- Volume:2 Issue:2, 2017
- تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/11
- تعداد عناوین: 7
Pages 231-232Chronic pain is a major public health problem worldwide (Croft, Blyth, & van der Windt, 2011). Globally, it has been estimated that 1 in 5 adults suffer from pain and that another 1 in 10 adults are diagnosed with chronic pain each year (Goldberg & McGee, 2011). As such Goldberg and McGee correctly suggested that the high prevalence and incidence of global chronic pain, its substantial and growing comorbidities, and its linkage with many social and economic determinants collectively provide ample justification for regarding pain as a public health priority (Goldberg & McGee, 2011).
A chapter by Foell in Oxford Textbook of Musculoskletal Medicine points out that social factors deserve much greater attention in the therapeutic encounter than is usually assumed. Sociosomatic medicine (that is the relationship between the body and the society in which the body is living) is the topic of this chapter; and it is believed that this is distinct from psychosomatic medicine (Hutson & Ward, 2015). In addition several previous studies found that there are a strong relationship between chronic pain and a number of psychosocial determinants such as socioeconomic status, education and race (Roth, Punch, & Bachman 2001, Fuentes, Hart-Johnson & Green, 2007, Green & Hart-Johnson, 2010).
Recently Newman et al reported interesting results from a study among low-income population. Using multiple regression analyses they evaluated the relationships among sociodemographic (sex, age, race, poverty status, literacy, and education level) and psychological (depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing) variables and pain interference, pain severity, and disability. They found that the experience of chronic pain within this low-income sample is better accounted for by psychological factors than sex, age, race, poverty status, literacy, and education level. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing mediated the relationships between age and pain variables, while pain catastrophizing mediated the effects of primary literacy and poverty status(Newman et al., 2017).
All these prove that medicalization of chronic pain could not help to overcome the problem unless we understand the psychosocial route of the pain. It seems that poverty, suffering from poor living condition, unfair job, and unequal opportunities all contribute to the ever-increasing condition of chronic pain in the globe. We should eliminate and tackle these social factors to be able to lessen suffering. However, this does not mean that we do not need treatment for chronic pain but to acknowledge that social inequalities are major cause for chronic pain.
Knowledge and Practice of Registered Nurses about Patient Safety after Cardiac Catheterization in Punjab Institute of Cardiology Hospital in Lahore, PakistanPages 233-238BackgroundCardiac Catheterization is a critical health status which requires standardized care policies, as well as it needs qualified and skilled health provider to obtain good outcome of management.This study aimed toassess the knowledge and practice of nurses regarding patient safety after cardiac catheterization.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Punjab Institute of cardiology located in Lahore, Pakistan from 01st December 2016 to 31st March, 2017. 171 female nurses through using convenient sampling technique were included in the study. Questionnaire with multiple choice was used to collect data. Likert scale for multiple choose questionnaires regarding knowledge and practice of the nurses were used Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.ResultsOut of 171 participants, all (N = 171) were female, most nurses had job experience of 2-5 years and 6-10 years, they were represented by 34.5% and 31.0% respectively. Mean of total knowledge was found good, when compared to mean of practice which was poor. This showed that nurses have good knowledge about post cardiac catheterization complication. It was found significant value of PConclusionThere was positive association between the knowledge and practice about patients safety after Cardiac Catheterization among Pakistanis registered nurses. Nurses those have proper knowledge and practice could help in rehabilitation of patients.Keywords: Registered Nurses, Knowledge, Practices, Patient Safety, Cardiac Catheterization
The Prevalence Rate of Comorbidities (Psychiatric Disorders, Liver and Neuromuscular Pains Diseases) in Patients with Substance Abuse Referred to Borzouyeh clinic in 2010-2016Pages 239-243BackgroundAddiction is considered as a social disease causes economic loss in family shared financial resources, increase in health care costs, and sexual dysfunctions in sexual relations. Due to the high prevalence rate and reduced age of addiction beginning, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence rate of comorbidities (psychiatric disorders, liver and neuromuscular diseases) in patients with substance abuse problems.
