فهرست مطالب

Galen Medical journal - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2017
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/04/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Fatemeh Ahmadi, Rashin Giti, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani, Farhad Mohammadi * Pages 70-80
    Being a connective tissue, the cartilage is present in almost all parts of the body like the rib cage, joints, nose, and ear. Its essential function in body is to serve as a cushion between the joints and prevent the bones friction against each other. In some areas like the rib cage, the cartilage keeps the bones together and creates a shockproof area. Osteoarthritis and traumatic rupture of the cartilage are among the related diseases. Damaged cartilage tissue can be only limitedly repaired because of the low density of chondrocyte and slow metabolism in the tissue. Previous studies achieved different outcomes for the joint-preserving treatment programs such as debridement, mosaicplasty, and perichondrium transplantation; however, the average long-term result is still unsatisfactory. The restriction of clinical success is mainly attributed to the long time required in most treatments for the regeneration of new cartilage at the site of defect. The mechanical conditions of these sites makes the repair process unflavored of the original damaged cartilage. Such problems can be permanently treated by using tissue engineered cartilage. Hence, the limitations can be defeated by using appropriate scaffolds, cell sources, and growth factors. This review dealt with the advances in cartilage tissue engineering, with the focus on cell sources, scaffold materials and growth factors used in cartilage tissue engineering.
    Keywords: Cartilage, Cell Sources, Growth Factors, Scaffold Materials, Tissue Engineering
  • Maryam Baghbeheshti *, Mohammad Zolfaghari, Regina RUckerl Pages 81-94
    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles from various sources. Fine PM or PM2.5 is defined as a mass with a size of less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter and has a large contribution to the world increasing annually. Iran is a developing country set in the Middle East that is not secured from this pollutant mainly due to its industries, desert dust and the travel of dust from the neighboring countries. Poor air quality caused by PM2.5 can induce multiorgan dysfunction including cardiovascular disease, respiratory impairment, and other adverse effects that lead to morbidity and even death. Since PM2.5 is a risk factor for health problems, the comprehension of the detailed molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 including oxidative stress and inflammation would be beneficial. The aim of this review is gathering information from epidemiological studies about the health effects of this pollutant in Iran for the sake of a healthy environment and proposing solutions which can be applied to every country that is concerned about the air quality.
    Keywords: Particulate Matters, Air Pollution, Health Effects
  • Reza Ajudani, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj, Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh, Ali Agha Alishiri * Pages 95-101
    Background
    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular hemorrhages in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) undergoing 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) taking aspirin as an antiplatelet agent versus those who did not take any aspirin.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 180 patients (mean age of 60.5 ± 9.9 years) with PDR referred to Baqiyatallah University Hospital in 2016 were enrolled in aspirin and control groups each group containing 90 patients. All participants underwent a standard 20-gauge diabetic PPV. Laboratory data, including fasting blood sugar, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin, bleeding time, and platelets count, and intraoperative data, including bleeding and its type (retinal, subretinal, vitreous, conjunctival, sub-conjunctival, and hyphema), were collected and analyzed using SPSS16 software.
    Results
    Bleeding occurred in 56 patients. There were no significant differences in the incidence of bleeding between aspirin (33 patients) and control groups (23 patients) (P= 0.1). Likewise, no significant differences were observed in the type of bleeding between the two groups (P= 0.11). Age, gender, hypertension, type of operation, and laboratory findings were not significant between patients with and without bleeding.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicated that taking aspirin is not associated with a higher risk of post-PPV surgery bleeding in comparison with the control group. Additionally, the type of bleeding did not significantly differ between the two groups. Hence, there is no urgent need for discontinuation of this medication in diabetic patients undergoing PPV
    Keywords: Aspirin, Diabetic Retinopathy, Eye Hemorrhage, Vitrectomy
  • Maryam Azimi, Mohammad Javad Zahedi *, Mitra Mehrabani, Haleh Tajadini, Farzaneh Zolala, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Rasool Choopani, Fariba Sharififar, Ali Asadipur, Mehdi Hayatbakhsh, Bijan Ahmadi Pages 102-109
    Background
    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common digestive diseases affecting patients’ quality of life (QOL). Recently, improving the patients’ QOL is being considered as an important therapeutic objective; several studies have shown that traditional medicine is influential for FD patients improvement. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effectiveness Iranian traditional medicine remedies on the QOL of patients with FD.
    Materials And Methods
    Through double-blind randomized clinical trial, our research patients were categorized into three groups followed as AT group(Apium graveolence 250 mg and Trachyspermum copticum 250 mg, twice daily), placebo (cornstarch, 500 mg, twice daily), and (omeprazole 20 mg, daily)for a duration of one month and followed up for another one month. The patients’ QOL was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index short-version questionnaire at the baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment onset.
