فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/05/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Amir Hossein Ghaderi *, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Hassan Shahrokhi, Amir Hossein Darooneh Page 267
    Introduction
    Contrary to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), fifth edition, some studies indicate that ADHD-inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) is a distinct diagnostic disorder and not an ADHD presentation.
    Methods
    In this study, 12 ADHD-combined presentation (ADHD-C), 10 ADHD-I, and 13 controls were enrolled and their resting state EEG recorded. Following this, a graph theoretical analysis was performed and functional integration and segregation of brain network was calculated.
    Results
    The results show that clustering coefficient of theta band was significantly different among three groups and significant differences were observed in theta global efficiency between controls and ADHD-C. Regarding the alpha band, a lower clustering coefficient was observed in control subjects. In the beta band, clustering coefficient was significantly different between the control and children with ADHD-C and also between ADHD-I and ADHD-C. The clustering coefficient, in the subjects with ADHD-C, demonstrated a rapid decline and was significantly lower than the subjects with ADHD-I and control.
    Conclusion
    Decreased clustering, in high thresholds, may be associated with hyperactivity while increased segregation in low thresholds with inattentiveness. A different functional network occurs in the ADHD-C brain that is consistent with several studies that have reported ADHD-I as a distinct disorder.
    Keywords: ADHD presentations, Graph theory, Brain segregation, Brain integration, EEG
  • Mohammad Mehdi Heidari *, Mehri Khatami, Yaser Tahamtan Pages 279-284
    Introduction
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of central nervous system that mainly causes lesions or plaques in the spinal cord and brain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between c.-813C>T (rs2070744) and c.894G>T (rs1799983) polymorphisms of NOS3 gene and MS in Iranian patients.
    Methods
    A total of 78 patients with MS and 80 healthy controls were screened for NOS3 (rs2070744 and rs1799983) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) by tetra-primer multiplex ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP.
    Results
    Genotype frequencies of the c.-813C>T polymorphism in patients compared to controls were as follows: 53.8% to 80.0% for TT genotype, 41.0% to 18.8% for TC genotype, and 5.1% versus 1.2% for CC genotype (P=0.001). The frequencies of GG genotype was 57.7% and 78.8% and for GT genotype of c.894G>T polymorphism in patients compared to control subjects was 42.3% and 21.2%, respectively (P=0.004).
    Conclusion
    Our results indicate that the studied NOS3 polymorphisms may be associated with MS in Iranian patients.
    Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, NOS3 gene, rs2070744, rs1799983, Polymorphism
  • Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari *, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari Pages 285-298
    Introduction
    Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods.
    Methods
    We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group. They were all scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a 6-block task, where each block consisted of the rest-craving-rest-neutral sequence. Using the dynamic causal modeling (DCM) algorithm, brain effective connectivity network (caused by the drug craving stimulation) was quantified for all groups. In this regard, 4 brain areas were selected for this analysis based on previous findings: ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), amygdala, and ventral striatum.
    Results
    Our results indicated that the control subjects did not show significant brain activations after craving stimulations, but the two other groups showed significant brain activations in all 4 regions. In addition, VMPFC showed higher activations in the ABT group compared to the MMT group. The effective connectivity network suggested that the control subjects did not have any direct input from drug-related cue indices, while the other two groups showed reactions to these cues. Also, VMPFC displayed an important role in ABT group. In encountering the craving pictures, MMT subjects manifest a very simple mechanism compared to other groups.
    Conclusion
    This study revealed an activation network similar to the emotional and inhibitory control networks observed in drug abusers in previous works. The results of DCM analysis also support the regulatory role of frontal regions on bottom regions. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the different effective connectivity patterns after drug abuse treatment and in this way helps the experts in the field.