Methods and Material: In this descriptive study, 200 drug abusers referred to Borzouyeh clinic in Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire, liver function tests, and clinical records of the patients during 2010-2016. Data were analyzed through the analysis of Chi-square test at the significance level of PResultsData analysis was performed using chi-square test in SPSS software version 23. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between addiction and liver diseases, psychiatric disorders, and neuromuscular pains (pConclusionsThe correlations between opium and liver diseases, drug users and neuromuscular pains, and also crack using and psychiatric disorders were determined.Keywords: Addiction, Psychiatric disorders, Liver diseases, Neuromuscular pains
Pages 245-249BackgroundNowadays, Musculoskeletal disorders are of great concern in job health issues due to their prevalence rate which is relatively high among various occupations. Afghan immigrants working in Iran are exposed to the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders among Afghan refugees living in Tehran and Qom.Materials And MethodsThis study was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study population included 185 parents of Afghan refugee secondary and high school students living in Tehran and Qom in 2016. Data collection tool was Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13 for descriptive and statistical analysis.ResultsThe results showed that the highest prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders was related to the legs with 49.7%, and the lowest rate was related to the lower back with 17.3%. The results showed that the neck disorder was significantly associated with the three variables of age, sex, and education level; lower back disorder was associated with age, and education level; arm disorder was associated with age; and leg disorder was associated with the level of education (p .05)ConclusionAccording to the high prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders among Afghan refugees living in Iran, the need for educational interventions designed to reduce musculoskeletal disorders seems necessary.Keywords: Prevalence, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Afghan immigrants
The status of Tension Exercise Behavior among Iranian Office Workers based on Trans Theoretical ModelPages 251-256BackgroundExercise behavior is associated with decreased risks of mortality resulted from all causes. While people suffer from inactivity, doing stretching exercise as an important daily activity increases joints and muscles full range of motion and flexibility. This study aimed to assess the status of tension exercise behavior among Iranian office workers based on Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM).
Methods and Materials: In this cross sectional study, 420 office workers were selected randomly. The A self-reported questionnaire based on TTM and tension exercise behavior were used to collect data through self-reporting and analyzed by SPSS software version 16.ResultsTotally 420 office workers withmean age 37.12 ± 8.031 years were assessed. The results found that 11.7 % of the participants (N = 49) were in pre-contemplation stage, 32.9% (N = 138) in contemplation, 10 % (N = 42) in preparation stage, 24.5% (N = 103) in action stage and % 21 of participants (N = 88) were in maintenance stage. There were significant relationship between stages of TTM and tension exercise behavior.ConclusionsThis study indicated that about the majority of office workers were in contemplation and pre-contemplation stag regarding tension exercise. Therefore, designing proper educational intervention is strongly recommendedKeywords: Tension exercise, Change model, Office workers
Musculoskeletal Disorders and Associated Factors in the Students of Tarbiat Modarres University Dormitory in 2016Pages 257-263BackgroundStudies indicate that Muscularskeletal Disorders (MSD) are among the first ranks in terms of economic and healthcare cost of which back pain is in the first place.
Methods and Materials: This study was a cross-sectional study. The study participants were 100 students who were studying at the Tarbiat Modares University in the year of 2016. Data on back pain was collected via the standardized Quebec questionnaire. Quebec questionnaire contains 20 questions with 6 options by which pain intensity is ranked between 0 and 100. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS software version 16. In order to determine the status of musculoskeletal disorders and associated factors, descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used.ResultsTotally 100 students who living in Tarbiat Modares University with mean age of 26.1 ± 3.1 were participated in the study. According to the results, 84% of the students (N = 84) were single, 15% (N = 15) were married, and 1% of the students (N = 1) was divorced. Eighty seven percent of the students (N = 87) were studying in Master degree and 10% of the students (N = 10) were studying in PhD degree. The majority of the students (60%, N = 60) did not report any musculoskeletal pain. However, forty students (40%) suffering from MSD.ConclusionThis study was designed to investigate the musculoskeletal disorders among the students. As this study revealed a high percentage of the students were suffering from a kind of MSD, designing more researches to confirm these findings and also to design proper preventive intervention are strongly recommended.Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD), Students, University, Iran
Predicting Relaxation Behaviors in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Theory Based Study from Yazd, IranPages 265-269BackgroundOne approach to face with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is to perform Relaxation Behavior (RB). The aim of this study was to assess the factors predicting the behaviors of relaxation among the patients with CLBP in Yazd, Iran.MethodsThis descriptive study conducted on 182 patients with CLBP, referring to the pain clinic in Yazd, Iran from October to December 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a 14-item questionnaire regarding RB based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) were used to collect the required data. Data were fed into SPSS software v.23 and AMOS software v. 23 and analyzed using linear regression analysis procedures.ResultsA total of 182 individuals with mean age of 42/18 ± 13/12 years participated in this study. The results showed that attitude towards the behavior was a good predictor of intension to do RB (pConclusionBased on the results of this study, the health care providers are recommended to change RB beliefs of the patients suffering from chronic low back pain in order to persuade them to do regular relaxation behaviors to improve their pain.Keywords: Relaxation behavior, Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Attitude, Behavioral belief