فهرست مطالب

نامه هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 14 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 14 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • احسان زیورعالم *، فرزان سجودی صفحات 5-18
    ویتگنشتاین نظریه ی بازی های زبانی را بر اساس فعالیت های روزانه ی مردم ارائه کرد و تام استوپارد در سال 1980، دو نمایشنامه ی هملت داگ، مکبث کاهوت را -که همراه با یکدیگر اجرا می شوند- بر پایه ی این نظریه نگاشت. وی در هملت داگ مخاطبان را در معرض زبانی جدید به نام داگ قرار می دهد که شامل واژه های انگلیسی است اما معانی این واژه ها کاملا متفاوت اند. در نمایشنامه ی نخست، زبان داگ بر اساس نظریه ی کارکرد معنای لودویگ ویتگنشتاین عرضه می شود تا در نمایشنامه ی دوم، مخاطب با مطابقت دادن شخصیت ستمگر مکبث با شخصیت بازرس، به درکی زبانی دست یابد. بازیگران اجرای مکبث را با زبان داگ ادامه می دهند که پس از اجرای هملت داگ برای مخاطب قابل درک است. استوپارد نشان می دهد که چیزی به نام زبان شخصی وجود ندارد و تنها ابزاری که می تواند در برابر قدرت پیروز شود، زبان است. در پژوهش حاضر اثبات می شود که مخاطب، معانی واژه ها را با کارکرد آن ها درک می کند و می آموزد و می توان با کمک نمایشنامه، زبان های بیگانه را به مخاطبان آموخت. در این مقاله با هدف بررسی شیوه ی فراگیری زبان به واسطه ی درام، شیوه ی آفرینش زبان داگ و عرضه ی آن، براساس تکرار دیالوگ ها، تحلیل و بررسی شده است. گرداوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تام استوپارد، لودویگ ویتگنشتاین، بازی های زبانی، هملت داگ، مکبث کاهوت
  • شیرین بزرگمهر *، مهدی فیضی صفحات 19-32
    این مقاله گزارش «رویارویی» ما با «ذکر بر دار کردن حسنک وزیر» در تاریخ بیهقی به عنوان یک درام حقیقت است. در این رویارویی «نسبت فضایی» تعیین کننده ی بالقوگی اندیشه ها و تصمیم هاست. اما در این میان، هدف ما ناگزیر رسیدن به چشم اندازی است که از آن، بار دیگر پیوند گریزناپذیر اثر هنری، حقیقت و سیاست، نمایان می شود. از این رو نخست در «سرچشمه ی اثر هنری» مارتین هایدگر در پی مفهوم اثر خواهیم بود. بنابراین بحث را از سرچشمه آغاز خواهیم کرد، سپس، در گریز از «سرچشمه»ی اثر هنری، به سوی «تئاتر اثر هنری» خواهیم رفت. «تئاتر اثر هنری» یا «تئاتر حقیقت»، راه گریز از سرچشمه گرایی هایدگر خواهد بود. اما در گام سوم، وظیفه ی ما تنها این است که نشان دهیم «حسنک-بر-دار-شده» (دارحسنک،) تئاتری را فراهم آورده و برپا کرده بود. در این بخش، دوباره به سرچشمه که این بار به مثابه ی درام «امر گشوده» فهمیده می شود، بازخواهیم گشت. در پایان، این مسئله بررسی خواهد شد که آیا دارحسنک، به مثابه ی یک اثر، بالقوگی سیاسی وضعیت را حفظ نکرده بود؟
    کلیدواژگان: امر گشوده، بازنمایی، تئاتر اثر هنری، دار، حسنک، مارتین هایدگر
  • سید مصطفی مختاباد *، مسعود کوثری، علی رویین صفحات 33-49
    این پژوهش می کوشد با بررسی تطبیقی دیدگاه و شگردهای نمایشنامه نویسی برشت و مفاهیم کلیدی سواد رسانه ای -با محوریت جایگاه حقوقی و اجتماعی فرد در مقام مخاطب و میزان بهره مندی اش از آموزش های همگانی- توان تئاتر را به عنوان رسانه، ارزیابی کند. شیوه ی پژوهش، بررسی شگردهای نه گانه ی برشت در نمایشنامه نویسی است که در چند نمونه ی مطالعاتی (نمایشنامه) آزموده خواهد شد. همزمان، مهم ترین دیدگاه ها درباره ی سواد رسانه ای و تعاریفی که تا به امروز از این مفهوم ارائه شده اند، بررسی شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشانگر طرح آگاهانه ی شرایط امکان و ارائه ی ابزار جدید برای شکل گیری ساختارهای دراماتیک و روایی نو -در راستای دریافت انتقادی مفاهیم توسط مخاطب- از سوی برشت است. به واسطه ی پیشگامی آگاهانه ی برشت در حیطه ی نظریه و عمل تئاتر -به مثابه ی یک رسانه- می توان او را پیشتاز عرصه ی سواد رسانه ای، در گستره ی تئاتر و ارتباطات، به شمار آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: سواد رسانه ای، برشت، تئاتر، نمایشنامه نویسی، مخاطب