    Keywords: Dynamic causal modeling, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Abstinent based therapy, Methadone maintenance therapy
  • Elaheh Shahmiri, Zahra Jafari, Maryam Noroozian, Azadeh Zendehbad, Hassan Haddadzadeh Niri, Ali Yoonessi * Pages 299-306
    Introduction
    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a disorder of the elderly people, is difficult to diagnose and often progresses to Alzheimer Disease (AD). Temporal region is one of the initial areas, which gets impaired in the early stage of AD. Therefore, auditory cortical evoked potential could be a valuable neuromarker for detecting MCI and AD.
    Methods
    In this study, the thresholds of Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) to 40 Hz and 80 Hz were compared between Alzheimer Disease (AD), MCI, and control groups. A total of 42 patients (12 with AD, 15 with MCI, and 15 elderly normal controls) were tested for ASSR. Hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz in both ears with modulation rates of 40 and 80 Hz were obtained.
    Results
    Significant differences in normal subjects were observed in estimated ASSR thresholds with 2 modulation rates in 3 frequencies in both ears. However, the difference was significant only in 500 Hz in the MCI group, and no significant differences were observed in the AD group. In addition, significant differences were observed between the normal subjects and AD patients with regard to the estimated ASSR thresholds with 2 modulation rates and 3 frequencies in both ears. A significant difference was observed between the normal and MCI groups at 2000 Hz, too. An increase in estimated 40 Hz ASSR thresholds in patients with AD and MCI suggests neural changes in auditory cortex compared to that in normal ageing.
    Conclusion
    Auditory threshold estimation with low and high modulation rates by ASSR test could be a potentially helpful test for detecting cognitive impairment.
    Keywords: Alzheimer disease, Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR), Auditory ageing, Mild cognitive impairment, MCI detection
  • Mona Zamanian-Azodi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani *, Naser Nejadi, Afsaneh Arefi Oskouie, Faird Zayeri, Mostafa Hamdieh, Akram Safaei, Majid Rezaei-Tavirani, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, Alireza Amouzandeh-Nobaveh, Farshad Okhovatian Pages 307-316
    Introduction
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental condition that its proteomic profiling is not yet investigated. Proteomics is a valuable tool to discover biomarker approaches. It can be helpful to detect protein expression changes in complex disorders such as OCD.
    Methods
    Here, by the application of 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE), a pilot study of serum proteome profile of females with washing subtype of OCD was performed. Serum samples were obtained from females with washing subtype of OCD. Following the protein extraction from the serum with acetone perception, the samples were subjected to 2DE for separation based on pI and molecular weight (MW) with triple replications. Finally, the protein spots were visualized using Coomassie blue staining method and analyzed by Progenesis SameSpots software. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was handled by the application of Cytoscape software.
    Results
    The results suggested that 41 matched spots demonstrated significant expression alterations among which 5 proteins including immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha-1 (IGHA1), apolipoprotein A-4 (APOA4), haptoglobin (HP), protein α-1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1), and component 3 (C3) were identified by database query. Additionally, PPI network analysis indicated the central role of SERPINA1 and C3 in the network integrity. However, albumin (ALB), amyloid precursor protein (APP), and protein α-1-antitrypsin (APOA1) proteins were important in OCD PPI network as well. The identified proteins were related to 3 processes: acute-phase response, hydrogen peroxide catabolic process, and regulation of triglyceride metabolic process.
    Conclusion
    It was concluded that these proteins may have a fundamental role in OCD pathogenesis. Moreover, the dysregulation of inflammatory and antioxidant systems in OCD risk was suggested by the current study. However, evaluation of bigger sample sizes and application of mass spectrometry are essential requirements to confirm this preliminary evaluation.
    Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Washing subtype, Serum, Proteomics, Protein-Protein interaction network analysis
  • Masoomeh Bakhshayesh, Fereshteh Golab, Fatemeh Kermanian, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Ronak Shabani, Elham Movahed, Majid Katebi * Pages 317-324
    Introduction
    The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug and a major source of substance abuse, which ultimately leads to sensations of well-being, elation and euphoria, moderate derealization/ depersonalization, and cognitive disruptions, as well as intense sensory awareness. The mechanisms involved in memory impairment induced by MDMA are not completely understood.