    Results
    The patients QOL of AT group after 4 weeks was found to have improved significantly in comparison to those of omeprazole and placebo groups. The statistical difference between omeprazole and placebo groups was not significant. After 8 weeks, the difference between AT and placebo groups remained significant whereas the same was not clear between AT and omeprazole.
    Conclusion
    Regarding our results, AT remedies could prove the FD patients’ QOL more than omeprazole or placebo; therefore, it can be used as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of the disease.
    Keywords: Functional Dyspepsia, Apium Graveolence, Carum Copticom, Quality of Life
  • Azadeh Khalatbari Limaki, Behnam Farhoudi *, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Saeed Safari Pages 110-117
    Background
    High rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for the optimized outcome. The present study aimed to determine the rate of retention in ART programs and its’ associated factors in a triangular clinic.
    Materials And Methods
    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted on people living with HIV receiving care in a triangular clinic affiliated with Iranian research center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran, Iran, from 2003 to 2008. Baseline variables, duration of ART, and cause of treatment discontinuation were gathered using patients’ profile and analyzed by SPSS 21 and STATA 11.
    Results
    Three hundred and seventeen cases with the mean age of 37.69 ± 10.63 (2–76) years were included (83.9% male). Treatment discontinuation had happened in 142 (45.2%) cases. Cause of treatment discontinuation was death in 20 (13.7%) cases and personal preference in 126 (86.3%) individuals. 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 60 months retention rates were 81.1%, 58.4%, 48.3%, 35.6%, 22.9%, and 6.3%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between treatment retention and female sex (OR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.59–10.56, P=0.003), addiction/drug use (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21– 0.77, P=0.007), and lamivudine zidovudine indinavir treatment regimen (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46 -0.87, P= 0.005).
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings, male sex, addiction/drug use, and type of treatment regimen were among the most important risk factors for ART attrition in HIV-infected patients.
    Keywords: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Withholding Treatment, Survival Rate
  • Baclofen Reversed the Nicotine-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior: A Beneficial Therapeutic Strategy for Smoking Cessation Aid
    Batool Ghorbani Yekta*, Mobina Kordeforushani, Hoda Aryan Pages 118-127
    Background
    Nicotine dependence is the most widespread form of substance abuse. Anxiety is one of the prominent symptoms in withdrawal syndromes of nicotine. Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) is a principle area which participates in several behavioral responses (e.g., anxiety), and several studies reported that receptors are involved in the modulation of anxiety. This study was aimed to examine the interaction of baclofen and nicotine on anxiety behavior in NAc shell.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats weighing between 220 and 250g were used. The guide cannulas were implanted bilaterally into the shell of the NAc. Nicotine (0.025, 0.05 and 0.5 μg/rat) and baclofen (0.25, 0.5 and 2 μg/rat) and the co-administration of nicotine (0.025, 0.05 and 0.5μg/ rat) with baclofen (0.25 μg/rat) were microinjected through the infusion cannula. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) was used to evaluate the anxiety-like parameters, and all data were recorded and analyzed.
    Results
    Intra-NAc administration of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) decreased anxiety (P
    Conclusion
    Our result indicated that GABAergic agonist baclofen in ineffective doses could reverse the effects of nicotine on anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, our result suggested that enhancement of GABA transmission through activation of GABA-B receptors on NAc shell could reverse nicotine anxiety-related effects. It may be a strategy of treatment for smok- ing cessation aid.
    Keywords: Nicotine, Baclofen, Smoking Cessation Aid, GABA-B Receptor Agonists
  • Job Satisfaction and Stress Levels of Nurses Working in Oncology Wards; A Multicenter Study
    Soheila Zareifar, Sezaneh Haghpanah *, Zahra Beigipour, Samaneh Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Molavi, Majid Naderi Pages 128-135
    Background
    Oncology nurses work in a stressful environment. Subsequently, stress cause job dissatisfaction and mental exhaustion. The aim of our study was to determine the most im- portant factors that affect satisfaction and stress levels among the nurses in the oncology ward.
    Materials And Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study has been performed on 156 working nurses of three Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences (Hormozgan, Zahedan, and Shiraz) during a period of 3 months from January to March in 2015. The values of satisfaction and stress levels were assessed by a modified translated version of McCloskey/Mueller Sat- isfaction Scale questionnaire.
    Results
    The highest percentage of dissatisfaction (unsatisfied and very unsatisfied) was respectively in the field of income (87.8%), occupational safety in nursing profession (78.2%), work environment and facilities (75.6%) and the relation between nursing and personal life (72.4%). The main areas of stress (very high and high) respective- ly wherein the field of impact of stress on personal life (84%), communication with patients (83.3%), stressful environment (82.7%) and using safe equipment in the workplace 74.4%).
    Conclusion
    Based on our results, the most common issues related to stress and dissatisfaction of nurses of oncology ward were determined as financial issues, occupational safety, stress- ful environment, and the impact of their work on the personal life. Managers and healthcare providers should be noticed in this regard and take into account these important issues by im- plementing appropriate interventions. Considering stress-reduction program, regular visits by psychologists and more vacation can also help to relieve their stress.
