فهرست مطالب

Middle East Journal of Cancer - Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2017
  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
|
  • Robab Sheikhpour * Pages 171-177
    Breast cancer, the most common cancer in women, is a leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Discovery of biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis, prognosis, and predictors of breast cancer is very important. Visfatin, a new adipokine found in visceral fat, plays a main role in metabolic and stress responses. There is an association between elevated expression of visfatin with malignant behavior and adverse prognosis in breast cancer. Visfatin promotes malignancy via signaling pathways that include Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and NF-κB. Visfatin up-regulates G1- S phase cell cycle progression through up-regulation of mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and CDK2. Visfatin plays a main role in metastasis and synthesis of genes that play a significant role in tumor-related angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor, progression and tumor invasion such as matrix metalloproteinases in cancer. Visfatin may increase breast cancer cell growth and metastasis capability through c- Abl and STAT3 activation (two oncoproteins). According to the results of these studies, visfatin expression appears to be associated with virulent behavior and its inhibition may be an effective treatment for breast cancer patients.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, Visfatin, NF-?B
  • Mina Azizi, Golnaz Asaadi Tehrani * Pages 179-186
    Background
    Endometrial cancer is a common gynecological malignancy with good prognosis in the early stages of the disease. The CpG island in the promoter region of tumor-suppressor genes are frequently methylated in various types of human cancers. In the present study, we have examined the methylation status of the p16INK4a and p14ARF genes in endometrial cancer and healthy endometrium with the aim to identify correlations between promoter hypermethylation, disease risk, and clinicopathological parameters.
    Methods
    We collected 28 formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and 26 blood samples from endometrial cancer patients and 22 controls. Methylation-specific PCR was applied to analyze the promoter methylation status of the p16INK4a and p14ARF genes in the studied population. The results were analyzed with SPSS software version 20.
    Results
    There was a significant difference between the study groups and the presence of promoter CpG hypermethylation status in the p14 (P
    Conclusion
    Our results have confirmed that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in endometrial cancer incidence. They can be utilized as prognostic biomarkers for endometrial cancer. The lack of a significant difference between the p16INK4a and p14ARF promoter hypermethylations in blood and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples has indicated that methylation status of a blood sample can be an early, non-invasive diagnostic marker in endometrial cancer.
    Keywords: Endometrial cancer, Epigenetic, p14ARF, p16INK4a
  • Mitra Asgarian *, Mohammad-Mehdi Kooshyar, Sepideh Elyasi, Azar Fani Pakdel, Seyed Amir Aledavood Pages 187-193
    Background
    Standardized forms for prescription and medication administration are one solution to reduce medication errors in the chemotherapy process. Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. In this study, we have attempted to design and validate a standard printed chemotherapy form and evaluate adherence by oncologists and nurses to this form.
    Methods
    We performed this cross-sectional study in a Mashhad, Iran teaching hospital from August 2015 until January 2016. A clinical pharmacist designed the chemotherapy form that included various demographic and clinical parameters and approved chemotherapy regimens for gastric cancer. Clinical oncologists that worked in this center validated the form. We included all eligible patients. A pharmacy student identified adherence by the oncologists and nurses to this form and probable medication errors. Results are mean ± standard deviation or number (percentages) for nominal variables. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 statistical package.
    Results
    We evaluated 54 patients and a total of 249 chemotherapy courses. In 146 (58.63%) chemotherapy sessions, the administered regimens lacked compatibility with the standard form. Approximately 66% of recorded errors occurred in the prescription phase and the remainder during the administration phase. The most common errors included improper dose (61%) and wrong infusion time (34%). We observed that 37 dose calculation errors occurred in 32 chemotherapy sessions.
    Conclusions
    In general, adherence by oncologists and nurses with the developed form for chemotherapy treatment of gastric cancer was not acceptable. These findings indicated the necessity for a standardized order sheet to simplify the chemotherapy process for the clinicians, and reduce prescription and administration errors.
