فهرست مطالب

مطالعات زبان و ترجمه - سال چهل و نهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1395)
  • سال چهل و نهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/09/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
|
  • علمی پژوهشی
  • سپیده رحیم پور، الهه ستوده نما، محمد دبیر مقدم صفحات 1-21
    در این پژوهش، هویت پژوهش‏گر در چهار مقاله زبان شناسی کاربردی با روش شناسی ترکیبی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است تا مشخص شود در این مقالات، ابزارهای زبانی خاصی به کار برده شده است که نشان دهنده هویت پژوهشی نویسندگان باشد یا خیر. به این منظور، الگویی شامل اظهار/حذف، فعال سازی/منفعل سازی، فردارجاعی/گروه ارجاعی، نظام گذرایی، ابزارساختاری، ابزار اهمیت ساز، ابزار روابط ساز، ابزار اتصال ساز، ابزار بینامتنی، معناهای رمزگونه و خودبیانی ها ارائه شده است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی چگونگی نحوه بازنمود هویت پژوهش گر در مقالات زبان شناسی کاربردی به زبان انگلیسی است. نتایج نشان می دهد که پژوهش گران مورد بررسی، از الگویی خاص و متشکل از ابزارهای زبانی خاص برای نشان دادن هویت خود به عنوان پژوهش گر در مقالات خود، بهره برده اند؛ به عبارت دیگر، میزان فعال سازی و منفعل سازی کنش گران اجتماعی در کل، تقریبا با هم برابر است و نشان دهنده آن است که پژوهش گران مذکور در به کارگیری ساختارمعلوم و مجهول در نوشتار خود محتاط بوده اند تا دیدگاه غیرمتعصبانه ای داشته باشند. همچنین، آن ها در اغلب موارد از کنش گران اجتماعی به صورت گروه یاد کرده اند تا فرد. همچنین، از فرآیندهای ذهنی بیش از فرآیندهای مادی در مقالات خود بهره برده اند تا به کمک فرآیندهای ذهنی به شفاف سازی موضوعات مورد بحث بپردازند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، زبان شناسی کاربردی، هویت پژوهش گر، مقالات پژوهشی با روش شناسی ترکیبی
  • مریم معین درباری، شهلا شریفی، علیرضا خان جان صفحات 23-51
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی انتقادی نحوه کاربرد صافی فرهنگی در ترجمه انگلیسی کریس لیر و سهیلا سحابی (2000) از کتاب بچه های قالیبافخانه هوشنگ مرادی کرمانی (1359/1390) و بطور مشخص، داستان «رضو، اسدو، خجیجه» است. این مقاله بطور خاص ترجمه «اصطلاحات» را به عنوان یکی از عناصر زبانی فرهنگ- وابسته مد نظر خواهد داشت. بدین منظور، الگوی «تحلیل انتقادی ترجمه» (خان جان، 1391، 1392) که در اساس بر بینان نظری زبان شناسی سازگانی- نقش گرا (هلیدی، 1994، 2004) استوار می باشد به عنوان چارچوب تحلیلی تحقیق انتخاب گردیده است. الگوی مذکور بطور توامان تحلیل عوامل درونزا (درون متنی) و برونزا (یعنی مولفه های اجتماعی و فرامتنی) را مورد توجه قرار می دهد و در این مسیر، هم به محصول ترجمه نظر دارد و هم به فرآیند ترجمه. پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا نشان دهد که نحوه کاربرد صافی فرهنگی از سوی مترجمان اثر به چه میزان با ویژگی های بافتی در نظام مقصد تناسب داشته است. یافته های تحقیق مبین آن است که اتخاذ راهکارهای «معادل سازی توصیفی» (ایجاد معادل های یک سویه) و «معادل-یابی فرهنگی» (یافتن معادل های طبیعی یا دوسویه) که به ترتیب بیشترین بسامد وقوع را داشته اند، عموما نیل به تعادل نقشی نسبی را در پی داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل انتقادی ترجمه، صافی فرهنگی، ترجمه اصطلاحات، هوشنگ مرادی کرمانی، بچه های قالیبافخانه
  • علی محمد مهردادیان صفحات 53-66
    یکی از مهمترین بخش های تاریخ ادبیات فرانسه به دوره ادبیات نمایشی کلاسیک در قرون شانزدهم و هفدهم و هجدهم میلادی مربوط می شود که در جریان آن آثار نمایشی برجسته ای توسط نمایش نامه نویسان بزرگ فرانسوی، چه به صورت تراژدی و چه به شکل کمدی، با استفاده از اصول و قواعد مکتب ادبی کلاسیسیم و موضوعات اصیل عهد یونان و روم باستان خلق شده اند؛ اما این نویسندگان علاوه برآن از مضامین گوناگون حکایات و داستانها و افسانه های شرقی برگرفته از منابع غنی و پربار فرهنگ و ادب تمدن های کهن شرق به ویژه ایران (پارس)، عثمانی (ترک)، هند و چین نیز برای خلق آثار بدیع و تازه نمایشی خود بهره گرفته اند. در این مقاله به اختصار به بررسی این موضوعات و مضامین گوناگون شرقی در ادبیات نمایشی کلاسیک فرانسه پرداخته می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات تطبیقی، ادبیات فرانسه، نمایش نامه های کلاسیک، تاریخ و فرهنگ شرق، مضامین شرقی
