فهرست مطالب

Cell Journal - Volume:19 Issue: 3, 2017
  • Volume:19 Issue: 3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • Mahboobeh Amoushahi, Mojdeh Salehnia, Seyed Javad Mowla, Nassim Ghorbanmehr Pages 332-342
    Objective
    This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the genes related to folliculo-genesis after vitrification of mouse ovarian tissues using a two-step in vitro culture.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries from 7- day old (neonate) female mice were cultured using alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 7 days. Morphology, surface area of ovaries and percentage of normal follicles were evaluated and compared in both groups. After one-week culture, in non-vitrified group, preantral follicles of cultured ovaries were isolated and cultured in a three-dimensional alginate culture system for 12 days. Then, the collected metaphase (M) II oocytes were inseminated with capacitated spermatozoa derived from 7-8-week old (adult) male NMRI mice. Follicular diameter, oocyte maturation, fertilization, embryo development and the expression of genes related to follicular development (Pcna, Fshr and Cyp17a1,) using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were assessed at the end of last culture period in both groups.
    Results
    The ovarian area in vitrified group (162468.20 703.78) was less than non-vitrified group (297211.40 6671.71), while the percentage of preantral follicles in vitrified group (18.40%) was significantly lower than those of non-vitrified group (24.50%) on day 7 of culture (P0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that vitrification of ovarian tissue following in vitro culture had negative impact on the survival and development of follicles within the tissue. However, no significant alterations were observed in development, gene expression and hormonal production of in vitro culture of isolated follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissues as compared to the non-vitrified samples.
    Keywords: Vitrification, Folliculogenesis, Gene Expression, Sodium Alginate
  • Faezeh Dorri, Hamid Pezeshk, Mehdi Sadeghi* Pages 343-351
    Objective
    Cellular decision-making is a key process in which cells with similar genetic and environmental background make dissimilar decisions. This stochastic process, which happens in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including stem cells, causes cellular diver- sity and phenotypic variation. In addition, fitness predicts and describes changes in the genetic composition of populations throughout the evolutionary history. Fitness may thus be defined as the ability to adapt and produce surviving offspring. Here, we present a mathematical model to predict the fitness of a cell and to address the fundamental issue of phenotypic variation. We study a basic decision-making scenario where a bacteriophage lambda reproduces in E. coli, using both the lytic and the lysogenic pathways. In the lytic pathway, the bacteriophage replicates itself within the host bacterium. This fast replication overcrowds and in turn destroys the host bacterium. In the lysogenic pathway, however, the bacteriophage inserts its DNA into the host genome, and is replicated simultaneously with the host genome.
    Materials And Methods
    In this prospective study, a mathematical predictive model was developed to estimate fitness as an index of survived offspring. We then leverage experi- mental data to validate the predictive power of our proposed model. A mathematical model based on game theory was also generated to elucidate a rationale behind cell decision.
    Results
    Our findings indicate that a rational decision that is aimed to maximize life expec- tancy of offspring is almost identical to bacteriophage behavior reported based on experi- mental data. The results also showed that stochastic decision on cell fate maximizes the expected number of survived offspring.
    Conclusion
    We present a mathematical framework for analyzing a basic phenotypic variation problem and explain how bacteriophages maximize offspring longevity based on this model. We also introduce a mathematical benchmark for other investigations of phenotypic variation that exists in eukaryotes including stem cell differentiation.
    Keywords: Decision-Making, Cell Fate, Stochastic, Mathematical Model, Fitness
  • Hashem Sadeghi, Mohammad Taheri, Elham Sajjadi, Abolfazl Movafagh, Shahram Arsang Jang, Arezou Sayad* Pages 352-360
    Objective
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system. This disease may be initiated by either vitamin deficiency or triggered by abnormality in CYP24A1 and vitamin D receptor.
    Materials And Methods
    In this case-control study, the expression of genes encoding vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP24A1 in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients was compared with normal individuals in the Iranian population. RNA from whole blood of 50 RR-MS patients (HLA-DRB1*15-negative and responders to interferon-beta with a normal vitamin D level) and 50 normal controls was extracted. The levels of CYP24A1 and VDR expression were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
    Results
    The RR-MS group had a significantly more than 2 times higher expression level of VDR than the normal group (P=0.04). On the other hand, there was a 0.89 times decrease in the expression level of CYP24A1 in RR-MS patients which was not statistically significant. There was no linear correlation between the risk of expanded disability status scale of Kurtzke (EDSS) and the expression level of either CYP24A1 or VDR. In addition, the expression level of CYP24A1 or VDR was not correlated with the duration of the disease.
