فهرست مطالب

Iranian Biomedical Journal - Volume:21 Issue: 6, 2017
  • Volume:21 Issue: 6, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maryam Golshani, Saeid Buozari Pages 349-359
    Brucellosis caused by species of Brucella is among the most prevalent zoonoses with the annual incidence of half a million cases globally. Most parts of Iran are endemic for brucellosis, and the annual incidence of the human and animal brucellosis is still high. At present, there is no safe and protective human vaccine against brucellosis, and the only preventive strategy is animal vaccination, which harbors significant disadvantages. Considering the identification of many immunogenic proteins in Brucella, several studies have recently been performed to evaluate the vaccine potency of such antigens as a new subunit vaccine candidate. This review represents an overview of brucellosis in Iran, including epidemiology, transmission routs, diagnosis, and treatment. Moreover, it mainly highlights the history of brucellosis control and prevention in Iran, including eradication programs, vast livestock vaccination programs, and subunit vaccine studies. It also discusses major problems that the country encounters with disease control. In recent years, Persian scientists have focused on evaluating the efficacy of best Brucella immunogens in vivo to introduce a new subunit vaccine. The results of some studies could demonstrate the vaccine potential of some immunogens.
    Keywords: Brucellosis, Iran, Epidemiology, Transmission, Subunit vaccine
  • Pegah Moradi Khaniabadi, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Mohammad Suhaimi Jaafar, Bita Moradi Khaniabadi, Saghar Shahbazi-Gahrouei Pages 360-368
    Background
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in molecular imaging by delivering the contrast agent into targeted cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C595 monoclonal antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs-C595) for the detection of breast cancer cell (MCF-7).
    Methods
    The conjugation of monoclonal antibody and nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The selectivity of the nanoprobe for breast cancer cells (MCF-7) was obtained by Prussian blue, atomic emission spectroscopy, and MRI relaxometry.
    Results
    The in vitro MRI showed that T2 relaxation time will be reduced 76% when using T2-weighed magnetic resonance images compared to the control group (untreated cells) at the dose of 200 μg Fe/ml, as the optimum dose. In addition, the results showed the high uptake of nanoprobe into MCF-7 cancer cells.
    Conclusion
    The SPIONs-C595 nanoprobe has potential for the detection of specific breast cancer.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles, Molecular Imaging, MCF-7 cells, Monoclonal antibody
  • Behnaz Sadat Eftekhari, Akbar Karkhaneh, Ali Alizadeh Pages 369-379
    Background
    Intravenous drug delivery is an advantageous choice for rapid administration, immediate drug effect, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism in oral drug delivery. In this study, the synthesis, formulation, and characterization of atorvastatin-loaded polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles were investigated for intravenous route of administration.
    Method
    First, PU was synthesized and characterized. Second, nanoparticles were prepared in four different ratios of drug to polymer through two different techniques, including emulsion-diffusion and single-emulsion. Finally, particle size and polydispersity index, shape and surface morphology, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading, and in vitro release were evaluated by dynamics light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and UV visible spectroscopy, respectively.
    Results
    Within two methods, the prepared nanoparticles had a spherical shape and a smooth surface with a diversity of size ranged from 174.04 nm to 277.24 nm in emulsion-diffusion and from 306.5 nm to 393.12 in the single-emulsion method. The highest EE was 84.76%, for (1:4) sample in the emulsion-diffusion method. It has also been shown that in vitro release of nanoparticles, using the emulsion-diffusion method, was sustained up to eight days by two mechanisms: drug diffusion and polymer relaxation.
    Conclusion
    PU nanoparticles, that were prepared by the emulsion-diffusion method, could be used as effective carriers for the controlled drug delivery of poorly water soluble drugs such as atorvastatin calcium.
    Keywords: Drug delivery systems, Nanoparticles, Polyurethanes, Cardiovascular diseases
  • Vida Tafakori, Reza Zadmard, Fatemeh Tabandeh, Mohammad Ali Amoozegar, Gholamreza Ahmadian Pages 380-391
    Background
    Amongst the methods that remove heavy metals from environment, biosorption approaches have received increased attention because of their environmentally friendly and cost-effective feature, as well as their superior performances.
    Methods
    In the present study, we investigated the ability of a surface-engineered Escherichia coli, carrying the cyanobacterial metallothionein on the cell surface, in the removal of Ca (II) from solution under different experimental conditions. The biosorption process was optimized using central composite design. In parallel, the kinetics of metal biosorption was studied, and the rate constants of different kinetic models were calculated.
    Results
    Cadmium biosorption is followed by the second-order kinetics. Freundlich and Langmuir equations were used to analyze sorption data; characteristic parameters were determined for each adsorption isotherm. The biosorption process was optimized using the central composite design. The optimal cadmium sorption capacity (284.69 nmol/mg biomass) was obtained at 40°C (pH 8) and a biomass dosage of 10 mg. The influence of two elutants, EDTA and CaCl2, was also assessed on metal recovery. Approximately, 68.58% and 56.54% of the adsorbed cadmium were removed by EDTA and CaCl2 during desorption, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis indicated that carboxyl, amino, phosphoryl, thiol, and hydroxyl are the main chemical groups involved in the cadmium bioadsorption process.