  • رویا لطافتی، بیتا اکبری صفحات 67-82
    ادبیات عرفانی (ادب صوفیه) از حیث تنوع و غنا در فارسی و عربی اهمیت خاص دارد و همواره ترجمه آن مورد توجه بسیاری از مترجمان غربی بوده است. این نوع ادبی وجوه متعدد و مهمی دارد که شامل نظم، نثر، فلسفه، اخلاق، تاریخ، تفسیر، دعا، مناجات، حدیث و موسیقی است. لذا ترجمه آن نسبت به سایر متون سخت تر و دارای ریزش های بیشتری است. آنچه در این مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است، مشکلات پدید آمده به هنگام ترجمه متون عرفانی در بررسی کتاب «عبهرالعاشقین» اثر روزبهان بقلی شیرازی است. درست است که تعریف ترجمه برگردان متنی از زبان مبدا به زبان مقصد بدون کوچکترین افزایش یا کاهشی در صورت و معنی آن متن می باشد، لیکن این تعریف فقط جنبه نظری دارد؛ زیرا هیچ پیامی را بدون تغییر در صورت و معنی آن نمی توان از زبانی به زبان دیگر منتقل کرد به خصوص آثار عرفانی روزبهان بقلی که دربردارنده جهانی پر رمز و راز است و خیال انگیز. آنچه تاثیر بسیار عمیقی بر خواننده آثار روزبهان می گذارد، سبک اوست که برخی مواقع ترجمه آن به اندازه ترجمه آثار امام محمد غزالی دشوار است، از آن روی که آرایش و جمله بندی قوی تر و ژرف تری دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مشکلات ترجمه، ترجمه متون عرفانی، ادبیات عرفانی، روزبهان البقلی شیرازی، عبهرالعاشقین
  • غلامرضا تجویدی، پروانه معاذالهی صفحات 83-104
    مقطع تاریخی بین 1320 تا 1345 به لحاظ افت و خیزهای سیاسی و ظهور گرایش های فکری متنوع در تاریخ معاصر ایران بسیار حائز اهمیت است. در این مسیر، مترجمان نیز به مثابه عاملان اجتماعی که با بافت اجتماعی این دوره پیوند محکمی داشته اند، از این افت و خیزها و گرایش های فکری تاثیر پذیرفته یا بر آن ها تاثیرگذاشته اند. پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا رابطه بین رفتار مترجمان و ساختارهای اجتماعی فرهنگی حاکم بر آنان را در قالب نظریه جامعه شناسی تولیدات فرهنگی بررسی نماید. به این منظور، با استفاده از دو مفهوم اصلی عادت واره و میدان در این نظریه، سیر تحول نشر کتاب در ایران و نقش مترجمان در این سیر مورد مطالعه قرار می گیرد و به فراخور مطالب گردآوری شده تاثیر صنعت نشر بر شکل گیری عادت واره مترجمان نیز بررسی می شود. در نهایت، چنین به نظر می رسد که هرچه میدان قدرت و به تبع آن میدان تولیدات فرهنگی زمینه را برای ظهور میدان نشر به شکل یک میدان مستقل و سلسله مراتبی بیشتر فراهم کنند، تاثیرگذاری این میدان بر عادت واره مترجمان بیشتر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: میدان نشر، میدان قدرت، میدان تولیدات فرهنگی، عادت واره مترجمان، پییر بوردیو
  • رویا عباس زاده، عذرا قندهاریون، زهره تائبی صفحات 105-121
    در سال های اخیر، اقتباس به عنوان شاخه ای جدید در نقد ادبی مورد توجه منتقدین قرار گرفته است. در ایران نیز اقتباس های مختلفی از آثار ادبی ایرانی و خارجی در چند دهه اخیر انجام گرفته است. پله آخر (1392) به کارگردانی علی مصفا یکی از جدیدترین آثار اقتباسی و برگرفته از داستان معروف «مردگان» (1914) اثر جیمز جویس (1882-1941) است. در این مطالعه، با استفاده از تئوری کانون دید ژرار ژنت، به دنبال بررسی تغییر روایت از متن نوشتاری به فیلم و پیامدهای آن خواهیم بود. تئوری کانون دید ژنت، با معرفی سه نوع کانون دید بیرونی، درونی و صفر و همچنین چهار نوع روایت با توجه به سطح و رابطه راوی با داستان، ابزار مناسبی برای مقایسه اثر ادبی و فیلم اقتباسی در قالبی روایت شناسانه است. بنابراین، مطالعه حاضر سعی دارد با بررسی این تغییرات در روایت «مردگان» و پله آخر و با تکیه بر تئوری کانون دید، درباره علل و نتایج آن ها به بحث و نتیجه گیری بپردازد. یافته های این مطالعه نشان می دهد که تاثیر آگاهانه یا ناخودآگاه اقتباس کننده مذکر بر نوع روایت، باعث کم رنگ شدن نقش لیلی و هم ذات پنداری بیشتر مخاطبان با قهرمان منفعل این فیلم، یعنی خسرو شده است. علی رغم روایت پیچیده داستان فیلم، قضاوت در مورد شخصیت های فیلم برای مخاطب توسط این تغییر در روایت آسان شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اقتباس، تحلیل روایت، کانون دید، پله آخر، مردگان
