فهرست مطالب

حفاظت و بهره برداری از منابع طبیعی - سال پنجم شماره 2 (1395)
  • سال پنجم شماره 2 (1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
|
  • F. Jafari Mianaei *, H.R. Asgari, M. Hosseinalizadeh Pages 1-17
    Background And Objectives
    In arid and semi-arid areas that ecosystems are extremely fragile, soil degradation is considered as a common phenomenon in these areas. By the application of modern farming systems, soil losses can be minimized. Agroforestry systems is an integrated management system that through some processes such as soil organic matter and nutrient increase, higher rates of soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation and reduction of greenhouse gases transformation from soil to atmosphere will lead to soil fertility and soil conservation improvement. In the recent years, many studies have been done about agroforestry but less attention has been paid to soil conservation in most of those researches. Therefore, this study has tried to focus on the role of trees and their roots in soil protection and fertility and soil erosion control in arid and semi-arid areas.
    Materials And Methods
    This is a reviewing research which is done by librarian method and using the results of several studies on agroforestry systems and its effects on fertility and conservation of soil.
    Results
    Evaluating the role of trees in increasing of farms fertility and protection of other ecosystems are important in Agroforestry. Agroforestry is defined as a land use system in which woody plants with crops, pastures and livestock are growing.
    Conclusion
    Agroforestry systems are implemented in most of agricultural fields and pastures for soil improvement, especially for food cycle and as a nutrient source for crops. Implementing modern agricultural systems can reduce soil fertility reduction and also the lack of soil required elements can be compensated by intercropping and mixed culture. Agroforestry provides the potential for control of erosion through tree canopy and litter. The results of studies on the implementation of agroforestry systems in order to protect, fertility and properties improvement of soil shows that this system is more cost effective in comparison to other Agricultural and rangeland systems in arid areas. Therefore the implementation of this system in arid zones is an appropriate strategy to enhance soil fertility. Moreover this system helps to improve the inhabitant’s livelihood in these areas. As a result, using the correct management principles of land use and implementation of modern agriculture, it is possible to achieve sustainable development in agriculture and pasture.
    Keywords: Soil erosion control, Sustainable development, Soil organic matter, nutrient
  • Y. Sepehri * Pages 19-31
    Background And Objectives
    Environment includes all the items that surround us, and is divided into natural and man-made environment. So the environment is a comprehensive subject and includes natural resources, human resources, economics and culture, social and political order. Nature created by God and as a sign of symptoms of divine, for man is God's creature creations and successor of God on earth. But, eventually he is Abdullah who is the Caliph of Allah. Of course he does not act contrary to God's commandments and without doubt the sentence of God and the laws of nature and the environment are to preserve nature and privacy.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study the "library method" were used, for examining the question. In this way, identify resources and their evaluations were discussed based on the verses and narratives, the amount associated with religious topics.
    Results
    In Islamic school monotheistic, environmental ethics, moral, Godcentered, because of monotheism, are based on a world where the God-centered world, it is the creator and maintainer. So taking care of the environment is to take care of things that belong to God.
    Conclusion
    At this writing, the environment and nature, especially forests and pastures are also from the perspective of Islam, the Holy Quran, Prophet, Imams and Islamic jurisprudence. The aim of this project is to explain the status of forests and rangelands in Islamic sources to humans, and prevent its destruction at the hands of human beings and restore this precious is as jewel earth.
    Keywords: Islam, the Environment, Environmental ethics, Reforestation, Nature in Islam
  • A.R. Ghomi Motazeh, R. Naghdi *, K. Mohammadi Sammani, E. Taghvaye Salimi Pages 33-52
    Background And Objectives
    Nowadays designers are designing forest roads using digital models for mountainous areas in order to save time and cost. On the other hand, using traditional methods due to low precision and speed are decreasing day to day. On the other hand the combining different layers of information require time and high precision. Special features of this research is using of road experts opinions in the northern departments of Natural Resources and using all the information needed to design forest Road in north of the country.
