فهرست مطالب

بلاغت کاربردی و نقد بلاغی - سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 3، بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 3، بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • حامد عبدی*، حسین وثوقی، بلقیس روشن، مهدی سمایی صفحات 9-26

    چکیده«استعاره» جوهر خلاقیت است و «حیرت» جوهر استعاره. انسان، در جاده شناخت، همواره با اطلاعات و داده های حسی و تجربی و کلامی مواجه است که به مدد توانایی های شناختی ذهن (مقوله بندی، توجه، پندارینگی، حافظه و...) دانش شخص از جهان را شکل می دهند. دانسته ها و تجربیات ما از جهان پیرامونمان بواسطه وجوه اشتراک و افتراق میان دریافتهای جدید و پیشین در قالب حوزه ها و قاب هایی دسته بندی می شوند که به نوبه خود سنگ بنایی می گردند برای تولید بواسطه ترکیب و یادگیری بواسطه قیاس. آنجا که آفرینشهای ما، اعم از کلامی و غیر کلامی، حاصل آمیزشهای ناآشنا، غیرقابل پیش بینی و یا بهتر بگوییم، «نشاندار» در آن بافت فرهنگی-اجتماعی باشند. جایی است که «استعاره» و قابلیت «استعارینگی» ذهن درگیر است. در این مقاله جستاری که منتج از پژوهشی در خصوص «ترجمه استعاره» است، پژوهشگران، پس از بررسی استعاره از نگاه سنتی و امروزین و تبیین کاستی های موجود، در صدد برآمده اند که تعریفی فراگیر از استعاره ارائه داده و به شیوه ای ساده و همه کس فهم فرمولی برای بازشناسی آن به دست دهند که زمینه را برای نوعی دسته بندی جدید از انواع استعاره فراهم می آورد.

    کلیدواژگان: زبانشناسی شناختی، استعاره، شرایط استعاری، ماتریس اطلاعات واژه
  • محمدرضا نجاریان*، ندا حاتم پور صفحات 27-42
    رفیع الدین محمد بن فتح الله واعظ قزوینی ، از علمای امامیه، ادبا، شعرا و فضلای قرن یازدهم هجری در زمان پادشاهی شاه عباس صفوی(1052-1077ه.ق) تا اوایل پادشاهی شاه سلیمان(1077ه.ق) است. وی در نظم و نثر ید طولایی داشته و از انواع فنون معانی، بیان، عروض و بدیع با اطلاع بوده است. در انواع علوم مثل ریاضیات، نجوم، فلسفه و طب نیز دستی داشته و در آثار خود از اصطلاحات این علوم بهره برده است هدف واعظ از تالیف ابواب الجنان در هشت باب یا مجلد به نیت هشت در بهشت بود تا هر کس به این کتاب تمسک جوید به واقع هشت در بهشت به رویش گشاده گردد. عبدالقاهر جرجانی بطور کلی بلاغت را بر دو قسم می داند: قسمی که مربوط است به مفردات کلام و قسمی دیگر که به ترکیب و تالیف آنها ارتباط دارد.آنچه مربوط به مفردات کلام است عبارتند از: تجنیس،اشتقاق، ردالعجز الی الصدر، قلب، سجع ، ترصیع،مزدوج، کنایه، مجاز ،استعاره. آنچه مربوط به محسنات معنویه است: مطابقه، مقابله، اعتراض، تلمیح ، لف ونشر، ابهام، مراعات نظیر، اغراق، سوال و جواب. ما در این مقاله به بررسی بسامد آرایه های ادبی در دو زمینه «محسنات لفظیه»و «محسنات معنویه » در مجالس هشتم و نهم ابواب الجنان پرداخته ایم.
    کلیدواژگان: واعظ قزوینی، ابواب الجنان، صناعات ادبی، نثر قرن یازدهم
  • مهدی دهرامی* صفحات 43-56
  • علی محمد پشت دار*، فاطمه شکردست صفحات 57-71
  • محمد احمدی * صفحات 73-87
  • سید محمدرضا ابن الرسول*، مرضیه قربان خانی صفحات 89-108
  • مصطفی گرجی*، یحیی نورالدین اقدم صفحات 109-126
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  • Hossein Vossoughi, Belgheys Rowshan, Seyed Mahdi Samaei Pages 9-26

    AbstractMetaphor is the core essence of creativity; and wonder, the core essence of metaphor. On the road of cognition, Human beings always encounter sensual, experiential and verbal information, which form the individual's knowledge of the world via the mental cognitive capabilities such as categorization, attention, conceptualization, memory, etc. Our knowledge of and experiences from the outside world are classified into domains and frames based on the similarities and discrepancies between the novel and earlier perceptions that would, in turn, lay a cornerstone for production through blending and also learning through analogy. Wherever our creations, Be it linguistic or non-linguistic, are the product of unfamiliar, unpredictable, or rather, marked combinations in that very socio-cultural context, metaphor and the metaphorization capacity of the mind are involved. In the present exploratory paper, that stems from a research on translating metaphors, the researchers first review metaphor from both traditional and contemporary viewpoints and then, upon highlighting the existing drawbacks, attempt to give an all-embracing definition of metaphor providing a simple, easy-to-understand formula for recognizing metaphors, which would pave the ground for a fresh classification of metaphors.