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Nursing, Occupational, Oncology, Safety
  • Maliheh Entezari *, Fereshteh Atabi Pages 136-144
    Background
    Biopolymer has been known to have compatibility; nontoxic nature and degradation behavior. Chitosan (CS) is being widely used in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications and serves as a drug carrier. Nanotechnology has emerged as tumor cell target therapy and increase drug bioavailability. One of the most common and important models of cancer in women is breast cancer, which is the fifth most common death reason. Silibinin (SIL) as a flavonolignan, has demonstrated anticancer effects against various human cancer cells, such as breast cancer.
    Materials And Methods
    Myristoylated CS (MCS) nanoparticles were prepared on the base of 9:1 ratio related to CS: Myristate and loaded with SIL, for the first time. Then in vitro loading and releasing capacity of nano drug were evaluated. The nanogel structure and its derivatives were characterized by different biophysical methods. The MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cell lines were incubated with 100, 150, and 200μg/ml of SIL and nanoSIL. Afterward cell cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Lethal dose 50 (LD50) or IC50 was measured by Pharm software.
    Results
    Compared to HUVEC as normal cells, the proliferation of MCF-7 cells were significantly inhibited (P
    Conclusions
    It seems the obtained MCS nanogel can play a real and important role as a suitable drug carrier with a high loading capacity to treat cancerous cells with the least side effect.
    Keywords: Chitosan, Myristoylated, Silibinin, Nanogel, Breast Cancer
  • Shiva Nemati *, Ebrahim Shahbazi, Reza Hajihosseini Pages 145-156
    Background
    A new research perspective for human neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling involves the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The development of robust protocols that yield adequate neural cell populations with definite regional identities were the prerequisites for these comparative studies.
    Materials And Methods
    We used small molecules cocktail to generate two neural progenitor cell (NPC) lines from hESCs as following: the first experimental group included Noggin, Dorsomorphin, CHIR99021 and A83-01(NDCA) and the second group composed of Noggin, Dorsomorphin, CHIR99021 and SIS3 (NDCS). To validate our findings, we expanded both cell lines for over 20 passages in vitro and checked for chromosomal stability, as well as expressions of neural and regional identity markers by immunofluorescence staining. Gene expression analysis was quantified by RT-PCR at different passages up to passage 20.
    Results
    Both cell lines proliferated in an adherent culture system in the presence of FGF2. They retained progenitor characteristics of NESTIN, SOX1, and PAX6 protein expression, formed rosette-like structures, and had the high neurogenic capacity. Importantly, the NPC populations in their first 10 passages expressed rostral markers (OTX2 and TH), and the next 10 passages (10-20) changed their specification toward the hindbrain where they expressed HOXA3and HOXB2, which correlated with a normal central nervous system development pattern.
    Conclusion
    These NPCs offer a new system to study human central nervous system development and disease modeling of specific neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords: Neural Progenitor Cells, Small Molecules, Regional Identity
  • Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi, Mojtaba Heydari *, Mohammad Reza Namazi Pages 157-159
    Background
    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) is a common, chronic and relapsing disorder caused by changes in the cutaneous microflora. This disease is called hozaz in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Topical application of Althaea officinalis L. in combination with vinegar has been traditionally recommended for treatment of this disease.
    Case Report: This paper presents long-term remission of resistant SD in a 32-year-old female patient with topical application of A. officinalis in combination with vinegar, as well as the TPM’s healthy lifestyle advice and dietary recommendations.
    Conclusion
    This remarkable clinical experience suggests that further research should be conducted on the effect of A. officinalis and TPM’s recommendations in the treatment of SD.
    Keywords: Seborrheic Dermatitis, Traditional Medicine, Althaea Officinalis, Dermatology
  • Role of Optic Nerve Fenestration as an Effective Salvage Therapy in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature
    Abolfazl Rahimi *, Kourosh Karimi Yarandi, Hoda Aryan Pages 160-165
    Background
    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon, unrecognized type of stroke mostly affecting young people. Although a headache is the most common clinical manifestation of CVT, neurological focal signs like diplopia and papilledema are also frequently reported in the pa- tients with such a problem. Currently, specific treatment for CVT involves anticoagulation or throm- bolytic therapy.
    Case Report: In this report, we described a 13-year-old female, who was referred to our clinic with a headache and progressive loss of vision due to increased intracranial pressure. Along with usual anticoagulant therapy, we performed the optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) to improve her vision. The patient visual acuity was improved, and after 11 months’ follow-up, no complication was detected.
    Conclusion
    The ONSF can be safe and beneficial in patients with CVT and who are in immediate danger of visual deterioration despite being treated by other means.
    Keywords: Cerebral Venous Thrombosis, Optic Nerve Fenestration, Headache, Thrombolytic Ther- apy