    Conclusion
    Up-regulation of VDR is likely to happen in RR-MS patients in the Iranian population. We did not observe a gene expression-phenotype correlation for CYP24A1 which may be due to limited statistical power as a result of the small sample size. Although the individuals taking part in this study had normal levels of vitamin D, the increase in VDR expression levels may perhaps be a response to a defect in vitamin D processing. Another possibility is that despite an increase in VDR expression level, factors such as micro-RNAs may result in their deactivation while an increase in VDR expression level can be seen as a compensatory response. Of course, further studies are required to identify the mechanism of action of vitamin D by analyzing genes involved in its signaling pathway, particularly VDR and CYP24A1.
    Keywords:
    Keywords: VDR, CYP24A1, Expression, Multiple Sclerosis, Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Ahmad Hosseini *, Hajar Estiri, Haleh Akhavan Niaki, Akram Alizadeh, Baharak Abdolhossein Zadeh, Sayyed Mohammad Ghaderian, Akbar Farjadfar, Ali Fallah Pages 361-375
    Objective
    Immunotherapy and gene therapy play important roles in modern medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the overexpression of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in Wharton’s jelly stem cells (WJSCs) in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice model.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, a DNA construction containing IL- 4, IL-10 and LIF was assembled to make a polycistronic vector (as the transfer vector). Transfer and control vectors were co-transfected into Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK-293T) cells with helper plasmids which produced recombinant lentiviral viruses (rLV). WJSCs were transduced with rLV to make recombinant WJSC (rWJSC). In vitro protein and mRNA overexpression of IL-4, LIF, and IL-10 were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) analysis. EAE was induced in mice by MOG-CFA and pertussis toxin. EAE mice were injected twice with 2×105 rWJSCs. The in vivo level of IL-4, LIF, IL-10 cytokines and IL-17 were measured by ELISA. Brain tissues were analyzed histologically for evaluation of EAE lesions.
    Results
    Isolated WJSCs were performed to characterize by in vitro differentiation and surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry method. Cloning of a single lentiviral vector with five genes was done successfully. Transfection of transfer and control vectors were processed based on CaPO4 method with >90% efficiency. Recombinant viruses were produced and results of titration showed 2-3×107 infection-unit/ml. WJSCs were transduced using recombinant viruses. IL-4, IL-10 and LIF overexpression were confirmed by ELISA, WB and qPCR. The EAE mice treated with rWJSC showed reduction of Il-17, and brain lesions as well as brain cellular infiltration, in vivo. Weights and physical activity were improved in gene-treated group.
    Conclusion
    These results showed that gene therapy using anti-inflammatory cytokines can be a promising approach against multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, considering the immunomodulatory potential of WJSCs, an approach using a combination of WJSCs and gene therapy will enhance the treatment efficacy.
    Keywords: Gene Therapy, Multiple Sclerosis, Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells, Cytokines
  • Mohammad Reza Lakpour, Morteza Koruji, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Samaneh Aghajanpour, Majid Rajabian, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Marjan Sabbaghian, Reza Aflatoonian* Pages 376-385
    Objective
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on Sertoli cells are thought to have essential roles in sperm protection. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of TLR2 and TLR3 in Sertoli cells of men with azoospermia.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, testicular biopsies were taken from ten azoospermic men. Following enzymatic dissociation, the samples were moved to lectin coated petri dishes. After a few passages, all cells were cultivated and Seroli cells were sorted by flow cytometry. To confirm Sertoli cell purification, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and immunohistochemistry assays were employed. The expression of TLR2 and TLR3 at the transcript and protein levels was examined with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and western blot, respectively.
    Results
    Isolation, purification and cultivation of human Sertoli cells were performed successfully. Efficacy of purification of Sertoli cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorter was ~97%. The type of cultured cells was confirmed by vimentin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor markers. Furthermore, the existence of anti- Müllerian hormone in culture was confirmed. RT-PCR showed that both genes were expressed in Sertoli cells. Consistently, proteins of both were also expressed in Sertoli cells. Moreover, QPCR showed that the relative expression of TLR3 transcripts was significantly higher than TLR2 in Sertoli cells. Although both genes are expressed in fibroblast cells, their level of expression was significantly lower than in Sertoli cells.
