فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research - Volume:1 Issue:2, 2015
  • Volume:1 Issue:2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Katayoun Morteza-Semnani Pages 1-9
    Chenopodium botrys L. is native to Europe and Asia and adventive in much of North America. The plant has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes; generally, these therapeutic uses and health benefits of C. botrys are largely based on folklore rather than on scientific substantiation, making it a good candidate to gather documentations, including the phytochemical content, in vitro experiments, animal models and human studies available in the scientific studies. The herb contains flavonoids, alkaloids and several terpenoids. C. botrys of different origins yielded 0.08-2% essential oil. Pharmacological reports support medicinal potential of C. botrys for developing new drugs. Different isomers of ascaridole were identified in C. botrys oil from different origins. In some reports, these compounds were major constituents of the essential oil. Ascaridole has various properties including anthelmintic, antifungal, sedative and pain-relieving. Ascaridole also showed activity against different tumor cell lines in vitro. These data suggest that C. botrys may be an interesting novel candidate plant for cancer treatment, but many studies are needed to confirm this possibility.­
    Keywords: Chenopodium botrys L., Traditional uses, Chemical composition, Biological activities
  • Azam Bakhtiarian, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Hamid Reza Mohammadi Pages 10-19
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of nanocarrier of magnetic isotope of 25-Mg2 (PMC16) in liver toxicity, ATP content and oxidative stress due to malathion (MAL) exposure. PMC16 nanoparticles were administered in different doses (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 LD50) intravenously (iv) 40 minutes after a single MAL (0.25 LD50= 207 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (ip) injection as a complement to standard therapy of pralidoxime (PAM) and atropine (AT). MgSO4 was used as another supplement for comparison with PMC16. ATP/ADP ratio, antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and oxidative stress biomarker including lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver tissue cells. Results indicated that after MAL administration, ADP/ATP ratio had a significant increase in liver tissues in comparison with control but this ratio was improved using various doses of PMC16. LPO was significantly decreased at all doses of PMC16 and MgSO4 when compared with MAL-exposed group. SOD and CAT activities significantly were increased in MAL-treated group as compared to saline group. SOD was reduced by all doses of PMC16 and CAT activity was decreased in PMC16-0.1 group. These results lead us to conclude that PMC16 and MgSO4 are so useful for protection against MAL-induced liver toxicity, ATP depletion and oxidative damages.
    Keywords: Organophosphate, malathion, magnesium, nanocarrier, adenosine triphosphate, oxidative stress
  • Ghasem Shokri, Hamed Fathi, Majid Jafari Sabet, Nafiseh Nasri Nasrabadi, Ramin Ataee Pages 20-29
    Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ). The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats. A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract, three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.
    Keywords: Cinnamon, green tea, diabetes, streptozotocin
  • Narges Sedghi Sharif-Abad, Majid Saeedi, Reza Enayatifard, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Jafar Akbari Pages 30-34
    The risk of microbial contamination in the cosmetic products especially in smuggled preparations and transmission of it to consumers is very high. In this study, the microbial content and the pollution of some sunscreen creams in the market and one sample in official market as witness were evaluated. The microbial content (bacterial total count, fungal count, and presence of Pseudomon asaeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Entrobacter) of 5 samples of sunscreen cream in the market and two samples in official market were evaluated by two methods (pour plate and Multiple tube technique). All samples showed high microbial and fungal contamination. Entrobacters was observed in all samples. Staphylococcus aureus was recognized in one of the non-standard sunscreens. High level of contamination in sunscreen creams, can affect consumers, health. It seems that low grade raw materials, and insufficient manufacturing surveillance in production process are the main factors in the contamination.
    Keywords: Cosmetic, sunscreen, Microbial content, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Majid Saeedi, Mohammad Reza Rafati, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Atieh Yazdani Rostam, Hamid Reza Kelidari Pages 35-43
    Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used orally as solid dosage form. The suspension of this drug has been used for pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment in pediatrics. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) on the physical characteristics, drug particle size, and stress-shear rate rheogram of tadalafil 0.1% suspension. Several formulations prepared by xanthan gum as suspending agent. Glycerin has been used as wetting agent. The several amounts of Tween 80 were added and the characteristics of suspensions were evaluated during 6 months. The results showed the effect of surfactant on sediment volume and resuspendibility. The particle size of tadalafil was affected by surfactant amount. This result showed an optimum effect of Tween 80 on drug particle size. The viscosity behavior evaluation of tadalafil 0.1% suspension showed Tween 80 effect. This study showed that Tween 80 can dramatically affect viscosity of suspensions. The results of this study have demonstrated the effect of Tween 80 on physical properties of tadalafil 0.1% oral suspension. An ideal drug particle size was observed in particular amount of Tween 80 (0.15% w/v).
    Keywords: Tadalafil, suspension, Tween 80, particle size, rheology
  • Jafar Akbari, Reza Enayatifard, Majid Saeedi, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Samira Rajabi Pages 44-53
    Naproxen is a poor water soluble, non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. Although salt formation, solubilization and particle size reduction have commonly been used to increase dissolution rate and thereby oral absorption and bioavailability of low water soluble drugs, there are practical limitation of these techniques. However, the most attractive option for increasing the release rate is improvement of solubility through formulation approaches. In this study, solid dispersions (SD) of naproxen were prepared by hot melt method using various ratios of drug to polymers (PEG6000) separately and characterized for physical appearance, FTIR, DSC, X-Ray crystallography, and in-vitro dissolution studies. The influence of several amounts of Labrafil M2130 was also studied. FTIR study revealed that drug was stable in SDs, and great state of amorphous formed particles was proofed by DSC analysis. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried using USP type II (paddle) dissolution apparatus at medium (pH 1.5). Solubility of naproxen from SDs was increased in dissolution media. The prepared dispersion showed increase in the dissolution rate of naproxen comparing to that of physical mixtures of drug and polymers and pure drug. Percent of drug released in 60 minutes was 23.92% for pure naproxen witch is increased in SDs and reached to100% for best formulations of PEG6000 and labrafil based SDs respectively, considering ratio of drug to polymers.It is concluded that dissolution of the naproxen could be improved by the solid dispersion. Although physical mixtures have increased the rate of dissolution, dissolution shows faster release from SDs which would therefore be due to formation of amorphous particles through the hot melt process which was also revealed by DSC analysis and XRD.
    Keywords: Naproxen, Release rate, hot melt method, Solid dispersion
  • Razieh Keshavarz-Maleki, Nematollah Ahangar Pages 54-63
    The human MDR1 gene encodes for a P-glycoprotein (PGP), which acts as an efflux pump that transports a large variety of substrates from the inside of cells to the outside until protection against xenobiotics. The G2677T/A polymorphism in exon 21 is associated with PGP expression and function in humans. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of this polymorphism in a healthy population from Mazandaran province of Iran. A total of 120 unrelated healthy subjects from Mazandaran province, residing in Sari, coming for blood donating at Sari Blood Transfusion Center were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of each subject. All subjects were genotyped for G2677T/A polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The genotype frequencies were G2677G (65%), G2677T (20.83%), G2677A (14.17%) and TT, AA, TA genotypes were not observed. Moreover, frequency of G allele (82.5%) was significantly (p ˂ 0.05) higher than the T (10.42%) and A (7.08%). This is the first study to investigate the G2677T/A polymorphism of MDR1 gene in population from Mazandaran province of Iran. These data may be relevant for dose recommendation of PGP substrate drugs and can help for individualizing drug therapy of organ transplantation and important diseases such as cancer and AIDS, congestive heart failure and etc.
    Keywords: Naproxen, release rate, hot melt method, solid dispersion