|
  • Sepideh Rahimpour, Elaheh Sotoudehnama, Mohammad Dabirmoghadddam Pages 1-21
    Introduction It is believed that we can provide our learners with the appropriate language devices in writing through which they can increase their knowledge of linguistic and structural pattern in written texts. Besides, concepts such as identity and culture are included in written texts. Therefore, it is essential to focus on identity in education. In other words, writers show their identities in their writings. Consequently, when researchers write their research articles they manifest their professional identities in their academic writings. However, there has been little focus on this essential concept. Thus, the current study seeks to address this gap in the language education domain, and investigates how mixed methods researchers project their identities into research articles written in English from the point of view of Critical Discourse Analysis.
    Methodology Four mixed methods research articles written in English were selected among different research articles published in leading applied linguistics journals including and to be analyzed. In order to have a framework to analyze the data, we devised a model of researcher identity from previous taxonomies in CDA including the patterns of inclusion / exclusion, activation / passivation, and individualization/ assimilation (van Leeuwen, 2008), transitivity pattern (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004), the why this way and not that way tool, the significance building tool, the relationships building tool, the connections building tool, the intertextuality tool (Gee, 2014), the code glosses tool, and the self-mentions tool (Hyland, 2004). Afterwards, based on the devised model, we analyzed the corpus critically to see whether mixed methods researchers have a particular pattern to project their identities into their writings. To do so, the main social actors were identified. In other words, teacher, learner, and textbook were identified as denominators.
    Discussion The theme of these four mixed methods research articles was “teacher education”. Data analysis showed that the mixed methods researchers tried to follow the pre-determined format of article writing; however, they added few sections related to their own article. In other words, they tried to have the pre-determined sections such as introduction, methodology, results, and discussion. They added few sections which were specifically related to the topic of their article. Furthermore, considering the employment of social actors it was found that “teacher”, and “textbook” were included more than being excluded but this is not the case regarding “learner”. This can be due to the fact that the mixed methods researchers intended to deemphasize the role of learners in their writings. Moreover, “teacher” was the most included social actor with the “textbook” in the second position and the “learner” in the third position. This shows the fact that since the theme of the articles was teacher education, the authors tried to include “teachers” more than “leaners” and “textbooks” to show the important role of the teacher in any educational system. Furthermore, they focused on “textbook” as a non-human social actor in their writing and they included it more than excluded.