  • حمید دهقانپور *، راضیه فرمانی صفحات 51-69
    این مقاله کوششی برای شناخت طنز کلامی در آثار وودی آلن است. برای تحقق این هدف، گروهی از ابزارهای زبانی مانند پیش انگاری، استلزام، استنتاج و نیز بافت که سبب پیدایش طنز کلامی شده اند، بررسی و تحلیل می شود. پرسش های پژوهش عبارتند از: «کدام یک از فنون زبانی در شکل گیری طنز کلامی موثر بوده اند؟» و «طنز کلامی و کاربرد آن چگونه بوده است؟». وودی آلن کارگردان کمدی و طنزپرداز نام آشنای آمریکاست. طنز و بازیگوشی آلن آمیزه ای از نخبگی و معصومیت تجربی خاص خود اوست. آلن به شکلی خلاقانه، تخیل بصری اش را با بوطیقایی گویای دنیایی از واقعیت ها و معناهای ناشناخته درهم می آمیزد و عدم امنیت را به نمایش می گذارد و از آن استفاده می کند. این مقاله در چارچوبی زبان شناختی، به بررسی شیوه های شکل گیری طنز کلامی و انتقادی آلن می پردازد. پس از تعریف طنز کلامی و نظریه های سه گانه ی موجود، این مفهوم در حوزه ی معنی شناسی و کاربردشناسی بررسی شده است، و در نهایت، پس از تبیین چارچوب های نظری، نمایشنامه های از این آب ننوشید و جاده ی ریور ساید بررسی و تحلیل و الگوی غالب در خلق فضاهای طنز معرفی شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات نمایشی، طنز کلامی، معنی شناسی، زبان شناسی، تحلیل گفتمان
  • محمد باقر قهرمانی*، مرضیه پیراوی ونک، حامد مظاهریان، علیرضا صیاد صفحات 71-85
    از آنجا که در رویکردهای معاصر، جنبه های لامسه ای دریافت فیلم کانون توجه اند، نمی توان ظرفیت های هنر باروک در فضاسازی سینمایی را نادیده گرفت. سینمای مبتنی بر هنر باروک، به جای تضمین سلطه و برتری اپتیکی سوژه/ناظر بر تصاویر، قلمرویی را شکل می دهد و تماشاگر را به رها شدن در فضای فیلم و همزیستی با بدن های فیلمی دعوت می کند. این پژوهش نظری که با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده است، می کوشد با بهره گیری از آرای متفکرانی چون فریدریش نیچه، موریس مرلوپونتی و ژیل دلوز، این نکته را آشکار سازد که در تجربه ی سینمای باروکی، تماشاگر نمی تواند جدا و مستقل از شخصیت ها و فضاها به نظاره بنشیند، بلکه فولدهای فضایی تصاویر، مخاطب را به درون لابیرنت های جسمانی/حسی فیلم می کشانند. به واسطه ی فولد شدن فضای درونی تماشاگر با جهان فیلم، نوعی رابطه ی درهم تنیدگی شکل می گیرد که در آن هر کنش یک طرف، واکنش طرف مقابل را در پی خواهد داشت. در تعامل مخاطب و جهان فیلم، مخاطب احساساتش را به فضای فیلم و شخصیت ها می بخشد و فیلم نیز فضای حسانی خود را در کالبد تماشاگر منتشر می کند. از این رو تجربه ی تماشای فیلم را می توان فرایند تعامل پویای این «فولدهای درهم تافته» قلمداد کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: روبنس، سینمای باروک، فولدهای درهم تافته، ژیل دلوز، موریس مرلوپونتی
  • سیدمحسن هاشمی*، مریم فیروزی صفحات 87-102