    Conclusion
    This study confirmed expression of TLR2 and TLR3 in human Sertoli cells. This may be an indicator of their roles in developing immunity against pathogens as well as allo- and auto-antigens or viral antigens in seminiferous tubules.
    Keywords: Sertoli Cells, Testis, Fibroblast Cells, TLRs
  • Shirin Kashfi, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani*, Mohammad Javan Pages 386-406
    Objective
    Due to recent progress in production of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hESC-OPCs) for ameliorating myelin disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of purinergic signaling in OPCs development, we avaluated the profile of purinergic receptors expression during development of OPCs from hESC.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, we used reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain more information about potential roles of purinergic receptors during in vitro production of hESC-OPCs. We first determined the expression level of different subtypes of purinergic receptors in hESCs, embryoid bodies (EBs), and hESC-OPCs. The effects of A1adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation on hESC-OPCs development were subsequently examined.
    Results
    hESCs and OPCs had different mRNA expression levels of the AR subtypes. ARs mRNA were expressed in the EB stage, except for A2AAR. We observed expressions of several P2X (P2X1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) and P2Y (P2Y1, 2, 4, 6, 11-14) genes in hESCs. hESC-OPCs expressed different subtypes of P2X (P2X1, 2, 3,4,5,7) and P2Y (P2Y1, 2, 4, 6, 11-14). Except for P2X1 and P2X6, all other P2X and P2Y purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in EBs. We also indicate that A1AR might be involved in modulating gene expression levels of cell cycle regulators in an agonist and/or dose-dependent manner.
    Conclusion
    Elucidation of the expression pattern of purinergic receptors and the effects of different subtypes of these receptors in hESC-OPCs may have a promising role in future cell-based therapy or drug design for demyelinating disease.
    Keywords: Human Embryonic Stem Cell, Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell, Purinergic Receptors, A1 Adenosine Receptor
  • Negin Shirzad, Sima Bordbar, Alireza Goodarzi, Monire Mohammad, Pardis Khosravani, Froughazam Sayahpour, Mohamadreza Baghban Eslaminejad, Marzieh Ebrahimi Pages 403-414
    Objective
    The diverse clinical applications for human mesenchymal stem cells (hM- SCs) in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine warrant increased focus on developing adequate culture supplements devoid of animal-derived products. In the present study, we have investigated the feasibility of umbilical cord blood-platelet lysate (UCB-PL) as a standard substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human peripheral blood-PL (PB-PL).
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, platelet concentrates (PC) from UCB and human PB donors were frozen, melted, and sterilized to obtain PL. Quality control included platelet cell counts, sterility testing (viral and microbial), total protein concentrations, growth factor levels, and PL stability. The effects of UCB-PL and PB-PL on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes were studied and the results compared with FBS.
    Results
    UCB-PL contained high levels of protein content, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor (TGF) compared to PB-PL. All growth factors were stable for at least nine months post-storage at -70˚C. hMSCs proliferation enhanced following treatment with UCB-PL. With all three supplements, hMSCs could differentiate into all three lineages.
    Conclusion
    PB-PL and UCB-PL both were potent in hMSCs proliferation. However, PB promoted osteoblastic differentiation and UCB-PL induced chondrogenic differentiation. Because of availability, ease of use and feasible standardization of UCB-PL, we have suggested that UCB-PL be used as an alternative to FBS and PB-PL for the cultivation and expansion of hMSCs in cellular therapy.
    Keywords: Human Platelet Lysates, Umbilical Cord Blood, Peripheral Blood, Mesenchymal Stem Cell, Growth Factor
  • Nazanin Shushtari, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani* Pages 415-424
    Objective
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to produce adenosine, express adenosine receptors, and communicate with macrophages and other cells. However, there is no information about the role of caffeine, as a popular drink and adenosine antagonist, on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune cells. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of the conditioned medium of MSCs treated with caffeine on macrophages.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of rats and pulsed with different concentrations of caffeine (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM) for 72 hours. The conditioned medium of MSCs was collected after 24 hours, then incubated with macrophages for 24 hours. Finally, the functions of the macrophages were evaluated.