    Keywords: Cognitive Linguistics, Metaphor, Metaphoric Conditions, Word Information Matrix
  • Mohammad Reza Najjarian *, Neda Hatam Pour Pages 27-42
    Rafi’ al-Din Mohammad ibn Fath Allah Vaez-e Qazvini is one of Imamieh clergymen and also a literary man, poet and scholar in the 11th century A.H. during the kingdom of Shah Abbas Safavid (1052-1077 A.H.) up to the early kingdom of Shah Soleiman (1077 A.H.). He was very professional in poetry and prose and was also widely aware of rhetorical figures, speech, prosody, and rhetoric. Moreover, He had a grasp of knowledge in various sciences such as mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, and medicine and he has applied the terminology of those sciences in his works. The purpose of writing Abvab al-Janan in 8 volumes was based on the idea of 8 entrance gates of Paradise so that everyone who refers to that book would have entrance to 8 gates of Paradise. Generally, Abd al-Qaher Jorjani classifies rhetoric into 2 branches: The branch which is related to parts of speech and another which concerns their composition and compilation. The fields related to parts of speech include pun, adnominatio, anadiplosis, palindrome, rhyme, couplet, metonymy, figure, and metaphor. Semantic figures (Mohasanat-e Ma'navieh) consist of comparison, contrast, objection, allusion, epanandos, amphiboly, symmetry, hyperbole, and stichomythia. This article attempts to investigate the frequency of figures of speech in both lexical and semantic figures (Mohasanat-e Lafzieh and Mohasanat-e Ma'navieh) in the 8th and 9th chapters of Abvab al-Janan.
    Keywords: Vaez-e Qazvini, Abvab al-Janan, figures of speech, 11th century prose
  • Mahdi Dehrami * Pages 43-56
    As the novelty and importance of the link between objects and phenomena in the image is important, as the structure is also important to express these connections. The purpose of this paper is to examine the types of structures that contemporary poets have used to show imaging connections. The purpose of this study is the poet of grammatical issues in a way that uses the arts to promote its image. And change the type or grammatical function of the word, it will cause loss of picture or artistic values. In addition to the additions in contemporary poetry common structure similarity of grammatical categories such as exchange, enlightening (audit), adjectives, and adverbs also been used to provide image. The grammatical structures are located in the center of visualization and some of them recently and the importance of greatly depends on the structure provided.
    Keywords: Image, contemporary poets, Persian Grammar
  • A.M. Poshtdar *, F. F. Shekardast Pages 57-71
  • M. M. Ahmadi * Pages 73-87
    Eloquence, literary studies, persuasion. As far as we know researches and studies about the nature of rhetoric gradually were considered by the theorists of eloquence and for this reason the meaning of rhetoric changed completely. Rhetoric in its new meaning was a kind of language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect and was more in relation with literature than the art of oratory. Rhetorical studies finally in the late nineteenth century and the early years of twentieth century became one of the most important branches of literary criticism and revitalized under the name of Rhetorical criticism. Followers of this critical approach in their analyses didn’t have any predefined theory so as a result they didnot form a special kind of literary school; despite this fact all rhetorical critics believe that in analyzing any kind of literary or non- literary works a critic should always consider different ways and tactics of persuasion.
    Keywords: rhetorical criticism, rhetoric
  • S. M. R. Ibnorrasool *, M. M. Ghorbankhani Pages 89-108
    Non-declarative expressions especially the optative ones are used a lot in every language. Interrogative, imperative, negative, vocative, and optative expressions are considered the versions of optative sentences. Each of these versions is used for expressing a particular meaning. However, as they are sometimes deviated from their original meaning, just due to eloquent reasons, they denote an indirect meaning, which is detectable on the basis of the context of use. The experts of eloquence have tried to investigate the secondary meanings in addition to investigating these versions. Sometimes some of the eloquence authors, in order to innovate and on the basis of their personal tastes, use a kind of titles to study the indirect meanings by thinking of which we can realize that these titles are the same as the titles to which other experts have referred and the only difference relates to the choice of entitling. This article, having a critical approach, aims at investigating these titles in the books of eloquence and showing that a majority of these so-called new titles are the same as those aforementioned titles in the books of eloquence.
    Keywords: eloquence, optative expression, interrogative, indirect meanin
  • M. M. Gorji *, Y. Y. Nouraldin Aghdam Pages 109-126
    Khaghani Shervani (520-595, AD/the Hejira) is one of the greatest Iranian balladeers and of the great poets of Azerbaijani style. The extent of the areas in Khaghani’s speech,his skill in using new and pristine sense of meaning, the accuracy of the descriptions and using poetic tricks in the creation of artistic images have promoted his poetic realm so that entering to it has become difficult and sometimes a wish to the user of Persian literature. The appearance of new literary theories in the field of literature has provided an opportunity to the literary text addressees to present different and new readings from literary texts.This article attempts to analyze Khaghani’s most famous ballad, “Qasidat of Ctesiphon Porch (Eavan e Madaen)”, based on " Jakobson’s theory of communication ". This theory is based on three basic elements: sender, receiver and message and three minor factors: context, code and channel. Each of these six language dimensions/factors has emotive, conative, aesthetic/poetic, referential, metalingual and phatic functions, respectively. The result of research shows that the dominant function in this Qasidat regarding Khaghani’s artistic and poetic features is referential.
    Keywords: Khaghani, Ctesiphon Porch, Jakobson, Communication theory