    Materials And Methods
    This research aims to introduce an appropriate method with emphasizing on technical and environmental perspectives for forest road planning using GIS and AHP methods. Therefore, 8 maps layer include slope, aspect, altitude, stock, soils type, hydrographic, geology and pedology were determined for the study area. Factors affecting the design by using GIS Software and were also extracted the constraints in the form of a friction layer. Then was performed weighting each of the parameters using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and was obtained coefficient of importance of each parameter using Expert Choice software and then was produced suitability map for road construction considering the coefficient of importance of parameters and its impact on information layers and overlapping them by GIS Software. Then the road was planned on the incorporated proposed map.
    Results
    The results of this study indicated that the existing roads are not suitable in density and coverage perspectives. Only 16% of existing roads were passed with high stability areas.
    Conclusion
    Taking into account all environmental and technical issues we can state that, third designed road in comparison with existing roads and other designed roads, has superior so it could proposed in this study as the best variant. But it cannot be claimed with absolute certainty that designed roads are fit perfectly in practice for the region, because in this kind of projects in addition to precision that the designer must be done, input maps should also have high accuracy.
    Keywords: Stability map, Forest roads, Road planning, AHP, GIS
  • A.R. Bahremand *, P. Hatami Golmakani Pages 53-59
    Background And Objectives
    Prediction of hydraulic behavior of rivers particularly determination of flow stages (water profile) during flood events is necessary for flood mitigation projects. Students usually start learning water profile calculation using simple examples of gradually varied flow in open channels. The objective of this study is to provide an educational computer program for water profile calculation in Excel.
    Materials And Methods
    The program meant to be simple and open source using Excel software abilities which is familiar to students. The excel program is equipped with a help and manual. One example was designed and solved by the excel program and the results were compared with the results of HEC-RAS professional program.
    Results
    The results show almost no difference. According to the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion the model efficiency is 0.997.
    Conclusion
    It can be concluded that the spread sheet program is an appropriate tool for educational purpose.
    Keywords: Water surface profile, Gradually varied flow, Standard step by step method, Henderson formula, Excel software
  • H. Khayrandish *, Y. Esmaeelpour, A.R. Kamali, O. Zakeri Pages 61-77
    Background And Objectives
    Sirik’s Khoor Azini forest stand is one of the most unique mangrove forests in Iran. This forest stand is the only mangrove forest in Iran which is made of two species (Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata) in mixed form so in this case this forest is unique.
    Materials And Methods
    Crown dimension of trees is of importance and is determined by measuring crown diameter and height. Measuring these parameters, as characteristics of trees, is useful for comparative comparison in different areas, determining the mean diameter and mean height of the crown, calculating canopy cover percentage, determining the level of correlation with other vegetative factors and correlation of these factors with the environmental conditions of the site. Tree canopy diameter was measured by tape measure in the way that two ends of the tape measure in horizontal mode were perpendicular to an imaginary line tangent to two ends of tree canopy. The crown height was measured the same way as tree height. Crown diameter and height were measured as to cm. Sample plots were selected randomly and the only human intervention in the study area was the movement of some watercrafts within the bay, anyhow the studied forest stands were natural and no management was implemented within them. The density of each stand determined based on the number of all trees per each sample plots and since Avicennia marina trees mostly are in form of coppice in their habitat therefore the density in Avicennia stands was calculated based on coppice groups.
    Results
    Results of vegetative characteristics measurement in the studied site showed that the mean total height of trees is 1.9 m which is 2.3 and 1.4 m for Avicennia and Rhizophora, respectively. Mean height and canopy diameters of all trees was 1.34 and 1.30 respectively. These parameters were 1.8 and 1.9 m for Avicennia marina and 0.8 and 0.6 m for Rhizophora mucronata. Highest Avicennia marina tree was 6.5 m and highest Rhizophora mucronata tree measured as 4.5 m. Mean percentage of canopy cover was 37.3% that fluctuates between minimum of 25.9% and maximum of 58.4%. The investigation of habitat condition showed that 72.1% of mangrove communities have a density of less than 50%.