    Results
    Conditioned medium of MSCs treated with caffeine significantly enhanced phagocytosis and simultaneously regressed expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as IL-12 by macrophages compared to the supernatants of MSCs alone. The conditioned medium of MSCs pulsed with caffeine at low to moderate concentrations preserved the neutral red uptake by macrophages and elevated IL-10 secretion by macrophages. A high concentration of caffeine could interfere with the two latter effects of supernatants of MSCs on the macrophages.
    Conclusion
    Collectively, caffeine treatment of MSCs appeared to augment the instruction of anti-inflammatory macrophages by conditioned medium of MSCs. These findings might offer new insight into the potential mechanisms that underlie the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of caffeine.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem cell, Conditioned Medium, Macrophage, Caffeine
  • Shima Mohamadi, Latifeh Karimzadeh Bardei *, Vida Hojati, Azita Ghorbani, Mohammad Nabiuni Pages 425-433
    Objective
    Curcumin protects the liver against injury and fibrosis through suppressing hepatic inflammation, attenuating hepatic oxidative stress (OS), and inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are considered as common metabolic disorders. Low-grade chronic inflammation with different markers, such as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, play a crucial role in PCOS. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on IL-6 and CRP levels as well as insulin resistance (IR) index on liver function in PCOS rats.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 90 adult Wistar rats were divided into control (n=18), sham (n=18), PCOS (n=18) and curcumin-treated PCOS groups (n=36). PCOS group was injected subcutaneously with 2 mg estradio-valerate (E2V). After 60 days, PCOS group was treated with curcumin [100 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW)] for 14 days and anesthetized by chloroform. Blood and liver samples were collected for histological and serological analyses. Data were analyzed using In-Stat 3 via one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
    Results
    Histological and serological analyses showed a reduction in number of necrotic cells, IR index, as well as IL-6 and CRP levels in PCOS rats that were treated with various concentrations of curcumin.
    Conclusion
    In this study, curcumin decreased liver inflammation by induction of insulin sensitivity and reduction of hepatic necrosis. Therefore, curcumin may be considered as protective factor against inflammatory state of PCOS.
    Keywords: PCOS, Liver, Curcumin, Insulin Resistance
  • Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Sara Khademi, Hosein Azimian, Shokoufeh Mohebbi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard Pages 434-442
    Objective
    The dose-response relationship of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is controversial at high dose levels. The aim of the present study is to assess RIBE at high dose levels by examination of different endpoints.
    Materials And Methods
    This experimental study used the medium transfer technique to induce RIBE. The cells were divided into two main groups: QU-DB cells which received medium from autologous irradiated cells and MRC5 cells which received medium from irradiated QU-DB cells. Colony, MTT, and micronucleus assays were performed to quantify bystander responses. The medium was diluted and transferred to bystander cells to investigate whether medium dilution could revive the RIBE response that disappeared at a high dose.
    Results
    The RIBE level in QU-DB bystander cells increased in the dose range of 0.5 to 4 Gy, but decreased at 6 and 8 Gy. The Micronucleated cells per 1000 binucleated cells (MNBN) frequency of QU-DB bystander cells which received the most diluted medium from 6 and 8 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to the MNBN frequency of the cells that received complete medium (P
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that RIBE levels decreased at doses above 4 Gy; however, RIBE increased when diluted conditioned medium was transferred to bystander cells. This finding confirmed that a negative feedback mechanism was responsible for the decrease in RIBE response at high doses. Decrease of RIBE at high doses might be used to predict that in radiosurgery, brachytherapy and grid therapy, in which high dose per fraction is applied, normal tissue damage owing to RIBE may decrease.
    Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship, MRC5 Cell Line, Radiotherapy
  • Tamar Barbakadze, Galina Goloshvili, Nana Narmania, Elene Zhuravliova, David Mikeladze* Pages 443-451
    Objective
    Hypoxia or exposure to excessive reactive oxygen or nitrogen species could induce S-nitrosylation of various target proteins, including GTPases of the Ras-superfamily. Under hypoxic conditions, the Ras-protein is translocated to the cytosol and interacts with the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria. The mobility/translocation of Ras depend on the cells oxidative status. However, the importance of relocated S-nitrosylated-H-Ras (NO-H-Ras) in proliferation/differentiation processes is not completely understood. We have determined the content of soluble- and membrane-bound-NO-H-Ras in differentiated (D) and undifferentiated (ND) rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    In our experimental study, we analyzed NO-H-Ras levels under hypoxic/normoxic conditions in membrane and soluble fractions of ND and D PC12 cells with/without nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment. Cells were analyzed by the S-nitrosylated kit, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot. We assessed the action of NO-H-Ras on oxidative metabolism of isolated mitochondria by determining mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation via the scopoletin oxidation method and ATP-production as estimated by the luminometric method.
