrients which causes increasing plant growth and the number of lateral branches in plant. Plants inoculated with Pseudomonas illustrated an increase in the amount of leaf chlorophyll content compare to plants without inoculation after 45 days which it can be attributed to the increased availability of iron in the siderophore production by Pseudomonas. Results indicated that the interaction between planting date and bio-fertilizers in maximum leaf area index, maximum crop growth rate and maximum total dry weight was significant at the %1 level. Changes in leaf area and crop growth rate and total dry matter in all planting dates had a similar trend.The highest growth index was obtained from the first planting date (22 May) with application of 100% chemical fertilizer and also combine using of chemical fertilizer and nitrogen phosphorus biofertilizers. Increasing CGR during the growing season can be attributed to the increasing of leaf area or less reduction of leaf net photosynthesis. The delay in planting date reduces the length of growing season and simultaneous occurrence of reproductive stages and late season heat stress caused the reduction in dry matter accumulation. Azospirillum with the ability to nitrogen fixing, improved root growth and increase the rate of absorption of water and nutrients and thus it causes the increase of leaf area and crop growth rate . The ccombined use of humic acid and Pseudomonas putida increased soil pH that with phosphorus availability it will make further increase soybean yield. The delay planting date has been reduced the maximum leaf area index and leaf area. Although biological nitrogen fertilizer alone could not increase the leaf area duration as much 100% chemical fertilizer, biological nitrogen fertilizer in combination with phosphorus biofertilizer increased leaf area for the 22 May and 31 May planting date. Plant yield had a direct correlation with growth duration. Whatever growth duration is longer; the amount of radiation absorption by plant increased and causes the increase crop yield. Accumulation of organic matter by bacteria in the soil increased the nutrient availability, which caused more significant increase in the number of seeds per pod and seed weight and grain yield.
    ConclusionsThe results revealed that the 22 May planting date had the highest growth and yield compare with the other planting dates. In addition, using a combination of biological and chemical fertilizers decreased application of 50% chemical fertilizers. Therefore, in order to achieve sustainable agriculture and reducing environmental pollution, combination of biological and chemical fertilizers can be a viable alternative to reduce the application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers for peanut production in Hamedan condition.
    Keywords: Biological fertilizer, Chemical fertilizers, Growth index, Peanut