    Conclusion
    Results from this study implied that chemical adsorption on the heterogeneous surface of E. coli E and optimization of adsorption parameters provides a highly efficient bioadsorbent.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Response surface methodology, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer
  • Nasrin Sehati, Parviz Kokhaei, Ali Motevalizade Ardekani, Raziyeh Tootoonchian, Fatemeh Pak Pages 392-399
    Background
    Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a strategy used for treatment of different malignant diseases. However, success of allo-HSCT can be hampered by graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Natural killer (NK) cells may play an important role in activating antigen presenting cells and subsequent activation of T cells. The main purpose of this study was the evaluation of IL-21, as a blood biomarker, for early detection of acute GVHD (aGVHD) in children after HSCT and also the study of human leukocytes antigen (HLA)-C1 polymorphism, as a targeting ligand for NK cells in these patients.
    Methods
    Fifty one children receiving HSCT were studied. Blood samples were collected at -8, 7, and 14 days of transplantation. The -8-day samples were analyzed for HLA-C1 polymorphism by PCR-sequence-specific primer technique and pre-transplantation IL-21 assay. To study the serum levels of IL-21, two blood samples were collected on days and and analyzed by ELISA technique.
    Results
    The results indicated that the incidence of aGVHD in pediatric is associated with a polymorphism of HLA-C1, as alleles HLA-C01:12 (P
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this study, there is a significant correlation between HLA-C1 polymorphisms and the serum levels of IL-21 with the incidence of aGVHD.
    Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, NK cells, IL-21
  • Mahdi Alikhani Pour, Soroush Sardari, Ali Eslamifar, Abid Azhar, Mohammad Rezvani, Milad Nazari Pages 400-405
    Background
    Medicinal plants, as a complementary medicine, have been used to treat various diseases since ancient times. These plants have numerous beneficial applications and are the source of certain conventional drugs. In diseases such as stroke and ischemia, which are caused by several factors, abnormal coagulation is an important causative factor. Accordingly, novel and effective therapies such as herbal remedies should be practiced to prevent such lethal diseases.
    Methods
    Using the available databases such as Google Scholar and PubMed, the previously reported anticoagulant compounds and plants possessing anticoagulant activity were identified and collected in two separate lists. Next, the fast and cost-effective cheminformatics methods incorporated in PubChem were applied to detect some compounds similar to reported anticoagulants. Subsequently, 15 native medical plants of Iran containing the potential anticoagulants were selected. The selected plants were purchased and chopped, and the potential compounds were extracted by ethanol. Then three concentrations of extracts (1, 10, and 100 µg per ml) were made. Finally, anticoagulant effect of the selected plants was evaluated by in vitro prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time coagulation tests.
    Results
    Among the 15 selected medicinal plants, three plants, including Terminalia bellirica (P=0.0019), Astragalus arbusculinus (P=0.0021), and Origanum vulgare (P=0.0014) showed a more promising anticoagulant effect in comparison to the control.
    Conclusion
    The anticoagulant activity was identified for the first time in these three plants. Further in vivo study and mechanism of action assay are required to be performed on these three plants, which could be suitable candidates for use as natural anticoagulant medicines.
    Keywords: Cheminformatics, Cardiovascular diseases, Medicinal plants
  • Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh Sefidi, Homan Kaghazian, Gholam Ali Moradli, Seyed Mehdi Hassanzadeh Pages 406-410
    Background
    Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which the consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentrations were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran.
    Methods
    In the design of experiments using Taguchi method, lactose, trehalose, glucose, dextran, and monosodium glutamate were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to freeze-drying process. Viability of the samples was determined by counting the colony forming unit.
    Results
    Maximum signal-to-noise ratio equal to maximum TS and viability was obtained by adding lactose, dextran, and glutamate in defined concentrations.
    Conclusion
    Adding the stabilizers had a significant impact on TS of BCG vaccine to meet the quality requirements.
    Keywords: BCG vaccine, Quality control, Stability
  • Hadi Razavi Nikoo, Abdollah Ardebili, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Fatemeh Rezaei, Ali Teimoori, Sayyad Khanizadeh, Mohammad Hassan Pouriayevali, Mehdi Ajorloo Pages 411-416
    Background
    Detection and quantification of human Papillomavirus (HPV) genome in oral carcinoma play an important role in diagnosis, as well as implications for progression of disease.
    Methods
    We evaluated tissues from 50 esopharyngeal cancers collected from different regions of Iran for HPV E6 using the two type-specific primers sets. E6 gene of HPV genotypes was amplified by specific primers. The sensitivity of PCR assay was analyzed and determined using HPV-DNA-containing plasmids. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the prevalence and HPV viral load in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
    Results
    Eighteen (36%) specimens were positive for HPV. Among the 18 positive specimens, 10 showed HPV-18 (55.55%), and 8 specimens were positive for HPV-11 (44.44%). Of the 18 infected specimens, 6 (33.32%) and 12 (66.65%) were identified as high-titer and low-titer viral load, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The PCR-based assay, developed in the current study, could be used for HPV detection, quantification, and genotyping in epidemiological and clinical studies.
    Keywords: Real-time PCR, Genotyping, Iran