    In addition, the activation/passivation pattern indicates that the occurrence of activation regarding “teacher” is nearly similar to the occurrence of passivation which shows that the mixed methods researchers were conservative in employing active and passive voice in their writing regarding “teacher” and tried to show the teacher as a dynamic force in some parts of their writing regarding actions such as complimenting, performing, arguing, etc. and as the object of the verb regarding actions such as controlling, observing, comparing, etc. in other parts of the texts to have an unbiased viewpoint.
    It is worth mentioning that the writers employed different ways in representing the pattern of individualization/assimilation. “Teacher” was assimilated more than being individualized. Concerning learners, similar pattern could be seen.
    Concerning transitivity, we can see that authors employed mental, material, behavioral, and relational processes more than the verbal process. Also, the writers used relative clauses to help the readers grasp the concepts in the texts better. They, similarly, used frame markers to refer to discourse acts and stages in the argument; it means that they explicitly refer to discourse shifts or text stages. The authors also employed hedges which indicate the author’s doubt. Moreover, the writers used attitude markers to show the importance of the different concepts and their attitude to the textual information. The reason for using attitude markers can be that mixed methods researchers might use this tool when they are relying greatly on their personal convictions and ideas in order to influence their readers.
    Additionally, they used engagement markers to have a relationship with their readers, and they employed transitions almost frequently in their research articles. The writers employed these devices in their writings so that they can show their readers how different parts of texts were connected to one another.
    These researchers also used evidentials to document their claims, and to give credit to the people whose ideas were used in texts. On the other hand, they tried not to use evidentials very frequently since they might feel that using frequent citations indicate lack of originality. In addition, they did not use code glosses very frequently in their writings. Therefore, they thought that the reader could realize the intended meaning of the elements in text; so, there was no need to elaborate on it more by using these devices.
    Besides, they used self-mention devices showing that although they did not try to show their presence explicitly in most parts of their writings, they had a balance in that regard and whenever they found it necessary they used self-mentions rather than other terms such as “the researcher” to show their powerful authorial presence.
    Conclusion
    This study tried to examine how mixed methods applied linguistics researcher’s project their identities into their research articles. The results seem to imply that they followed certain patterns in their articles by using specific linguistic devices. They employed all subdivisions of the devised model. We couldn’t find any study on researcher identity; however, we found different studies in the field of identity in general, and this study was in line with these previous studies. The findings of the current study would be beneficial for language teachers, learners, and educators to help them become more self-conscious about representing their identities in the content of the textbooks and research articles. One of the strengths of this study, therefore, is that it gives hints to the writers that their readers learn beyond their words; and in research articles they not only present informational content, but also they represent their identities.
    Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Applied linguistics, Researcher identity, mixed methods research articles
  • Maryam Moeen Darbari, Shahla Sharifi, Alireza Khanjan Pages 23-51
    The present paper aims to provide a critical analysis of how cultural filter has been applied in Chris Lear’s and Soheila Sahabi’s (2000) English translation of Houshang Moradi Kermani’s Bachehaye Qalibafkhaneh [Carpet-Weaving Factory Children] (1980/2011) with a particular view to the short story “Razou, Asadou and Khajijeh”. The paper, more specifically, focuses on the rendering of “idioms” as a typical example of culture-specificity in translation. Khanjan’s Critical Translation Analysis (CTA) Model (2012, 2013), which draws on Halliday’s Systemic-Functional linguistics (1994, 2004), has been adopted as the analytical framework. CTA addresses both endogenous (intra-textual) and exogenous (social and extra-textual) parameters involved in translation and, in so doing, it takes heel of both the product and the process of translation. Given the two CTA underlying assumptions of “translation as re-contextualization” and “translating as filtering”, the present study aims to show how appropriate have been the translators’ applications of cultural filter to target contextual requirements. The paper findings indicate that “making descriptive (or directional) equivalents” and “finding cultural (i.e. natural or bidirectional) equivalents”, with the highest frequencies of occurrence among translation strategies adopted by the translators, have generally led to relative functional equivalence relations. When confronted with radically culture-specific idioms, however, the translators have mostly ignored the idioms in question all together and have, accordingly, resulted in a relative loss of domestic rural culture intended by the author.