    در این مقاله مفهوم خودبازتابی و کارکردهای آن در سینما مطالعه و بررسی شده است. خودبازتابی پدیده ای فراژانری و فرارسانه ای است که در فلسفه، روانشناسی و انواع هنرها می توان آن را تعریف و بررسی کرد. اگرچه این مفهوم مفهومی تازه نیست و می توان رد آن را از آغاز هنر و از ابتدای ظهور آثار اندیشه در کتب به جا مانده یافت؛ اما با ظهور اندیشه های برشتی این مفهوم نظریه پردازی شد و مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار گرفت و در دهه ی شصت و با شکل گیری اندیشه ی پسامدرنیستی، به اندیشه ی اصلی هنر پسامدرن تبدیل شد. اثر خودبازتابانه می تواند خود را سوژه قرار دهد، اما مهم ترین ویژگی آثار خودبازتابانه مسئله ی خودآگاهی است؛ خودآگاهی مخاطب در رویارویی با اثر هنری و خودآگاهی مولف در فرایند خلق اثر که به پیدایش خلاقیت ها و کارکردهای متفاوتی در این گونه آثار می انجامد. سینمای خودبازتابانه طیف گسترده ای از آثار -از دوران سینمای صامت تا امروز- را شامل می شود که بر اساس دوره و بازنمایی شان در سینما، جذابیت و کارکردهای متفاوتی دارند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی کارکردهای خودبازتابی در سینما برای جذاب ساختن اثر هنری نزد مخاطب بوده است. این پژوهش توصیفی، تحلیلی و کیفی بوده و با استفاده از روش کتابخانه ای تجزیه و تبیین شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: خودبازتابی، سینما، پسامدرنیسم، فرافیلم
  • افسانه صابری* صفحات 103-116
    پژوهش حاضر می کوشد اثر آموزش موسیقی را بر خلاقیت دانش آموزان بررسی کند. برای تحقق هدف پژوهش، یک گروه آزمایش و یک گروه گواه شامل 120 نفر از جامعه ی آماری دانش آموزان دختر و پسر در پایه ی هفتم دبیرستان ها و هنرستان های موسیقی دخترانه و پسرانه (دوره ی اول پایه ی هفتم) انتخاب شدند. انتخاب نمونه از هنرستان های موسیقی به سبب کم بودن شمار هنرستان ها، به روش در دسترس، اما انتخاب نمونه از دبیرستان ها به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ایانجام شد. دانش آموزان دختر و پسر هنرستان موسیقی گروه آزمایش و دانش آموزان دبیرستانی گروه گواه را تشکیل دادند و هر دو گروه در پایان سال تحصیلی به پرسشنامه ی استاندارد خلاقیت عابدی پاسخ دادند. شرط ورود دانش آموزان هنرستانی به گروه آزمایش، سپری کردن دروس آموزش موسیقی در یک سال تحصیلی بوده است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون T انجام شد و نتایج نشان دادند که آموزش موسیقی اثری مثبت بر خلاقیت دانش آموزان دارد و به بهبود خلاقیت کلی آنها می انجامد. همچنین، آموزش موسیقی به بهبود کیفیت هر یک از ابعاد چهارگانه ی خلاقیت، سیالی، بسط، ابتکار و انعطاف پذیری، کمک می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: آموزش موسیقی، خلاقیت، دانش آموزان
  • محسن نورانی*، امیرحسین جزء رمضانی صفحات 117-131
    هدف از نگارش این مقاله، بررسی و تحلیل برخی از آثار کلود دبوسی با هدف نمایش دلبستگی های او به هنر شرق و بررسی صداها و نشانه های جدید در موسیقی غرب در سده ی بیستم است. این آهنگساز فرانسوی وابسته به مکتب امپرسیون، همچون اسلاف خود، و مانند نقاش این مکتب، گوگن، برای پیدا کردن زیبایی های هنر شرق و پیوند دادن آن ها به موسیقی دوران خود تلاش کرد. رویکرد او در مباحث آهنگسازی دریچه های جدید ارتباط دوسویه ی موسیقی شرق و غرب را بر روی هنرمندان پس از خود گشود و تحولی شگرف در موسیقی قرن بیستم پدید آورد. نخستین زمینه ی گرایش به هنر شرقی در دبوسی، به سبب سفر او به روسیه و اقامت در این کشور و مشاهده ی اندیشه های هنرمندان روسی و نیز شنیدن موسیقی مناطقی از جنوب شرق آسیا، نظیر اندونزی، در بازدید از دستاوردهای جدید نمایشگاه پاریس در اواخر سده ی نوزدهم شکل گرفت. مقاله حاضر با نگاهی تاریخ نگارانه و تحلیلی، موضوع را از زوایای هنری و موسیقایی تحلیل خواهد کرد و نشان خواهد داد که تلاش های این هنرمند غربی در حوزه ی آهنگسازی با استفاده از منابع موسیقی شرق، به پیدایش نگاهی نو در هنر موسیقی انجامید. می توان گفت این موضوع همپای دیگر موضوعات هنری، اقتصادی و سیاسی، سنگ بنای اختلاط و امتزاج موسیقی شرق و غرب بود.
    کلیدواژگان: دبوسی، امپرسیونیسم، شرق شناسی، گاملان
