فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue:5, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Farzad Ghiasi, * Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Javad Ashrafihellan Pages 1-4
    Background
    Histological studies in organs like hepatopancreas and gill of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, were made to assess tissue damage due to sub-lethal concentration of cadmium after a long exposure period.
    Methods
    This study was conducted in University of Tehran, in 2013. The fish were divided into two groups in 1000 litre fiberglass tanks supplied with dechlorinated water [hardness 302.6 mg CaCo3/l, pH 7, O2 7.8 mg/L and temperature 15 ± 2 ºC] and continuous aeration. Group 1 was without any cadmium considered as control group. Group 2 was exposed to 30 ppb CdCl2 (Merck) containing 7.8 ppb cadmium. The tissue samples from: hepatopancreas, gill were collected 30 days post exposure and processed by histological procedures.
    Results
    The main lesions in cadmium exposed groups were: (a) pancreatitis necrosis in endocrine part of pancreas (b) cholangitis and necrosis in liver parenchyma (c) hypertrophy, fusion and telangiectasia in secondary lamellae
    Conclusion
    Cadmium chloride at low concentration can induce pathological alterations in hepatopancreas and gill of common carp.
    Keywords: Cadmium, Common Carp, Gill, Hepatopancreas, Histological Effects
  • Javad Heydari, Mahvash Jafari *, Saeed Khazaie, Hassan Goosheh, Mostafa Ghanei, Ashraf Karbasi Pages 5-11
    Background
    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong bifunctional alkylating agent that causes delayed complications in organs such as lung. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of many pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress in sputum of SM exposed patients with mild, moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction and assessing their relationship with pulmonary function.
    Methods
    In this cross–sectional study, oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum were examined on 26 patients with SM-induced bronchiolitis obliterans (9 mild, 14 moderate and 3 severe) and 12 matched healthy controls referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran between October 2015 and April 2016.
    Results
    Sputum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and malondialdehyde level in moderate and severe groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.002, P=0.004, P=0.014 and P=0.009, respectively). Glutathione (GSH) level in moderate (22.29%, P=0.025) and severe (45.07%, P=0.004) groups were significantly lower than the control. A decreased in GSH level in severe (41.7%) groups was observed as compared with the mild group. Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between disease severity and oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum of patients with moderate and severe injuries.
    Conclusions
    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of patients with moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction following SM exposure. The presence of enhanced oxidative stress relates to the decline lung function and the progression of the disease. Sputum induction in SM-injured patients can be used to the assessment of the antioxidant status of bronchial secretions.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Severity of Disease, Sputum, Sulfur Mustard
  • Ismaila Olanrewaju Nurain *, Clement Olatunbosun Bewaji Pages 13-21
    Background
    In this study, the potential side effects of Khaya grandifolola (KG) and Enatia chlorantha (EC) were investigated on liver function and hematological parameters of Swiss albino mice infected with malaria.
    Method
    This study was carried out in part in the Department of Biochemistry, Kwara State University, Malete, and in part in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, 2016. Aqueous extracts of both KG and EC were screened for the presence of some phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five groups of eight animals each were used. Group A was administered with only distilled water. Group B was administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Groups C, D, and E were treated with 400 mg/kg body weight of KG, EC and KG-EC combination, respectively. After 28 d, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical analysis.
    Results
    The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin activities were not significantly different (P˂0.05) in all the extract treated animal groups as compared to ACT. However, there was increase in the concentrations of ATL and total bilirubin when compared with that of controls. There was no significant difference (P˂0.05) among Hb, RBC, PCV, WBC, lymphocytes, and platelets compared with ACT. However, they increased as compared to the control groups.
    Conclusion
    The aqueous bark extracts of KG and EC either in single or in combined form resulted in hepatotoxicity compared to controls. They also have deleterious effects on hematological parameters of the Swiss mice following administration.
    Keywords: Enantia Chlorantha, Hematologic Tests, Khaya Grandifoliola, Liver Function Tests, Meliaceae
  • Peculiar Nwanyibunwa Okoro, Sani Ibrahim, Hajiya Mairo Inuwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa Pages 23-30
    Background
    The global incidence of snakebite has become a major concern to the community. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mango seed kernel methanol extract on metalloproteases in Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) venom.
    Methods
    Mango seed kernel methanolic extract was evaluated in vitro for its anti-venom activity and inhibition of metalloproteases of Carpet Viper's (Echis ocellatus) venom. Metalloprotease portion was partially purified from the venom of E. ocellatus with a yield of 71%, a purification fold of 2.63 and a specific activity of 19.00 µmol/min/mg protein.
    Results
    The enzyme appeared as a band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 23 kDa. The kinetic properties of the enzyme showed a Km of 0.31 mg mL-1 and a Vmax of 9.09 µmol min-1. When the enzyme was incubated with the extract, kinetic studies revealed a mixed non-competitive pattern of inhibition with Km values of 0.56 and 1.11 mg mL-1 and Vmaxvalues of 6.67 and 4.17-µmol min-1 for 5% and 20% inhibitor concentrations, respectively. An estimated Ki value of 0.168 mg mL-1 was obtained from a secondary plot demonstrating that the extract had a high affinity for the partially purified enzyme; thus, could serve as an effective inhibitor.