    Results
    Hypoxia did not influence nitrosylation of soluble H-Ras in ND PC12 cells. Under hypoxic conditions, the nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras greatly decreased in D PC12 cells. SNP didn’t change the levels of nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras, in either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. On the other hand, hypoxia, per se, did not affect the nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras in D and ND PC12 cells. SNP-dependent nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras greatly increased in D PC12 cells. Both unmodified normal and mutated H-Ras enhanced the mitochondrial synthesis of ATP, whereas the stimulatory effects on ATP synthesis were eliminated after S-nitrosylation of H-Ras.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it may be proposed that hypoxia can decrease S-nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras in D PC12 cells and abolish the inhibitory effect of NO-H-Ras in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.
    Keywords: Cell Hypoxia, Nitric Oxide, H-Ras, Mitochondria, ATP
  • Pervin Vural*, Gulcan Kabaca, Refia Deniz Firat, Sevgin Degirmencioglu Pages 452-460
    Objective
    The imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant status plays a pivotal role in diabetes mellitus (DM). Selenium is a integral component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Se treatment induces angiogenesis and improves endothelial function through increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium on oxidative stress, VEGF, and endothelin 1 (ET1) in a DM rat model.
    Materials And Methods
    We performed an experimental animal study with 64 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. Rats were divided into the following groups (n=8): control (C)7, C21, C늇抺 selenite (Se)7, and C䧭 (control rats), and DM7, DM21, DM䧮, and DM䧭 (diabetic rats). Diabetes was induced by 2-deoxy-2-(3-methyl-3-nitrosoureido)- D-glucopyranose [streptozotocin (STZ)]. Three weeks after STZ, DM䧮 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 0.4 mg/kg Se for 7 days. The DM䧭 rats received these injections for 21 days. The same dose/duration of Se was administered to the C䧮 and C䧭 groups. The remaining rats (C7, C21, DM7, DM21) received physi- ologic saline injections for 7 or 21 days. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), malon- dialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and endothelial function markers (VEGF and ET1) in plasma samples were measured.
    Results
    Diabetic rats (DM7 and DM21) had significantly increased plasma FRAP (P=0.002, P=0.001), AOPP (P=0.024, P=0.01), MDA (P=0.004, P=0.001), and ET1 (P=0.028, P=0.003) levels compared with C7 and C21 control rats. VEGF (P=0.02, P=0.01) significantly decreased in DM7 and DM21 diabetic rats compared with their controls (C7, C21). Se administration reversed the increased MDA and decreased VEGF levels, and lowered plasma glucose levels in the DM䧮 and DM䧭 diabetic groups compared with diabetic rats (DM7, DM21). We observed positive correlations between FRAP-AOPP (r=0.460), FRAP-ET1 (r=0.510), AOPP-MDA (r=0.270), and AOPP-ET1 (r=0.407), and a negative correlation between MDA-VEGF (r=-0.314).
    Conclusion
    We observed accentuated oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function in diabetes. Se treatment reduced lipid peroxidation and hyperglycemia. Se probably improved endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats because of the increased VEGF levels.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endothelin 1, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
  • Natasa Ristic, Vladimir Ajdzanovic, Milica Manojlovic-Stojanoski, Jovana Malikovic, Gordana Uscebrka, Zorica Markovic, Verica Milosevic Pages 461-468
    Objective
    Estrogen replacement therapy remains current as a therapeutic approach to treat menopausal symptoms and may significantly affect hormone-producing cells in the female pituitaries. The aim of this study was to examine the histological parameters of pituitary mammotrophs and prolactin secretion after chronic estradiol treatment in ovariectomized adult female rats, reflecting premature menopause.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, adult female Wistar rats were divided into non-ovariectomized (C), ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol-treated ovariectomized (OVX) groups. Estradiol dipropionate [0.625 mg/kg body mass per day] was administered for four weeks, while the C and OVX groups received vehicle alone. Mammotrophs were identified by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical procedure, while prolactin concentrations were measured by the non-isotopic two-step assay (Delfia) method. Comparison of the differences between groups was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukay (honest significant difference) HSD test.