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  • Ehsan Zivaralam*, Farzan Sojoodi Pages 5-18
    Tom Stoppard is a British playwright who has written prolifically for TV¡ radio¡ film and stage. He became a famous figure in dramatic literature with plays such as Arcadia¡ The Coast of Utopia¡ Every Good Boy Deserves Favor¡ Professional Foul¡ The Real Thing¡ and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In Dogg’s Hamlet¡ Cahoot’s Macbeth -two plays by Tom Stoppard¡ written to be performed together -written in 1980¡ Stoppard has incorporated linguistics with dramatic literature. As language-game is one of most important linguistics topics¡ Stoppard has applied it to find a new way for conveying meanings. Language-game is one of the Wittgenstein’s topics in his book¡ Philosophical Investigations. Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic¡ the philosophy of mathematics¡ the philosophy of mind¡ and the philosophy of language. Language-game is a philosophical concept developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein and Friedrich Waismann¡ referring to simple examples of language use and the actions into which the language is woven. In Philosophical Investigations¡ Wittgenstein has argued that concepts do not need to be clearly defined meaningfully. Accordingly¡ in Dogg’s Hamlet and Cahoot’s Macbeth¡ Stoppard used Shakespearian texts in his own plays and then developed Wittgenstein’s language game theory based on people diary activities. He put his audience to interface new language named Dogg that apparently is English¡ but its meanings are different. In first play¡ audience learns Dogg language based on Wittgenstein’s theory. “Meaning in use” is another theory that Stoppard used in second play. In an illustrative passage in Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations¡ which plays out in the play¡ a builder¡ A¡ is building something using differently shaped building stones. As A calls out “slab!” “block!” “pillar!” or “beam”¡ the appropriate stones are brought to him by his assistant¡ B. An observer might assume that the words name the objects¡ but Wittgenstein suggests another interpretation: the co-worker already knows what pieces to toss and in what order¡ but the words are rather signals that A is ready for the next piece. Wittgenstein also suggests a scenario in which one worker understands the words to mean the shapes of the wood and the other understands the words as the signification of readiness. In other words¡ the two workers speak different languages without being aware of this fact. In Cahoot’s Macbeth¡ after entering the Inspector character¡ Players continue the play in Dogg language- that already audience can recognize it. According to language game theory¡ Stoppard has succeeded to show there is no private language and only power can win against power. In this paper¡ it is shown that audience can learn the meanings of words as “Meaning in use” and it is possible in any other paly. In his play¡ it should be noted that¡ Tom Stoppard is creating series of rules in the field of language and presenting a new language to audience. He makes the audience familiar with the rules of the language game effects.