    Keywords: Critical Translation Analysis (CTA), cultural filter, translation of idioms, Houshang Moradi Kermani, Carpet-Weaving Factory Children
  • Ali Mohammad Mehrdadian Pages 53-66
    Introduction One of the most important periods in French literature is the classical dramatic literature movement in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries in which outstanding dramatic works (either comedy or tragedy) were produced by great French play writers using the principles and rules of the ancient Greek and Roman classicism literary schools. In this study, the authors take into consideration the different themes, anecdotes, stories, and legends of the East which have been extracted from several cultural and literatary sources and ancient civilizations of the East in order to create a new concept, especially Persia (Iran), Ottoman (Turkish), India, and China. In this paper, we briefly investigate the Eastern themes in classical French drama.
    Research Methodology In each section, we briefly review a number of classic dramatic works by famous French play writers. These literary works would be analyzed in terms of their political, social, and cultural representations and themes of contemporary society as well as the way they have expressed their thoughts and ideas.
    Section I - The East and Renaissance Drama
    Due to the conflicts and religious clashes between Catholics and Protestants during the pre-mentioned time period, the majority of the plays written by French writers have used the Eastern themes of the books of Bible, especially Esther and Aman stories, to denounce injustice and prejudice in religion, criticize the existing political conditions and promote religious coexistence.
    Section II – The East and the Classical Tragedies
    Classical tragedy French writers have used the latest dramatic works of ancient Greek, ancient Roman times, and new eastern themes in the following ways: 1. Historical accounts of the kings, princes, and famous captains of the Eastern Empires, especially ancient Iranian history and tragedies such as Rodogune, Suréna, Corneil, Mithridate, and Racine. The life story and glories of Iranian kings such as Cyrus, Darius, Xercès, Artaxercès, Cosroès, and Sapor have been presented in various on-the-scene tragedies. In these tragedies, several themes such as Iranian glory, courage, valor, truth, purity, and generosity have been exhibited.
    2. Stories and legends of Turkish and Arab figures such as Bajazet tragedy, Racine and Sadegh dramas (Zaire), Mahomet, and Voltaire. The themes of such tragedies are derived from the traditions, customs, and adventures of the courtiers’ of the Umayyad, Abbasid, and Ottoman empires which implicitly reflect their philosophical ideas for combatting prejudice and superstitions, as well as promoting religious tolerance.
    Section III – The East and Classical Comedies
    With the publication of French travelers’ writings about the East as well as the translation of popular Eastern books and stories (e.g. the translation of Thousand and One Nights into French), classical comedy writers found access to an abundance of pristine classic themes in order to create new comedies such as Bourgeois gentilhomme, Molière, Théâtre de la Foire, and Le Sage.
    In such comedies, Eastern anecdotes and legends, as well as funny scenes were exhibited by presenting the customs, rituals, and ceremonies of the East and introducing ridiculous characters, buffoons, and clowns in well-written stories. These comedies were full of daydreaming, jokes, humor, irony, and criticism, and the Chinese traditions were mixed with Persian culture, Ottoman customs, Arab or Hindu religions, Italian humor, and French customs. In this way, the drama was made much more graceful and attractive. Along with the formation and spread of opera-comic plays or lyrical theater early in the 18th century, themes and the subject of eerie tales, disaster stories, richness of place in Eastern anecdotes as well as customs and sumptuous ceremonies, passionate and fiery and love of the extremely pathetic Asia led the play writers to use such characteristics for their cosmetic specification which had to be imaginative, surprising, stunning, and impressive to attract the spectators’ attention. Such plays include Reine de péris, Zorodstre, Cahusac and Ramea, Aben Saîd, l’empereur des Mongol, and Le Blanc.
    Conclusion A brief investigation of some of the works of classical French authors indicates that they have adopted and utilized various topics and contents from Eastern sources, as well as providing new and even imaginative visuals and different aspects of civilization to entertain their audience. They also managed to increase the awareness of society members regarding the existing social, cultural, political, and religious challenges which had to undergo significant reforms.
