فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research - Volume:2 Issue: 4, 2017
  • Volume:2 Issue: 4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Vijay Sharma, Kamla Pathak Pages 1-21
    It has been observed that most of the chemical entities have high lipophilicity and poor aqueous solubility, which result in poor bioavailability. In order to improve the bioavailability, the release behavior of such drugs should be improved. Although there are numerous techniques to handle solubility related issue, but they are expensive due to involvement of complicated equipments, advanced manufacturing operations that includes multiple and tedious steps. The liquisolid technology or powder solution technology is a promising technique for modifying the release characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients. As the liquisolid technology uses similar production processes as followed to develop a conventional tablet, but this technology to improve the release rate of poorly water soluble drugs is simple and cost effective The core concept of the technique involves, liquids such as solution/dispersion of poorly soluble drugs in a non-volatile solvent that is transformed into free flowing and desirable compression characteristics. To develop a fast-release liquisolid formulation, high amount of liquid vehicle is required while more effective tableting excipients with high liquid adsorption are needed to reduce the weight of the tablet. Simultaneously, this technology also has the capability to sustain the drug release and allow the development of sustained release formulation with desirable release kinetics. The present work deals with the chronological compilation and briefing of all the reported researches which involved the concept of underlined technology by the use of common as well as novel excipients to modify the release behavior of therapeutically active compounds.
    Keywords: Liquisolid technology, non-volatile solvent, carrier material, coating material, dissolution enhancement, liquisolid compact, sustained release
  • Yaseen Gigani, Swati Gupta, Andrew Lynn, Kamlesh Asotra Pages 22-29
    In this work, we present the first comprehensive molecular field analysis of patent structures on how the chemical structure of drugs impacts the biological binding. This task was formulated as searching for drug structures to reveal shared effects of substitutions across a common scaffold and the chemical features that may be responsible. We used the SureChEMBL patent database, which provides search of the patent literature using keyword-based functionality, as a query engine. The extraction of data of the BKCa channel openers and aligning them for molecular field similarity with newly designed structures did provide a probable validation method with accurate values. Therefore, in an attempt to increase the true positives, we report a procedure that functions on a multiple analyses modeled on molecular field similarity and common sub-structural search with consensus scoring and high confidence values to obtain greater accuracy during conventional virtual screening.
    Keywords: BKCa channel, molecular field alignment, sureChEMBL, chemical curation
  • Paniz Yousefi, Mahila Monajati, Ebrahim Salehifar Pages 30-37
    Surgical site infections are one of the most important post-surgery complications. Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been used routinely in surgeries to reduce infection incidence. However, inappropriate selection of antimicrobial agents or dosing can develop antimicrobial resistance, serious adverse reactions and prolong hospitalization. Current study aimed to examine prophylactic antibiotic prescription in surgeries in a teaching hospital in Sari, Mazandaran and evaluate level of adherence to the international guidelines. Between January 2015 to May 2015, 104 patients in general surgery ward were selected and enrolled in the study. The prophylactic antibiotics, dosage, timing and duration of administration were collected by reviewing patients’ records and compared to the existing guidelines. Prophylactic antibiotic was given to 85.5% of patients. Prescribed antibiotics were cefazolin (46.1%), metronidazole (24%), ceftriaxone (12.5%), ciprofloxacin (1.9%) and vancomycin (0.96%). Most of the patients (62.9%) received an inappropriate and delayed timing. Proper antibiotic dosage was seen in 45.2% of patients. All patients received post-operative prophylactic antibiotic. Main antibiotics include cefazolin (41.3%), metronidazole (33.7%), ceftriaxone (31.7%) and clindamycin (20.2%). Only 10 (21.9%) patients received cefazolin or vancomycin for a total duration of 48 hours or less. Surgical wound infection occurred in 17 (16.3%) patients during hospital stay. Adherence to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines was completely achieved in 14.4% of cases. Results of this study signified that adherence to existing guidelines was poor and the most common mistakes were over usage, inappropriate dosage and choosing of antibiotics.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial prophylaxis, general surgery, guideline
  • Mandana Ahmadi, Hossein Mahdavi, Mahboobeh Madani, Zohreh Hadadi Pages 38-43
    Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Due to increasing resistance of fungi against conventional drugs, as well as their side effects, alternative natural products have become a renewed interest. In the current study, the anti-Candida activities of Scrophularia striata extract were examined. In this experimental study, microdilution assay and well diffusion test were used to determine invitro anti-fungal effects of ethanolic and methanolic extract of Scrophulari astriata on four species of Candida including Candida albicans ATCC 1167, ATCC 1677, tropicalis, and glabrata. The results showed that 100 mg/ml methanolic extract has more anticandida activity than ethanolic extract. Diameter of inhibiting growth environment for ethanol extract was 37 mm, and MIC and MFC were 2.1 and 41.5 mm/ml. Results show that ethanolic and methanolic extract of Scrophularia striata have anti-fungal activities. Therefore results of this study suggest this extract is a promising anti-fungal agent, and future experiments will interest for performing in vivo study.