    Conclusion
    Results revealed that mean density is 3600 tree per ha. Also the results indicated domination of Rhizophora mucronata based on the number of trees which was a little more than 50% of all trees per surface unit.
    Keywords: Vegetation composition change, Density, Canopy cover, Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata
  • V. Vaziri *, M.H. Aryaie Monfared Pages 79-93
    Background And Objectives
    Different cultures are reflected as collections of words in the languages. The meaning concepts of these words are undoubtedly related to the experience and career awareness of people in every region. Native specialized terminology in pastures exploitation accounts for a precious heritage, the role of which is of great importance for extension, maintenance and continuous exploitation of natural areas. In recent years, the approach of the society to traditional knowledge of range users and social dignity of their career, which not long ago was a pillar of strength and development of rural socio-economic structure, has been faded by the oblivion of these words. This study aimed to identify, extend and introduce the specific herding terminology among pastoral nomads of Shahsavan tribe in summer pastures of Sabalan Mountain, Ardabil Province.
    Materials And Methods
    The terms offered in this article are based on the results of a collaborative research conducted in the study area. Initially, some representatives were selected as informants and then, at the right moment, non-structural dialogue was conducted by communicating in a friendly way. Statements including words and sentences were recorded as keywords or detailed information and then conversations were analyzed at the appropriate time. This research started in June 2012 and ended in December of the same year. Overall, a number of 100 range beneficiaries in 13 groups (male and female) and 45 individual persons were interviewed. In this method deep and purposeful interviews were undertaken and information and vocabularies related to the exploitation of rangelands in the themes such as types of rangelands and vegetation cover, type of livestock grazing on rangelands, herding sites and buildings, naming and division of herds, words of herding-related career classes and terms related to weather and climate were collected and classified.
    Results
    Concluding the results of the respondents’ remarks showed that about one hundred practical words concerning pasture and range management could be identified which were common in conversation of Shahsavan nomads for the management, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
    Conclusion
    The results also showed that the connotation scope of this terminology is the product of observations accompanied by constant interest of the users during a long time that has been improved in a social regular structure. It not only affects the development of the vocabulary treasures but also influences the expansion of range science.
    Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Antimicrobial properties, Antibacterial papers, Methods of production, Sanitary papers
  • B. Behmanesh, M.R. Shahraki *, A. Badavam Pages 95-112
    Background And Objectives
    Rural people, nomads and rangeland users have achieved much knowledge about their environment by experience over the years; one of these cases is to identify the forages grazing by different types of livestock and their palatability. The present research aimed to identify forage plant species and their palatability in Dashlyboroun rangeland in Gonbad district.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study is an applied research and was done by analytical and survey method in 2014. The statistical community of this study is consisting of 35 pastoralists participating in range management. The research instrument in this research is questionnaire provided by fast core evaluation and with paying attention to 12 pastoralist’s viewpoints. After collecting questionnaires, data were classified and finally analyzed qualitatively.
    Results
    Results showed that cow and sheep with %78 and %65 have the most use from forbs while camel and sheep with %88 and %60 have the most use from growing and green shrubs. Camel and goat with %62 and %20 have the most use of dried shrubs. Results from joint use of livestock indicated that the group of camel-sheep has the most use from forbs with %48 while the group of camel-goat has the most use from shrubs with %64. Also, cow such as sheep grazes from all aerial parts of forbs but in case of shrubs they only graze the leaves.
    Conclusion
    Using years of experiences of rangeland users and pastoralists is very important for management planning and decisions making. Such information of pastoralists can lead to an appropriate and sustainable range management. For optimizing the usage of rangelands for livestock husbandry and herding it is necessary to know the quantity and quality of forages. Because by knowing the forage plants and estimating their palatability for different livestock in rangelands, herd grazing can be managed in range ecosystems. Therefore the experiences of rangeland users in addition to paying attention to ecological changes and number of livestock, not only will help in conserving rangeland ecosystems health, but also will improve the output of animal feed management.
    Keywords: Rangeland, Pastoralist, Local knowledge, Forage plants