    Keywords: the topics, themes of the east, the culture, literature of the east, French classic dramaturgy, French
  • Roya Letafati, Bita Akbari Pages 67-82
    Introduction In this paper, the problems underlying the translation of mystical texts will be discussed. More specifically, the book ‘Abhar al- ‘ashiqin (Loyal Lovers’ Jasmines) written by Ruzbehan Baqli Shirazi (1128-1209), an important mystique sufi poet and a famous Persian philosopher, and its translated version by Henri Corbin (1903-1978), a French philosopher, translator and orientalist, are selected as our sources of investigation. Abhar al- ‘ashiqin (Loyal Lovers’ Jasmines) is a poetic text that not only leads us to a better comprehension of Iranian soul and studies, in particular, sufism, but also offers a good source for examining problems concerning translation of mystical documents because this book has been translated in various languages including French.
    1. In general, Mysticism is full of images. In order to explain them we need a large quantity of language features, including style figures, allegories, metaphors, comparison, images, or descriptions which make abstract meanings clearer to understand.
    2. Mystical text is a type of imaginative text and the translator has to translate this imaginative text to another language, and that is exactly the difficult point.
    3. A professional translator of mystical texts should be familir with mystical texts’ particularities, mystical terminology, the metaphors, the comparisons, the special conventions of mystical texts, different models of mystic imaginational world and surely a personality in harmony with these texts.
    The main goal of this text is to analyze the problems a translator face while translating mystical texts or poems; the rhetoric, lexical, sociocultural, stylistic skills which are necessary in his work. So in this text as we read translation of Baqli’s work, we will analyze the difficulties of this type of texts.
    Methodology For better understanding the subject, first, we are going to give a description and a definition of mysticism and anything necessary for well understanding the mystical atmosphere.
    Then we will present the author of the source book, Ruzbehan Baqli Shirazi and the translator Henry Corbin, This work is considered as a descriptive, comparative and analytic research. After that, we present the mystical texts’ particularities and the translator’s necessary skills, and then we will analyze the corpus.
    Discussion If we compare mystical texts’ translations and other types of translations, we understand that the loss of words and definition and the complexity of this genre of text is more than all other types. This is because of the origins of mystical texts which come from a direct and immediate experience with endless spiritual principles. Sometimes the origins are from unusual experiences of ecstasy, levitations or visions. The most difficult problem that we faced during this research was finding proper equivalents for specialized words which exist in this field. Finding the explicit and implicit sense of words, phrases and metaphors is a time consuming activity for the translator and this difficulty can sometimes make the text untranslatable; no need to say the translator has used elongation in many parts for translating a word or a phrase.
    Conclusion After studying the translation of "Abhar-al-asheghin" we find that translating mystical texts is a very difficult work to do, which requires deep empathy of the translator with this type of text.
    The translator of mystical texts should gain different skills like all other professional translators. These skills contain sufficient proficiency in cognitive language sources used by today specialists, specific conventions which exist in mystical texts as well as terminology to be able to adapt the translation with subjects mentioned by author. But there is no doubt that there are always obstacles such as translation loss, respecting the rhythm of the text, word prolongation, metaphor's translation, repetition and fidelity to the text that the translator faces. The point which has been studied in this article is the study of mystical texts especially rhythmic texts of " Baqli Shirazi 's textes" to see how translatable they are in another language like French. It seems that the mystique translation needs more cognitive try and a complete stock of vocabulary for both languages: The target language and the source language.
    Keywords: problems of translation, the translation of the mystical texts, mystical literature, Ruzbehan Baqli Shirazi, Abhar-al-asheghin
  • Gholam Reza Tajvidi, Parvaneh Maazallahi Pages 83-104
    Introduction The time period between 1320S.H. /1941A.D. and 1345S.H. /1966A.D. has been considered as a momentous time span characterized by political upheavals and the appearance of diverse political tendencies in the contemporary history of Iran. In this regard, translators as social agents who were strongly interconnected with social contexts drew influences from these political upheavals and tendencies, on the one hand, and affected them, on the other hand. Deposition of Reza Shah in the beginning of 1320sS.H./ 1940sA.D. And also coup d’état in 1332S.H./ 1953A.D. Had tremendous repercussions in both social space and cultural productions in a way that different fields of activity like publication were transformed and profoundly impacted upon practices of translators as cultural producers who were situated within such a field.