    Keywords: Tom Stoppard, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Language Game, Dogg's Hamlet, Cahoot's Macbeth
  • Shirin Bozorgmehr *, Mehdi Feizi Pages 19-32
    The theatre, in a sense, consists in the “performance” of the Representation: re-presenting the “Representation” (The Representation whose forms determine the “truth of an age”). In fact, despite any lasting catharsis, theatre, which has become the scenic performance of the representations (State, Culture, Society, and so on), bring forth an indifferent (but not potential) subject. This indifference is related to both temporal and spatial structures - to temporal structure: drama is “performed” because it is already the finished drama; to spatial structure: the “form” of scene itself has already named both sides: actor and spectator. The problem, of course, is that the “scene” has become the dominant spatial structure in the human community. On the other hand, like any other vital sphere, precisely it is by this absolute sovereignty of representations that “space-theaters”, not dialectically but accidentally, withdraw themselves from representation. Theatre, in this sense, will expose itself as an exact opposite of the representative theatre. Thus, it will strive to disclose the unconcealedness of any open affair repressed by the constituted forms of representation. Thanks to this strife, “we” also can dwell in place of the “all-together of representedness”, in the theatre of “truth”. This paper is a report of our “confrontation” with the drama and theatre of HASANK-E VAZIR as a theatre of truth, in which “spatial relations” would determine the potentiality and contingency of roles, of tensions, and of thoughts. In this paper, in other words, it has been tried to make clear a relation between an open drama (affair) and the Open (“to liberate the Open and to establish it in its structure” (Heidegger 1975: 45) is the only way to cope with the constituted representations. The Open is a space in which beings confront one another, seeing only those angles made visible by the particular standing -- or placement -- of each). Our aim is to arrive at a viewpoint from which, once again, the indispensable connectedness among the Work of Art, the True and the Political would be appeared. In the first place, we pursue the concept of artwork by its origin: “The Origin of the Work of Art” by Martin Heidegger. Then, we would leave the origin of the artwork for the theatre of the artwork. The theatre of the artwork or the theatre of truth would be an escape line that redeems us from origin and originthinking. In third step, our task would be only to show that gallows-HASANAK had installed a theatre (Here we come back to “the Origin” but as the drama of the Open). Thus, we would talk over “thing-being” of and then “work-being” of gallows-HASANAK- because thing-being of gallows-HASANAK is the path to its “workbeing” and its “work-being” opens its theatre. In conclusion, the discussion will end up with clearing this idea that gallows-HASANAK, as a work, had preserved the political potentiality of the situation.