    Keywords: Scrophulariastriata, Candida, ehanolic extract, methanolic extract
  • Reza Golam Mohebbi, Kaveh Azimzadeh, Amir Amniattalab Pages 44-51
    This study aimed to assess whether the triethylenetetramine (TETA) is impressed the plasma level of homocysteine (Hcy), total sialic acid (TSA) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as cardiovascular diseases risk factors, cystatin c (Cys c) and glucose along with histopathologic changes in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rabbit. Twenty number New Zealand white rabbits were assigned for this study. After induction of diabetes mellitus, TETA was orally administrated with different doses (10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day, A, B, C groups respectively) for 6 months daily and group D (as positive control) not received TETA. In the following, above parameters, insulin and glucose were measured in the all groups. Furthermore, histopathologic evaluation was carried out for aorta, kidney and pancreas in the all ones. Amounts of plasma cTnI, Hcy, TSA, Cys c and glucose concentrations decreased significantly (P
    Keywords: Triethylenetetramine, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular biomarkers, cystatin c, histopathology
  • Pawan K. Verma, Rajinder Raina, Mudasir Sultana, Maninder Singh Pages 52-64
    Calendula officinalis (Family Compositae) flowers are recognized as safe substance for food use by Food and Drug Administration. Present study was aimed to determine the modulatory effect of floral extracts of C. officinalis administrations on mean blood glucose (MBG), per cent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile [(total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low and high density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL)], antioxidant and renal parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Increased (P
    Keywords: Calendula officinalis, malondialdehyde, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, diabetes
  • Ahmad Mashhadinejad, Hojjatolah Zamani, Jannat Sarmad Pages 65-73
    Regarding increasing rate of drug resistance among microbial pathogens, a global search to find new antimicrobial agents from natural compounds with fewer side effects has been considered by many researchers worldwide. Bioactive compounds with good antimicrobial activity have been isolated from different algae and cyanobacteria. The current study was performed to determine antimicrobial potential and to characterize the effect of algal growth modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic) and extraction solvents on antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris against four bacterial and one fungal pathogens. C. vulgaris was grown under different growth conditions and the biomass was harvested. Different extracts were prepared using acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate as extraction solvents and antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) using agar well diffusion assay. In addition, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined. Moreover, the total oil content and lipid productivity of C. vulgaris grown under different modes were determined. The heterotrophic growth resulted in stronger antimicrobial activity compared to the other growth conditions. In addition, the highest antimicrobial activity was observed for chloroform mediated extract and extraction using acetone resulted in minimum antimicrobial activity. Moreover, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth significantly increased the total lipid content and lipid productivity compared to the autotrophic growth. C. vulgaris exhibited good antimicrobial potential and the antimicrobial efficacy could be influenced by extraction solvents and growth conditions.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Chlorella vulgaris, chloroform extract, microalgae, growth modes