    Theoretical Framework To investigate translators’ behavior as situated in the publication field during a twenty-five-year time span between 1320S.H. /1941A.D. and 1345S.H. /1966A.D. the present study heavily relied on the theory of sociology of cultural productions as formulated by Pierre Bourdieu in 1979. In this regard, habitus and field as two key concepts of this theory had been adopted to shed light on the influences drawn from developments in the field of publication by translators. In other words, publication field was remolded as a field endowed with hierarchical order, autonomy, social reproduction, and constant struggle in accordance with how Bourdieu conceptualizes formation of a given field. Meanwhile, translators’ behavior was reframed based on the concept of habitus as being subordinate to the field of publication, on the one hand, and contributory to the field of cultural production, on the other hand. Consequently, structured and structuring aspects of habitus, as emphasized by Bourdieu, were brought to the fore. It merits attention that political events like the oust of Reza Shah, establishment and dissolution of Toode party, and coup d’état in 1332S.H. /1953A.D. were formulated with respect to the concept of the field of power which dominated any other fields of practice as publication and cultural productions.
    Metodology This study falls into the category of conceptual studies, because it focuses on better understanding of the concept of translatorial habitus in relation to the field of publication. Furthermore, documentary analysis as a research method which is widely applied in sociological studies has been concentrated on to analyze the research data. Concerning this, archival data like interviews done with eminent translators and editors pursuing translation and editing career during the specified time period as well as documents and historical evidence have been consulted with. Meanwhile, bibliography of translated books presented in the specified time period was specially taken into account. Apart from these, different historical information concerning sociohistorical ambience of the time period under study was taken up to elaborate on the field of power as the first level of a Bourdieu Sian analysis. Then, the influences of the field of power upon the field of cultural production were brought to the fore. Afterwards, the subfield of book publication as situated within the field of cultural production subordinate to the field of power was analyzed with respect to four functioning mechanisms underlying the formation of a given field. As the last level, the ever-changing structure of the subfield of book publication was related to the translators’ behavior from the lens of translatorial professional habitus.
    Results and Discussion The reign of Pahlavi II culminated with development of the field of cultural production due to the freedom provided for journalists, publishers, and other cultural producers as translators. With respect to the field of publication, the change of the foreign language recognized as the state’s second language from French to English, technological improvements on printing, removal of censorship and surveillance on published materials, increase of literate individuals, etc. contributed to some changes in the field of publication. However, unfavorable economic conditions as well as ascendancy of journals and newspapers hindered the progress of book publication subfield from an ill-formed field of practice to an autonomous one. Consequently, translatorial habitus drawn meager influences from this field, rather, dominated it in terms of what cultural productions were offered to the marketplace as well as how they were produced. However, coup d’état in 1332S.H./1953A.D. brought up dramatic changes in the field of power which focused on the alteration of the field of cultural production in accordance with an acculturation policy based on which Russian socialist culture was to be substituted with American culture. Such an acculturation policy which was strictly pursued by the regime ended in establishment of state run publication institutes like Incorporation of Translation and Publication of Books and Franklin Institute during 1330s S.H./1950s A.D. It merits attention that the former was patronized by Pahlavi Foundation and the latter was financially supported by the American government. Due to the initiatives made by such institutes, the subfield of book publication was codified and transformed to an autonomous well-structured subfield. Consequently, translators lost their dominant position in this subfield and their habitus turned to a more regulated one.
    Conclusions and Suggestions This study has pointed to the conclusion that translation practice is subordinate to the ambience of the field of power, in the first place, and to the field in which translators are situated, in the second place. Hence, as the field of power provides opportunities for the formation of well-structured fields, translatorial habitus orients towards further submission to the given fields. However, in ill-formed fields of practice which are devoid of codification processes as conceptualized by Bourdieu, translators are endowed with a dominant translatorial habitus. In the case of publication field under study, it appears that development of publication field from an ill-formed field of practice to a well-structured one brought about considerable changes in translatorial habitus, because translators’ behavior was regulated based on new requirements, and translators were placed in a dominated position as compared with publishers. In line with this, eminent publishers enjoyed the privilege of choosing works to translate and also controlling the quality of translation products. Meanwhile, developments of the field of publication heavily relied on the improvements made in the field of cultural production.