    Keywords: The Open, Representation, Theatre of Art-Work, Gallows-HASANAK, Martin Heidegger
  • Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad *, Masoud Kousari, Ali Rooyin Pages 33-49
    The meaning of literacy in different times and periods was varied and special, because of different indicators and branches of human sciences. Because of the plenty of resources, the advancement of technology and the impacts of cyberspace on communications, there are various definitions of literacy. In current century one of the most important indicators for measuring of literacy rates of people, is Media Literacy; The Media Literacy is an ability for receive and understanding the information and data which transmitted by all kinds of media. This process can change the concepts and definitions by multiple complicated methods to improve the ability of the audiences, for understanding to learn and analyze this type of literacy -Media Literacy. Fine Arts as a media can help us in this process. Among this kind of arts, the Theatre -as a mass media- must be analyze by the newest method and index. Based on this essential introduction, this study tries to compare the techniques of Bertolt Brechet’s playwriting with key concepts of media͏͏ literacy, with a focus on dramatic and social aspects and then analyze them. To achieve this goal, in the first step, by offering nine features of Brecht`s playwriting-rationalism, history, removal of anticipation and apprehension, building something, use of repetition, emphasis on story content, role Language, rewriting and dialectical vision in building of Drama -in some of his plays- Baal, Drums in the night, Driving out a Devil, Lux in Tenebris, Mysteries of barbershop, The life of Edward II of England, man equals man, little Mahagonny, The Baden-baden lesson on consent, Happy end, The decision, The mother, Kuhle Wampe, Round Heads and Pointed Heads, Fear and Mysery of the Third Reich, Mother Courage and Her Children, Mr Puntila and his Man Matti, The Good person Szechwan, The days of the Commune, The tutor, Trumpets and Drums- and the most important views and definitions of the concept of Media Literacy, the analysis roadmap was drawn and after that, these items were analyzed. The final results of this research, confirm the hypothesis-matching the Brechtian techniques with the principles of Media Literacy, and the beginnings of the practical form of media literacy by Brecht`s theatre- and another finding of this study is to introduce Brecht as a leader in the field of media literacy noted.
    Keywords: Media Literacy, Brecht, Theatre, Playwriting, Audience
  • Hamid Dehghanpour *, Razieh Farmani Pages 51-69
    In the current paper, after reviewing verbal humor, I have put forth this concept through the lens of semantics and pragmatics. Having set a theoretical foundation, I have analyzed “Don’t Drink the Water” and “Riverside Drive”, two of Allen’s plays, and I have tried to show verbal humor patterns and mechanisms in his works. Allen, creatively and seamlessly, has woven his visual imagination into a poetics stemmed from both reality and unknown concepts, depicts insecurity and makes use of it.
    Keywords: Dramatic Literature, Verbal Satire, Semantics, Linguistics, Discourse Analysis
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani *, Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Hamed Mazaherian, Alireza Sayyas Pages 71-85
    Considering the great attention contemporary film theories devote to the corporeal dimensions and tactile aspects of watching movies, the potential of baroque art to construct the cinematic space cannot be ignored. Based on the baroque art, cinema rather than ensuring a superior position and an optical domination of subject/observer over images creates a territory in which the audiences are invited to immerse themselves in the film’s space and are allowed to coexist with filmic bodies. In this kind of viewing, the observers cannot look at characters and spaces separately, and the spatial folds would draw them into corporeal/sensual labyrinths of the film. Due to the fold relationship between the spectator’s inner space and filmic space, a sort of intertwining link is emerged. Therefore, any action from one side is followed by a reaction from the other side. The physical movements of the characters and the dynamic relationship between space and body in the baroque cinema, interacting with the audience’s sensory responses, can arouse an internal emotion in the viewer. Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological perspective and the concept of “intertwining”, along with Deleuze’s philosophy and the notion of “Fold”, can help us analyze the experiences of watching baroque cinema. We argue that cinematic experience might be considered as the process of the dynamic interaction between these “intertwining folds”. In the interactive process of these folds, the bipartite act of internalizing and exteriorizing takes place. In the internalizing process, the filmic spatial territories )merged with sensual/corporeal territories of the characters( penetrate through the observer’s inner space. In the exteriorizing process, the viewer projects his own spatial perceptions )affected by memories, desires, and dreams( onto the world of the film. Through this exchange, the audiences give their emotions to the characters and accordingly the film finds its emotional space through the spectator’s body. In contrast to the voyeuristic and panoptic control of optical pattern, baroque cinematic experience could be considered as a state of “assimilation into the cinematic collective sensuality” while submerging “oneself” in the sensuality of cinematic geography in a state of Dionysian ecstasy. The members of the audience that are engaged with the chaos of cinematic sensual-spatial energies, experience a kind of sensory-corporeal expansion in connection with the bodies and spaces which are extended through gestalt geography. Being attracted and absorbed, a viewer who has been immersed in chaotic energies of bodily movements and sensual flux, experiences a manner of spatial displacement, a sense of inability to coordinate navigation, the spatial exploration beyond the boundaries of “selfness” and “subjectivity”. The centralized space of subjectivity is shattered and the subject thus is dispersed throughout the sensuality of cinema’s fluid geography. Experience of baroque cinema seems like freedom from the limits of individualists “self” that is disjointed from others in order to experience a sense of connection with “others”, and to form a continuum of togetherness. Chaotic and intensive sensual cinematic geography, dissolves territories of “individual subjectivity” in the space of “collective sensuality”, and creates a sense of inter-subjective coherence.
    Keywords: Embodiment in Cinema, Baroque Cinema, Intertwining Folds, Gilles Deleuze, Maurice Merleau-Ponty
  • Seyed Mohsen Hashemi *, Maryam Firuzi Pages 87-102
    Self-reflexivity is a meta-media and meta-reference theory which is defined and discussed in philosophy, psychology, and different forms of art. Though it is not a new concept and we can trace it back to the beginning of the history of art and in the earliest texts, but by the rise of Brecht’s theories, it was theorized and accepted by the researchers; and in the sixties, self-reflexivity turned into the core idea of postmodernism. The most valuable feature of this theory is awareness: the awareness of the spectator facing the art and the awareness of the author in the procedure of creating it, which leads to creativity and distinct functions in these types of works. In any reflective piece of art, the audience is deliberately conscious of all the indications of the art and freely interprets them. SelfReflexivity in cinema includes a vast variety of motion pictures, from the silent era to the present time, which has different attractions and functions based on their course and representation in the history of filmmaking. The intensive variety of reflexivity might even mislead us to this idea that every film is a self-reflexive one, but it is the functionality of reflexive elements which would help us to determine a reflexive film from a non-reflexive one. Reflexivity has developed through time, and by any historical event has taken new forms and distinct functionality. While its approach changes from one kind of art to another kind and from one genre to another genre, reflexivity is much related to its position in the text, and its cultural and social background, and even the orientation of the audience. The main aim of this research is to study the functions of self-reflexivity in films which can make the spectator more attracted to them. This article is a descriptive, analytic, and a qualitative research which has been demonstrated by the library research process. Since there are a lot of different opinions on the meaning and the terminology of self-reflexivity, this study consists of various definitions of self-reflexivity in art, different styles of reflexivity and its dramatic functions in Cinema.
