فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Akindele Olupelumi Adebiyi, Akinola Ayoola Fatiregun Pages 64-70
    Introduction
    The financial burden of health care costs in Nigeria is borne almost entirely by the individuals and household members as health care financing is still mostly from out of pocket (OOP) payments. OOP payments can lead households into poverty. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of household health care expenditure to poverty in rural and urban communities in Oyo state, Nigeria.
    Method
    This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a tested and adapted version of the Living Standard Survey questionnaire to collect data on 5,696 household members from 1,434 household representatives. Representatives were selected using a multistage sampling method. Information was collected from 714(49.8%) and 720(50.2%) households in the urban and rural Local Government Area (LGA), respectively. International poverty line of $1.25 per day was used. Poverty level was measured with and without household health expenditure. An exact McNemar’s test was used to determine the difference in the proportion of poor, gross and net payment for health care services. SPSS software was used for data analysis.
    Results
    Health care was utilised by 1,006 (70.2%) of the 1,434 households studied. Of urban and rural households, 637(89.2%) and 369(51.3%) utilized health care services, respectively. Only 513(29.8%) were poor while 1519(88.2%) were poor after considering the cost of utilising health care. Increase in poverty of 66.2% occurred because of health care utilisation (p
    Conclusion
    Health care expenditure increased the proportion of household members living below poverty line. To protect against poverty free basic health care services is required in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Cost, Out of Pocket, Poverty, Expenditure
  • Heshmatollah Asadi, Ali Garavand, Mohammad Khammarnia, Mohammad Bagher Abdollahi Pages 71-75
    Introduction
    Since there are few studies on stress experienced by nursing staff in private hospitals, this study aimed to determine the sources of job stress among nurses in private hospitals in southwest of Iran.
    Method
    In a cross-sectional design, nurses in private hospitals in Shiraz were investigated; about 160 nurses were selected by single-stage cluster sampling as the study samples in three selected hospitals. A standard questionnaire on the sources of job stress was used for data collection. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 21, using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The level of significance was considered as 0.05.
    Results
    Five important causes of stress among nurses were low income, lack of job security, work-home interface, lack of enough time for work, and exposure with unsuitable physical situation. There were significant associations between the source of stress and having persons with chronic disease in family and concurrent education and work (P = 0.021, X2= 426.5 and P = 0.022, X2 = 717.5, respectively).
    Conclusion
    The sources of job stress should be considered for effective working of the hospital. Attention to nurses’ salary and job security reduces job stress.
    Keywords: Nurse, Stress, Hospital, Salaries, Iran
  • Zohre Karimi, Mohsen Dastgir, Mehdi Arab Salehi Pages 76-80
    Introduction
    Today, businesses must focus on profits on the one hand and social and environmental issues on the other hand to make balance between them. Conservation and sustainability are increasingly dependent on observance of corporate social responsibilities. For this reason, business units report on their sustainability and environmental accounting. The aim of this study was to examine and model the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools from the points of view of financial managers and assistants who are in the oil refining and petrochemical companies.
    Method
    The method used in this study was based on a descriptive survey and its design was quasi-experimental. For the field of study, a questionnaire including 5 general and 31 specific questions was used. The population consisted of financial administrators and assistants in oil refining and petrochemical companies, a subsidiary of the national oil company. There was no sampling method used and we tested the whole society including 182 people. To evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha and spilit-half were used. The measurement tools used in the study were reliable and none of the questions was removed.
    One sample t-test, Pearson correlation, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, two sample T-test and analysis of variance were performed by using LISREL and SPSS software.
    Results
    The result of this test by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation test showed that the significance level of all the factors were larger than 1/96 and all the routes specified in the model were significant. Culture of the society in dealing with environmental issues, with a significance level of 5/54, had the greatest impact among the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of the study, it is recommended that, by using personality tools, the right people should be appointed in organizational position in that agency to implement environmental management accounting and it is necessary to establish the use of tools in reducing environmental pollution.
    Keywords: EMA, Culture, Standard
  • Hamid Taboli, Hamid Bahmanyari Pages 81-86
    Introduction
    Organizational Intelligence is a combination of all skills that organizations need and use; it enables us to make organizational decisions. Organizational Intelligence can increase the effectiveness of the existing informational structures in achieving organizational goals and result in organizational agility. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Organizational Intelligence and organizational agility in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
    Method
    This is an applied study in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of method. The study population consisted of 1200 employees working in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were selected via convenience sampling. Based on Cochran formula, a sample size of 296 was determined with a confidence level of 95%. The measurement tools included the 36-item Organizational Intelligence questionnaire developed by Albrecht (2003) and a researcher-developed organizational agility questionnaire with 30 items. Expert opinion was used to determine the validity of the questionnaires and reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient via SPSS, version 19.
    Results
    Tenure employees had the highest frequency among the participants (50%). In terms of education, employees with a bachelor’s degree were the most frequent (58%). Values obtained for all variables showed a significant positive relationship between Organizational Intelligence and Agility.
    Conclusion
    It is recommended that the university officials take measures to include Organizational Intelligence courses in in-service training programs to promote the agility of the university, and improve the service provision process and speed.
    Keywords: Organizations, Vision, Efficiency
  • Azam Dekamin, Ahmad Shaibatalhamdi Pages 87-94
    Introduction
    Cardiovascular diseases are currently of broad prevalence and constitute one of the major causes of mortality in different societies. Angiography is one of the most accurate methods to diagnose heart diseases; it incurs high expenses and comes with side effects. Data mining is intended to enable timely prognosis of diseases with the least expenses possible, making use of the patients’ information. The present study aims to provide replies for the question whether it is possible to predict coronary artery diseases with higher efficiency and fewer errors and identify the factors impacting the disease using data mining techniques.
    Method
    In this study, the data under investigation was collected from a number of 303 persons referring to the heart unit in Shahid Rajaie hospital (Iranian hospital) from 2011 to 2013. It included 54 features. Attempts are made to take advantage of a higher number of characteristics which are helpful for diagnosis of diseases. In addition, Information Gain, Gini, and SVM methods were applied to select influential features, and variables with higher weights were chosen for modeling purposes. In the modeling phase, a combination of classification algorithms and ensemble methods was applied to develop a prediction with fewer errors. Rapid Miner Software was adopted to conduct this study.
    Results
    Findings of this research indicated that the suggested model, if weighted by SVM index, had the highest efficiency, i.e. 95.83%. This model, moreover, was able to accurately predict all patients with coronary artery disease in Iran. According to the proposed model and obtained accuracies, weighting with SVM was found to be the most effective filtering method, and age as well as typical and atypical chest pain were identified to be the most effective features of coronary artery disease. (Graph 3)
    Conclusion
    This study can contribute to the diagnosis of influential factors which lead to cardiovascular disease in Iran. Comparison of influential variables showed that chest pain (in its two typical and atypical modes) and patient’s age had the highest weight in this study. It demonstrates that coronary artery disease is more likely to happen in older ages. High blood pressure is also an important factor in outbreak of this disease. That is why measures have to be taken to prevent such occurrence. Diabetes constitutes another influential factor in the outbreak of coronary artery disease to which attention should be paid in primary tests.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Coronary Artery Disease, Angiography