    Results
    Ovariectomy caused significant (P
    Conclusion
    Estradiol supplementation in ovariectomized females is followed by stimulatory histological and secretory changes of the mammotrophs. These results could serve as indicators of possible prolactinome development upon estradiol application in premature menopausal subjects.
    Keywords: Mammotrophs, Prolactin, Estradiol, Ovariectomy, Rats
  • Li-Ya Yu, Wen-Lei Shi, Xin-Gui Guo* Pages 469-475
    Objective
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized as a coronary heart disease which expands during diabetes due to alterations in the myocardial function and structure. The currentstudy intends to elucidate the protective effect of gingerol on DCM in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, the animals were divided into three groups: normal control, DM control, and DM舩먥 (10 mg/kg). The body weights of all rats were estimated at regular intervals. The myocardial profile, oxidative stress, and activities of metabolic enzymes were also scrutinized. The proinflammatory cytokine levels together with cellular protein expression connected with apoptosis were estimated via Western blot analysis.
    Results
    The rats that suffered from DCM exhibited abnormal levels of myocardial markers, aberrant metabolic enzymatic activity, elevated concentrations of inflammatory factors, and enhanced oxidative stress parameters along with increased cell death apoptosis. Whereas gingerol showed protective effects on the treated rats by an improved antioxidant defense system.
    Conclusion
    The current findings suggested that gingerol is effective in the treatment of DCM by inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Gingerol, Streptozotocin, Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Inflammation, Antioxidants
  • Masomeh Belbasi, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Maryam Gholamitabar Tabari*, Ramzan Khanbabaei Pages 476-481
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fetal mouse lung tissue co-culture on in vitro maturation (IVM) of mouse immature oocytes.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from ovaries of a group of 25 female mice, 6-8 weeks of age, were dissected after being stimulated by 7.5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) through an intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The fetal lung tissues were then prepared and cultured individually. A total number of 300 oocytes were cultured in the following three groups for 24 hours: control group (n=100) containing only base medium, group I (n=100) containing base medium co-cultured with 11.5- to 12.5-day old fetal mouse lung tissues, and group II (n=100) containing base medium co-cultured with 12.5- to 13.5-day old fetal mouse lung tissues. The proportion of GV and metaphase І (MI) oocytes matured into MІІ oocytes were compared among the three groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlation test were also used to evaluate the successful rate of IVM oocytes.
    Results
    The proportions of GV oocytes reaching MІІ stage were 46, 65, and 56%, in control, I and II groups, respectively (P
    Conclusion
    This study indicated that fetal mouse lung tissue co-culture method increased the percentage of GV oocytes reaching MII stage.
    Keywords: In Vitro Maturation, Lung Tissue, Co-Culture
  • Seyed Morteza Hosseini, Fariba Moulavi, Nima Tanhaievash, Naser Shams-Esfandabadi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Abolfazl Shirazi* Pages 482-491
    Objective
    We recently demonstrated spatial regionalization of maternal transcripts and proteins within unfertilized ovine oocyte. Here, we investigated the likelihood of oocyte polarity for the first time in bovine.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, in vitro matured bovine oocytes were used for manual bisection [into oocyte halve that were near-to (HNS) and far-from (FS) spindle] or trisection [into MII-spindle (S), the spindle-side half (NS), and the distal half unassociated with the spindle (FS)]. Prepared pools of oocyte substructures were used for comparative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). To map the possible preferential sperm entry point (SEP), the spatial relationship between SEP and MII-spindle was measured 5 hours post-fertilization.
    Results
    The proportional amount of maternal mRNA in S oocyte fragment was estimated to be 6 to 11-fold higher than NS and FS counterparts. The relative abundances of Nanog, Oct4, Fgf4 and Tead4 were significantly higher in HNS oocyte fragment compared t0 FS. The relative abundances of Ctnb, Carm1, Rex1, Sox2 and Cdx2 were comparable between HNS and NS oocyte fragments. FS oocyte fragment possessed significantly higher transcripts of Gata4 compared to HNS. The distribution of certain transcripts related to pluripotency and lineage commitment were different depending upon the region of the oocyte; either enriched at S (Tead4, Nanog, Ctnb and Sox2), NS (Oct4), or FS (Gata6). The SEP in almost (90%) fertilized oocytes was located in MII-hemisphere.