    Conclusion
    Methanol extract of mango seed kernel has a high affinity for the partially purified enzyme, and it might provide an inexpensive and readily available alternative to sheep serum in the management of snakebite envenomation. Therefore, further in vivo studies are necessary to assess its effectiveness and safety.
    Keywords: Mangifera, Metalloproteases, Snake Bites, Viperidae, Viper Venoms
  • Masoud Rezaei, Hossein Mafakheri, Karim Khoshgard, Alireza Montazerabadi, Ahmad Mohammadbeigi, Farhad Oubari Pages 31-36
    Background
    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles have attracted attention in various diagnosis and treatment fields. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of various concentrations and incubation times of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) on HeLa and MCF-7 cancerous cell lines.
    Methods
    This in-vitro study was conducted at Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2016. The dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) uptake and cytotoxicity at different concentrations (10, 40 and 80 µg/ml) and different incubation times (6, 12 and 24 h) were assessed on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. The viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay.
    Results
    DIONPs entered into the HeLa and MCF-7 cells. After 6, 12 and 24 h incubation times and in all concentrations, the viability of HeLa cells was more than 94%. For MCF-7 cell line, increasing incubation time from 6 to 24 h at a concentration of 10 μg/ml decreased the cells viability from 98% to 95%. When the cells were exposed to concentrations of 40 and 80 μg/ml of the nanoparticles, significant reductions in the cells viability was observed from 98% to 91.6% and from 95% to 88%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    DIONPs cytotoxicity increased by increasing the incubation time from 6 to 24 h and also increased with increasing the nanoparticles concentration from 0 to 80 μg/ml. In general, DIONPs did not cause considerable toxicity in both cell lines especially at lower concentrations. Therefore, these nanoparticles are good candidates for use in biomedical and cancer research studies.
    Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Dextran, HeLa Cells, Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, MCF-7 Cells
  • Attaollah Shakoori, Peyman Mahasti, Vahideh Moradi Pages 37-44
    Background
    Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in agriculture, homes, gardens, and veterinary practices. Extensive application of pesticides in agriculture often results in residues of these compounds being absorbed into the foods, including wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residue levels of 20 organophosphorus pesticides in wheat samples collected from different regions of Iran.
    Methods
    This research reports a rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC–SIM–MS) to evaluate 20 organophosphorus pesticides in wheat samples.
    Results
    In the concentration range of 20-200 ng/g, the calibration curves for each analyte was linear with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.993 to 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were between 2.5-6.7 and 7.5-20 ng/g, respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for three fortification levels (25, 50 and 100 ng/g, five replicates each) were 80-114% with a satisfactory precision (RSD
    Conclusion
    Among the detected pesticides, only diazinon and malathion are permitted pesticides for wheat production in Iran. However, their concentrations were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the Iranian National Standard Organization (INSO).
    Keywords: GC-MS, Organophosphates, Pesticides, Wheat
  • Susmita Srivastav, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Nobuo Suzuki, Ajai Kumar Srivastav Pages 45-51
    Background
    This study investigated the effects of estradiol on plasma calcium and prolactin cells of Heteropneustes fossilis kept in calcium-deficient and normal freshwater.
    Methods
    Fish were deprived of food and divided into groups A-D. Group A and B were kept in artificial freshwater with normal electrolytes. Group C and D were maintained in calcium-deficient freshwater. Vehicle was administered to groups A and C. Groups B and D were injected with estradiol. Plasma calcium levels and prolactin cells were studied after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days.
    Results
    Normal-calcium freshwater: In group A calcium levels remained unaffected. In group B, estradiol provoked hypercalcemia from day 3 to 10 although calcium decreased after day 15. Prolactin cells in group B became degranulated after 10day. Nuclear volume increased from day 10 onwards.
    Calcium-deficient freshwater: Calcium levels in group C decreased from day 1 to 3 thereafter increased from day 5 to 15. Plasma calcium of group D increased from day 3 to 15. In group C prolactin cells exhibited hyperactivity on day 3 and degranulation on day 5. Nuclear volume increased from day 5 onwards. On day 10 and 15 certain cells became degenerated. In group D degranulation of prolactin cells began on day 3 which proceeded to complete degranulation on day 10. Nuclear volume increased from day 5 onwards.
    Conclusions
    Estradiol enhanced prolactin production and increased blood calcium in food-deprived fishes kept in calcium-deficient medium suggesting that calcium needed for elevation of blood calcium was derived from internal sources.
    Keywords: Calcium, Catfishes, Estradiol, Fishes, Prolactin
  • Parisa Ziarati, Estatira Sepehr, Saeed Heidari, Maryam Moslehishad Pages 53-59
    Background
    The aim of this study was to introduce a new and economical method for reduction of nitrate content in canned apples and pears.
    Methods
    The nitrate content was determined before and after treatment with CaHPO4 ranging from 0.01% to 0.1% using spectroscopic method in 2015 in Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran- Iran. The effect of treatment time at three different time points (30, 60, 90 min) was determined. Sensory evaluation was performed using five-point hedonic scales.
    Results
    Nitrate content in fresh fruit is significantly (P
    Conclusion
    Application of CaHPO4 is suggested as a novel, safe and economical method for removal of nitrate in canned products.
    Keywords: CaHPO4, Canned Apples, Canned Pears, Food Safety, Removing Nitrate