فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Sohrab Shahzadi, Parisa Azimi Pages 37-38
  • Mansoureh Hashemi, Alireza Zali Pages 39-45
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifarious neurodegenerative disorder that leads to cognitive impairment and dementia in late adult life. Pathology hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease were observed intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein. According to pathology of this disease, abundant studies were performed with focused on pharmacological therapeutics over the last two decades. Current treatments for AD are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil) and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine) that can decrease the progression of the disease. In this review, authors will discuss the various aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic strategies of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-beta, neurofibrillary tangles, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
  • Farzad Ashrafi, Abdolnasser Rostami, Mehran Arab Ahmadi, Behdad Behnam Pages 46-50
    Background and
    Purpose
    Cognitive impairment (CI) is one of the most notable disabilities of Parkinson’s disease that is associated with lower quality of life. Early detection of CI is therefore very important for these patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive function and the metabolic data from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the patient suffering with Parkinson’s disease.
    Methods
    Totally, 45 patients with Parkinson’s disease were used in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on scales for outcome from Parkinson cognition (SCOPA-COG) test. Patients were classified as non-cognitive impairment (NCI; n=15), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=15) and dementia (PDD; n=15). All subjects underwent MRI and 1H-MRS techniques and metabolic changes such as NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios, which were measured in the left hippocampal area of the brain.
    Results
    The mean and standard deviation of the NAA/Cr ratio in the three cognitive groups (NCI, MCI, PDD) were (2.51±0.037), (2.50±0.033) and (2.47±0.025), respectively. ANOVA test showed a significant difference in the three groups. Furthermore, the Scheffé test showed a significant difference between patients in the MCI and PDD groups (p=0.01). There was no significant difference between the non-cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment groups (p=0.54). No significant difference was found in NAA/Cho ratio (p=091).
    Conclusion
    A decreasing NAA/Cr ratio has influence on cognitive function and the development of severe cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson suffering patients. Furthermore, 1H-MRS determinant can be useful to evaluate cognition in Parkinson patients.
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cognitive function, Parkinson's disease
  • Michael Kuo Pages 51-56
    Background
    This study examines semantic encoding in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. Subsequent memory effect (SME) is used as an index of successful memory encoding. Typically, SMEs are positive at P550 and late positive component (LPC) time windows.
    Methods
    Ten MCI participants were recruited to complete the ERP experiment. A study and recognition paradigm was employed. Participants determined whether the item referred to by the Chinese character was able to produce sound at study phase and whether the Chinese character was studied at recognition phase while having their electroencephalograms recorded.
    Results
    Behaviourally, correct percentage at study was 81% and reaction time was 998.5±325.5. Correct percentage at recognition was 61% (d prime=0.87±0.7). Significant SMEs were not identified in P550 and LPC windows.
    Conclusion
    The behavioural and ERP results showed extensive cerebral deficits in MCI when performing semantic encoding. These deficits may be associated with assessing semantic memory and binding new information with long-term memory store.
    Keywords: Event-related potentials, subsequent memory effect, mild cognitive impairment
  • Parisa Azimi, Shirzad Azhari, Edward C. Benzel, Sohrab Sadeghi, Hossein Nayeb Aghaei, Hassan Reza Mohammadi, Hamid Reza Khayat Kashani, Shervin Matin-Rohani Pages 57-62
    Background
    The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between (1) the Thoracolumbar Injury Severity and Classification score (TLICS) and sensory scores and motors scores of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Scale (surgical outcome); correlation between preoperative cross-sectional area (CSA) and the ASIA; (2) to establish a correlation between the TLICS and the CSA in thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fracture (TLBF) patients and (3) the evaluation of surgical outcome based on the ASIA scale and its relationship to TLICS.
    Methods
    This was a prospective study and 67 patients (mean age 30.3 ± 8.1 years; 18.2% were female) were assessed. The TLICS was determined and TLICS > 4 was hypothesized to be consistent with an indication for surgery. Nerve injury was assessed according to ASIA. The CSA and the ASIA were measured at two points in time: pre- and postoperative assessments. The surgical outcome and correlations were assessed.
    Results
    Patients were followed an average of 26.2 months. ASIA sensory scores and motor scores were improved significantly at last follow-up. No patient experienced neurological worsening during follow-up. No significant correlations were observed between the ASIA and the CSA at either the pre- or postoperative periods. However, there was a statistically significant correlation between TLICS and the ASIA motor and ASIA sensory (P
    Conclusion
    The findings confirm that a TLICS > 4 may be applied in the decision-making process for surgery for TLBF. However, the CSA is not useful for decision making for this pathology.
    Keywords: Cross-sectional area, TLICS, Thoracolumbar, lumbar burst fractures, AIS, Outcome
  • Mehdi Abdossalehi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi Pages 63-71
    Background
    This study investigates electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in positive, negative and neutral emotion states.
    Method
    It is assumed that the brain draws on several independent sources in any activity that are observable by independent component algorithm (ICA). To overcome the problem of ill-posedness of extracted components from ICA algorithm, first these sources are sorted out by Shannon entropy and then based on these sources, the features of trapping time and determinism of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) are extracted as representative of determination.
    Result
    The results show that the degree of determinism of sorted sources related by emotions is significantly different over time and in three positive, negative and neutral states. The degree of determinism increases in neutral, positive and negative emotional states respectively.
    Keywords: Emotion, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA), Determinism, trapping time
  • Nasrin Emami Naeini, Said Nouroozi Javinani, Mehrdad Arabestani Pages 72-76
    Background and
    Purpose
    Children as the most vulnerable refugees need a special care to improve their psychological-social capabilities and physical health. It seems that life skills education based on essential psychological and social skills is needed for a healthy life and is one of the most important teaching requirements for these children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three developed life skills education packages (for the grade one, four and five students) that carried out among Afghan children refugees in Rafsanjan camp in Iran.
    Methods
    All 7-13 years old children attended in a three-month life skill training course. During the course the occurrence frequency of ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ behaviors in four categories of hygiene, aggression, respectfulness and psychological difficulties were recorded by the coaches as well as the parents through a structured observation checklist. Semi-structured interviews with the parents and coaches also applied.
    Results
    Comparisons of teachers and coaches’ reports between first and third month in all categories using Chi-Square test were statistically significant in all grades (P-value
    Conclusion
    It seems that for making long lasting improvements, a long term continuous education is required to let the learned skills get stablished in the students through everyday real life situations.
    Keywords: Empowerment, Life skills, Health Education, Mental Health
  • Sadegh Izadi, Mehdi Karimian Pages 77-78
    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristic increased protein without pleocytosis i.e., albuminocytologic dissociation is seen. But cases of GBS with significant CSF lymphocytosis have rarely been reported. Here, we present a 38-year-old man with dysarthria, dysphagia, bilateral facial palsy, and limb weakness with the diagnosis of GBS. Nerve Conduction Study confirmed the diagnosis but interestingly in the CSF study increased protein and lymphocytic predominant pleocytosis were found. Other possible differential diagnoses were ruled out by appropriate paraclinical studies. The patient underwent treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and showed favorable response.
    Keywords: Guillain-Barre syndrome, lymphocytosis, cerebrospinal fluid