فهرست مطالب

Rehabilitation Sciences and Research - Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Elizabeth S. Norris, Emily Wright, Shannon Sims, Megan Fuller, Kurt Neelly Pages 77-84
    Background
    Range of motion is an essential component of the hip examination. Handling issues with the goniometer often create challenges when measuring hip passive range of motion (PROM). Recent generations of smartphones have emerged as an alternative instrument for the measurement of joint ROM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater, inter-rater and inter-instrument reliability of smartphone and goniometric hip PROM.
    Methods
    Two investigators measured hip PROM to a designated end position on 30 asymptomatic participants in a blinded within study design using two measurement methods, smartphone and goniometer. Relative reliability of smartphone and goniometric measurements of hip PROM was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute reliability of both measurement methods was assessed using paired t-tests, standard errors of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA).
    Results
    Relative reliability ICCs ranged from 0.47-0.99 (intra-rater), 0.05-0.99 (inter-rater) and 0.25 -0.97 (inter-instrument). Inter-rater differences of smartphone hip measurements were non-significant, however, significant differences were found for all inter-rater goniometric hip measurements (p
    Conclusion
    These findings support intra-rater reliability of both instruments when measuring hip PROM. Inter-rater reliability, however, was supported only for the smartphone. Due to systematic bias of inter-instrument measurements performed by one rater, caution should be used if the instruments are to be used interchangeably in order to quantify within session hip PROM.
    Keywords: Hip, Goniometer, Smartphone, Range of motion, Reliability
  • Farzaneh Yazdani, Mohsen Razeghi, Samaneh Ebrahimi Pages 85-90
    Background
    Due to the rotatory nature of the excessive subtalar pronation and the possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, changes of the free moment (FM) and changes of the extensor mechanism force are expected in hyper-pronated foot subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the FM applied on the lower extremity and the knee extensor mechanism force in subjects with flexible pronated feet.
    Methods
    Fifteen asymptomatic female subjects (21.32±1.66 y, 56.30±6.08 kg, 159±6.3 cm) participated in the study. Excessive subtalar pronation was determined by measuring the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP) in the frontal plane during weight bearing. A neutrally aligned foot was defined as having an RCSP between 2° of inversion and 2° of eversion. On the other hand, a flat foot had an RCSP of more than or equal to 4° of eversion. Both kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a six-camera motion analysis system and a single force plate. Three successful barefoot walking trials were recorded at self-selected speeds. The extensor mechanism force and the adductory component of the free moment (ADD FM) were calculated. The correlation between the ADD FM and the knee extensor mechanism force was examined using the Pearson correlation test.
    Results
    The Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the ADD FM and the extensor mechanism force (r=0.917, P
    Conclusion
    Excessive subtalar pronation, along with a possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, may affect the extensor mechanism force at the knee joint.
    From a clinical perspective, the possible biomechanical linkage between the knee and the foot complex in the physical examination and treatment of patients should be considered.
    Keywords: Subtalar Joint, Pronation, Free Moment, Extensor Mechanism Force
  • Ehsan Sinaei, Fahimeh Kamali, Ahmadreza Nematollahi, Zahra Etminan Pages 91-96
    Background
    Aging process can deteriorate the ability to maintain balance, specifically under dual-task conditions. Thus far, different methods of exercises therapy have been applied to improve balance performance of older adults. The present study was designed to compare the effects of two protocols of balance training on the quality of life (QoL) and balance performance in older adults with mild balance impairments.
    Methods
    Twenty-four older adults over 60 years old were allocated randomly into single-task (n=12) and dual-task (n=12) exercise groups. Single-task group received routine balance exercises, over a four-week period and dual-task group was treated by the same exercise program plus a cognitive task. QoL and balance status were assessed by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (FAB) questionnaires, before and after the interventions.
    Results
    After four weeks of training, balance performance and some factors of QoL improved significantly in both groups (p
    Conclusion
    Balance exercises, under both single- and dual-task conditions can improve the balance level and some aspects of QoL in older adults with mild balance impairments, with no priority of one group over another.
    Keywords: Older Adults, Falling, Balance Training, Quality Of Life, Dual-Task
  • Mohsen Razeghi, Elham Hamoule Pages 97-102
    Background
    Warm-up before a sport activity is the most common preventive measure to reduce the incidences and severity of injuries during sport activities. This study investigated the effects of modified warm-up on balance and knee function as compared to those of routine warm-up in athletes.
    Methods
    Twenty healthy athletes volunteered to participate in the study. At the beginning of the session, we evaluated the dynamic balance and the knee joint function variables by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and hop tests, and then the subjects did either modified or routine warm-up. Immediately after doing the warm-up, the dynamic balance and the knee joint function variables were assessed again. Each subject underwent both interventions in two sessions separated by at least 48 hours.
    Results
    Statistically significant improvements were measured for modified warm-up compared to routine warm-up in eight directions of SEBT and four hop tests. (A: p=0.0001, AL: p=0.005, L: p=0.002, PL: p=0.005, P: p=0.005, PM: p=0.0001, M: p=0.001, AM: p=0.001) (One-leg hop test for distance: p=0.007, triple hop test for distance: p=0.003, triple crossover hop for distance: p=0.004, and 6 meter timed hop test: p=0.0001(.
    Conclusion
    Modified warm-up showed greater impact on improving dynamic balance and some indicators of knee joint function in athletes, and it thereby provides more appropriate conditions for physical activity and reduces incidences of sport injuries.
    Keywords: Warm-Up, Dynamic Balance, Knee Function, Modified Warm-Up
  • Somayeh Kavousipor, Fariba Golipour, Mahshid Hekmatnia Pages 103-108
    Background
    With respect to the significance of toys, playing, and the home environment on children’s development, the present study investigates the relationship between gross motor and fine motor toys existing athome and in the home environment, withchild cognitive skills such as problem-solving, communication, and personal–social skills.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 140 mother–child couples (children between the ages of 18 and42 months of age) randomly selected from the healthcare centers of the city of Shiraz. Employing the questionnaire of the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR) and the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®, Third Edition (ASQ-3™), both of which have validity and reliability in Iran, the required data were collected,the relationship between children’s cognitive development was evaluated by ASQ, and the toys and the home environment evaluated by AHEMD-SR was calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient.
    Results
    Studying the relationships revealed that playing with toys related to gross movement stimulation have weak correlations with all three skills of theASQ considered in the present study, i.e.,communication(r= 0.218, p-value=0.001), problem solving(r= 0.168,p-value=0.02), andpersonal­–social skills(r= 0.187, p-value=0.04). Nevertheless, toys related to fine movement stimulation had very low correlations.In addition, the final score of the AHEMD-SR, including toys and other aspects of the home environment, indicate an important relationship with the personal­–social skill item of the ASQ (r= 0.367, p-value=0.02).
    Conclusion
    With regard to the findings of the present study, theinside-home space characteristic and playing with appropriate toys maymotivate the child’s cognitive development. Making parents and healthcare officials aware ofthe appropriate toys and the home environment, therefore, seems to be necessary.
    Keywords: Cognitive Skills, Toys, Child Development