    Keywords: Self-Reflexivity, Cinema, Postmodernism, Metafilm
  • Afsaneh Saberi * Pages 103-116
    In the field of psychology, music is recognized as a separate language. Similar to other languages in the world, music has its own area in the brain and in order to be able to understand it there is a definite need for such trainings. In addition to the direct impacts on other arts, music has always been in interaction with people throughout the world in such a way that it has been considered to address the phenomena of social, political and cultural works. The results of several researches have suggested that training in the world of music has positive effects on memory, selective attention, special abilities, mathematics and reading ability of children to solve social issues (social skills). In addition, similar researches have shown that music can improve people’s learning and academic performances. Some studies have suggested that music with words has a more profound effect on Verbal memory than that of Visual memory. The present study has attempted to investigate the effects of music on students’ creativity and learning skills. This was based on a casual comparative or ex post facto relationship. In order to carry this research, 120 female and male students of the same age were equally chosen from ordinary secondary schools and art schools, namely those who were in seventh grade in Tehran, the Iranian capital. They were 60 students from ordinary schools and 60 from music conservatory/schools, of these 60 students- 30 were female and 30 male in each type of institution -. The sample regarding secondary schools was chosen using a cluster sampling method; but, as the numbers of the art schools were very few, the sample chosen was considered to be based on the convenience sampling method. Both groups were given a creativity questionnaire at the end of the term. The data was collected and later analyzed using the student T-test. To measure students’ creativity, the Torrance test of creativity was adopted in this research. The test consists of 60 questions with three options to respond to, encompassing all the four different subsets of creativity namely fluid, expansion, innovation and flexibility. Using the above test, the creativity of the students of different institutions and different genders were measured and analyzed. To measure students learning and hence their academic performances the classroom marks of the students of different types of institutions and genders were also investigated. The reliability of the four different subsets of fluid, expansion, innovation and flexibility were; 0.82, 0.83, 0.80 and 0.84 respectively. The results showed that the creativity of students attending art colleges where they major in music, performed much better than their counter part students, studying at ordinary schools in all the four different subsets of the creativity. The results also revealed that female students outperformed their male counterparts and that the females in art colleges did better than the females in the ordinary secondary schools.
    Keywords: Teaching Music, Creativity, Students
  • Mohsen Nourani *, Amirhossein Djoz Ramezani Pages 117-131
    This paper aims to study Claude Debussy’s works (1862-1918) in order to display his longing for the Oriental art, and to examine the new sounds and symbols he introduced to the Western music of the twentieth century. This French composer of the impressionist school, like his predecessors –such as Gauguin, the painter of the same school– made a lot of effort to find the beauties of the Oriental art, and to associate them with the music of his era. His approach opened new windows of musical connection for the later musicians, and brought about an outstanding evolution in the twentieth century art, by itself. The first spurs of propensity towards the Oriental art was ignited in Debussy by his several journeys and sojourns in Russia and encounter with the ideas of the artists there, especially those of Mussorgsky, also by viewing the East-Asian, e.g. Indonesian, music concerts when visiting the achievements at Exposition Universelle at the end of the nineteenth century. In order to evade the greatest music of his era, especially the German music, and to escape from its overhanging shadow, he felt the need for an evolution in the structure of the twentieth century music, and this transformation became possible via an exploration in the Oriental music. Having heard the music of the Gamelan ensemble of Java, Debussy fell in love with this music and began to compose pieces using the elements of the Oriental music. Using a historical and analytical outlook within the scope of Debussy’s works, this article analyzes his works from artistic and musical perspectives, and demonstrates that his works, like Estampes and Arabesque, composed in the early years of the twentieth century, all have an Oriental tendency and are inspired by the Oriental music, and that, with a fresh look at the major composition elements, such as rhythm, melody, harmony, and orchestration, Debussy presented a fresh structure of the Western classical music for the later composers. This article will also demonstrate that Debussy opened new pathways of acquaintance for later music enthusiasts and artists, leading the later composers to take firmer steps towards furthering the Western music. Among Debussy’s important achievements in approaching the Oriental music is the founding of schools and movements such as minimalism in music; admittedly, foundations of sciences, such as ethnomusicology, lie in this outlook of Debussy’s. One could observe, since then, that the western composers have been searching for fresh elements and new sounds via affinity and cooperation with the instrumentalists and musician of the Orient, and this, per se, has been a beginning for the spiritual encounter of the artists of the East and the West, a significant development and fusion made possible through Debussy’s efforts, and, quoting Pierre Boulez, Debussy was the turning point of the Western music. By examining Debussy’s works, this study aims to introduce him as the herald of this colossal movement. Lastly, one can claim that this approach set the foundation for the fusion and synthesis of the Eastern and Western music.
    Keywords: Debussy, Impressionism, Orientalism, Gamelan