    Methods
    The current study used 40 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighted 200 to 250 g. Experiments were performed in four groups, each containing 10 rats. The first group of rats was used as the control, treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The second group was treated with MDMA. The third group was treated with MDMA and CGS (the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, 2-[p-(2- carboxyethyl) phenethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) (CGS 21680) and the fourth group was treated with MDMA and SCH (the A2A receptor antagonist [7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl-) pyrazolo-[4, 3-e]-1, 2, 4 triazolo [1,5-] pyrimidine]) (SCH 58261). The drugs in all groups were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 7 days. In 5 rats of each group, following perfusion, samples were taken from hippocampi to investigate apoptosis. Accordingly, the samples were stained using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay kit, and studied by light microscopy. In other rats, fresh tissue was also removed to study the expression of bax and bcl-2 by Western blotting technique.
    Results
    It was observed that the coadministration of MDMA with CGS reduced bax expression and prevented apoptosis of hippocampal cells. The coadministration of MDMA and SCH increased bax expression, and also increased the frequency of hippocampal cell apoptosis.
    Conclusion
    The results of the current study showed that administration of CGS with MDMA decreased the common side effects associated with MDMA.
    Keywords: Ecstasy or MDMA, Neurotoxicity, Adenosine receptor, Agonist of A2A receptor, Antagonist of A2A receptor
  • Sara Ramezani, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, Nasim Vousooghi, Mansour Parvaresh, Farshid Arbabi, Naser Amini, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei * Pages 325-336
    Introduction
    The mechanism of putative cytotoxicity of 4-[3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidone (rolipram), a specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is almost unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in the cytotoxic effect of rolipram on human GBM U87 MG cell line and tumor-initiating cells (TICs) isolated from patient's GBM specimen.
    Methods
    TICs were characterized by using flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The cells were treated with rolipram at inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) in the presence or absence of SC79 (4µg/mL), a specific AKT activator, for 48 hours. The cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and TUNEL staining, respectively. The relative expression of Phospho-Akt (Ser473), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were detected using Western blotting.
    Results
    The findings showed that rolipram could suppress cell viability in both U87MG and TICs, dose-dependently. Interestingly, the rolipram-induced cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of SC79. Nevertheless, in rolipram-treated cells, the pretreatment with SC79 significantly led to increase in U87 MG cells and TICs apoptosis and decrease in viability of U87 MG cells but not TICs relative to corresponding control. In U87 MG and TICs, rolipram-induced reduction of Phospho-Akt (Ser473) and MMP2 levels were significantly suppressed by SC79.
    Conclusion
    There is a cell type-specific mechanism of anti-proliferative action of rolipram on GBM cells. The reduction of intracellular level of MMP2 but not VEGFA by rolipram is conducted through the inhibition of Akt signal. Rolipram-induced apoptosis is mediated via Akt dependent/independent mechanisms.
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme, Rolipram, SC79, U87 MG cell line, Tumor-initiating cells, Akt signal
  • Mostafa Almasi *, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Masoud Mehrpour, Bahram Haghi-Ashtiani, Fahimeh Haji Akhondi, Yalda Nilipour, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Pages 337-343
    Introduction
    Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) can involve multiple systems and cause stroke-like episodes and status epilepticus.
    Case Presentation
    A 48-year-old female with history of early fatigability, migraine-type headaches, and bilateral sensory-neural hearing loss presented 3 episodes of serial seizures. On admission she was affected by Wernicke aphasia and, then, right hemiparesis. Investigations showed elevated arterial lactate and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy.
    Conclusion
    Though more commonly diagnosed during childhood, some cases of adult-onset MELAS syndrome are reported. This syndrome should be considered in patients with stroke-like events in adults without cerebrovascular risk factors and difficult-to-treat seizures.
    Keywords: Mitochondrial disorder, MELAS Syndrome, Middle age