    Keywords: Field of publication, Field of power, Field of cultural productions, Translatorial habitus, Pierre Bourdieu
  • Roya Abbas Zadeh, Azra Ghandeharion, Zohreh Taebi Pages 105-121
    Introduction Adaptation studies, as a new branch in comparative studies, has been subject to various reviews and criticisms. Although the negative attitude of Iranian directors towards adaptations as a secondary profession has been ameliorated nowadays, there are still many directors who try to avoid adaptations. As one of the most recent Iranian adaptations of western literary works, Mosaffa’s “The Last Step” [Pelle-ye Akhar, 2012] is based on Joyce’s (1882-1941) “The Dead” (1992) and Tolstoy’s (1828-1910) “Death of Ivan Ilych” (1886). However, this film adaptation is mostly based on Joyce’s short story, rather than Tolstoy’s novella. Thus, this paper will explore the changes in the narration of the short story and Mosaffa’s adaptation. “The Last Step” is concerned with the life of a high-conflict couple, Khosro and Leyli. The movie starts with Leyli’s incessant laughter after the death of her husband and the audience will gradually find out the cause of this laughter her and emotional detachment. “The Dead” also narrates the story of the conflict and emotional detachment of a couple. Nonetheless, the linear, third person, omniscient narration of the short story turns into the nonlinear narration of Mosaffa’s adaptation. The movie is narrated through the narrative voice-overs of the two main characters (Leyli and Khosro) though Khosro is more authoritative in his narration. The findings of this study show that the (un) conscious effects of a male adapter on narration has resulted in the changes in narration.
    Methodology The current study is qualitative in nature. Benefitting from Gerard Genette’s ideas about focalization, this paper investigates the changes applied to narration in the shift from the written text to the movie. The signifimnace of these shifs and modifications are also discusseded and analaized. Introducing the three types of focalization (i.e., external, internal, and zero) as well as the four different types of narrative, based on the narrator’s level and relation to the story (i.e., extradiegetic-heterodiegetic, extradiegetic- homodiegetic, intradiegetic-heterodiegetic, and intradiegetic-homodiegetic), Genette’s theory of focalization provides us with an appropriate tool to compare the literary work with its adaptation through a narratological viewpoint. The aim of this comparison is to reveal the significance, causes, and consequences of these narratological changes in “The Dead” and “The Last Step”.
    Discussion Usually, in the move from a novel to a film, the increase in the visual dimension and the decrease in the aural dimension are expected. However, the two narrative voices express the emotions, decisions, past experiences, and intentions of the characters in Mosaffa’s “The Last Step”. The narrator is not an omniscient one and each character’s feelings are expressed through another character’s narrative voice, while the narrator of “The Dead” is a third person omniscient narrator, who is aware of all characters’ emotions, feelings, and past experiences. The narrator does not interfere with the storyline and he is aware of all characters’ feelings and experiences almost equally; also, he is not a character in the story, thus one can call this narrator heterodiegetic. On the other hand, the film adaptation is narrated through the voice-overs of its two main characters. The male character is privileged over the female one. Even the female narrator mainly describes the male character’s feelings, rather than her own. Therefore, one can call the narrative of this movie as homodiegetic. Furthermore, based on Genette’s focalization types, the omniscient narrator of “The Dead” is close to zero focalization and that of “The Last Step” is close to internal focalization, in which one or two of the characters narrate the story.
    Besides, based on Genette’s discussion over the different levels of narration, Khosro’s narrative voice recounts the story of his alienation from his wife and his death, in which the narrative voice of Leyli plays the role of a narrator. Thus, his narrative is one level higher than that of Leyli and is considered as extradiegetic-homodiegetic. Yet, Leyli’s narrative, who mostly recounts Khosro’s story except in the scene of her confession, is called intradiegetic-heterodiegetic.
    Conclusion The findings of this study show that the third person omniscient narrator of “The Dead” turns into the first person narrative voices of the two main characters in the movie. Thus, the extradiegetic-homodiegetic narrative voice of Khosro, which narrates his own story, is one level higher than Leyli’s intradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrative voice. Therefore, while it seems that both these male and female characters have narrative voices, it is Khosro, who plays the main role in attracting the audience’s attention, winning their sympathy, and having the higher level of narrative voice. One can conclude that the (un)conscious effects of a male adapter on narration has resulted in the marginalization of female role and brought audience’s sympathy with the passive male protagonist of this movie, Khosro. Despite the complex narration of the movie, the change in narration has made the characters’ recognition easier for the audience.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Narratology, Focalization, The Last Step, The Dead