    Conclusion
    The observation of spatial restriction of mRNAs and SEP within MII-oocyte may indicate that the principal forces of oocyte polarity are evolutionary conserved. This may in turn highlight the need for refinements in the methodology of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (where a sperm is injected far from the MII-spindle) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (where a major amount of regulative mRNAs that are associated with MIIspindle is removed during enucleation).
    Keywords: Oocyte, Polarity, Transcript, Sperm, Bovine
  • Vida Sadat Kazemein Jasemi, Firooz Samadi, Hussein Eimani*, Saeed Hasani, Rohoulah Fathi, Abdolhussein Shahverdi Pages 492-505
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) during transplantation of the ovarian tissue into the testis.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, ovaries of 6- to 8-week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were randomly divided into four groups: i. Fresh ovaries were immediately transplanted into the testicular tissue (FOT group), ii. Fresh ovaries were exposed to the SMF for 10 minutes and then transplanted into the testicular tissue (FOT芺), iii. Vitrified-warmed ovaries were transplanted into the testicular tissue (VOT group), and iv. Vitrified-warmed ovaries were transplanted into the testicular tissue and the transplantation site was then exposed to the SMF for 10 minutes (VOT芺).
    Results
    The lowest percentages of morphologically dead primordial follicles and the highest percentages of morphologically intact primordial follicles were seen in the FOT group (4.11% ± 2.88 and 41.26% ± 0.54, respectively). Although the lowest significant percentage of maturation, embryonic development and fertility was observed in the VOT group as compared to the other groups, the difference in the fertility rate was not significant between the VOT and VOT芺⺦. Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in the FOT芺 than those of the control mice.
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that, exposure of the vitrified-warmed ovaries to SMF retains the structure of the graft similar to that of fresh ovaries.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Magnetic Field, Mice, Transplantation, Vitrification
  • Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Azadeh Ghaheri, Reza Omani Samani* Pages 506-511
    Objective
    In assisted reproductive technology, it is important to choose high quality embryos for embryo transfer. The aim of the present study was to determine the grade A embryo count and factors related to it in infertile women.
    Materials And Methods
    This historical cohort study included 996 infertile women. The main outcome was the number of grade A embryos. Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression were used to model the count data as it contained excessive zeros. Stata software, version 13 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) was used for all statistical analyses.
    Results
    After adjusting for potential confounders, results from the ZINB model show that for each unit increase in the number 2 pronuclear (2PN) zygotes, we get an increase of 1.45 times as incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-1.69, P=0.001) in the expected grade A embryo count number, and for each increase in the cleavage day we get a decrease 0.35 times (95% CI: 0.20-0.61, P=0.001) in expected grade A embryo count.
    Conclusion
    There is a significant association between both the number of 2PN zygotes and cleavage day with the number of grade A embryos in both ZINB and ZIP regression models. The estimated coefficients are more plausible than values found in earlier studies using less relevant models.
    Keywords: Embryo Research, Assisted Reproductive Technology, Cleavage Stage, Poisson Distribution, Zygote
  • Xiangyang Yao*, Binyu Lu, Chaotian LÜ, Qin Bai, Dazhong Yan, Hui Xu Pages 512-519
    Objective
    Taraxerol acetate has potent anti-cancer effects via the induction of apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of cell migration. However, whether taraxerol induced apoptosis and its underlying mechanisms of action is not clear. In the present study, we assess the effects of taraxerol on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and determine the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and activation of caspases.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, we mainly investigated the effect of taraxerol on HeLa cells. We tested cell viability by the MTT assay and morphologic changes, analyzed apoptosis by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. We also determined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using a Microplate Reader. In addition, the apoptotic proteins were tested by Western blot.
    Results
    Taraxerol enhanced ROS levels and attenuated the MMP (Δψm) in HeLa cells. Taraxerol induced apoptosis mainly via the mitochondrial pathway including the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and activation of caspases 9 and 3, and anti-poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase (PARP). Taraxerol could induce the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. It suppressed the PI3K/ Akt signaling pathway.
    Conclusion
    These results demonstrated that taraxerol induced cell apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway in HeLa cells. Thus, taraxerol might be a potential anticervical cancer candidate.
    Keywords: Taraxerol, Apoptosis, Mitochondria, HeLa Cells