    Keywords: Gastric cancer, Chemotherapy, Medication error, Standardized form
  • Shahin Salarvand, Simin Hemati, Payman Adibi, Fariba Taleghani * Pages 195-205
    Background
    Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have unmet needs. Oncologists play a central role in their supportive treatment. This study aims to describe Iranian oncologist's perceptions in terms of priorities in supportive care needs for nonmetastatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
    Methods
    We conducted this study using a descriptive, exploratory qualitative approach with a purposive sampling method. Interviews were conducted from July to October 2016 with medical oncologists (mean age: 47.5 years) who had a mean work experience of 15.8 years. Data saturation was achieved with 15 participants. Interviews were semi-structured. Graneheim and Lundman’s qualitative content analysis approach and MAXQDA software were used to analyze the data.
    Results
    There were two main categories obtained from data analysis: 1. continued comprehensive support in the disease continuum from diagnosis to rehabilitation (education and consultation, social and treatment support for patients, consideration of family support, addressing cultural conditions, psychological support, and financial support) and 2. Prerequisites in the preparation of the care system (the need for creating multidisciplinary teams, development and improvement of health care settings to provide services, and empowering the healthcare team to provide quality care).
    Conclusion
    Comprehensive care for these patients and integration of these supports are essential in routine care. Major needs which must be addressed more seriously in the Iranian care system include the need for continued comprehensive support in the disease continuum from diagnosis to rehabilitation and prerequisites in the preparation of the care system.
    Keywords: Chemotherapy, Cancer patients, Oncologists, Supportive care
  • Alireza Ghanadan, Amir-Hoshang Ehsani, Ali-Mohammad Farahmand, Mojtaba Mirzaei Pages 207-212
    Background
    Melanoma is one of the most immunogenic tumors that causes a significant immune response. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an important part of this response. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are lymphocytes in close association with tumor cells that have infiltrated tumor nests. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the relationship of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in malignant melanoma with histopathologic findings, tumor stage, and other prognostic factors.
    Methods
    This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. We re-evaluated patients’ specimens and categorized the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes as grades 0, 1, 2, or 3 based on density and distribution of the infiltrating lymphocytes.
    Results
    We enrolled 111 patients with a mean age of 59.33±14.68 years, and a male to female ratio of 1.09. There was no evidence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in 17.1% of patients. The melanoma subtypes had the following tumor infiltrating lymphocyte grades: 1 (47.7%), 2 (28.8%), and 3 (6.3%). Cancer stage significantly decreased with increasing grade of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (P
    Conclusion
    Increased density of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes can show a more effective immune response against melanoma. This response can limit cancer progression and result in tumor diagnosis at lower stages of the disease.
    Keywords: Melanoma, Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, Tumor stage, Immune response, Prognostic factor
  • Ahmad Mohammadi, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban*, Shahla Ansari Damavandi, Mehdi Alizadeh Zarei, Malek Amini Pages 213-222
    Background
    Participation in daily life activities is an essential aspect of health, which can facilitate a child’s development. Children with cancer are at risk of functional limitations and participation restrictions. The present study aims to investigate participation of children with cancer in daily life activities compared to healthy peers.
    Methods
    This was a comparative cross-sectional study. In the first phase, we assessed the test-retest reliability of the Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale in 30 children (6-12 years of age) diagnosed with cancer and their parents (child and parent versions). The second phase of the study included a comparison of daily life activities as measured by the Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale between the children with cancer (diagnosed at least 4 months prior and currently receiving active treatment) and their age- and gender-matched healthy peers.
    Results
    The child version had excellent reliability according to Cronbach’s alpha in diversity of activities (0.97), intensity of participation (0.95), with whom they participated (0.95), and enjoyment of daily activities (0.94). The parent version had excellent reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) as follows: 0.99 for diversity, 0.97 for intensity, 0.97 for with whom, 0.98 for enjoyment, and 0.98 for parents’ satisfaction. The coefficients of agreement were 0.77 (total scores of diversity), 0.63 (intensity), 0.60 (with whom), and 0.91 (enjoyment). The child version indicated that children with cancer had significantly lower scores in daily life activities items of diversity (P=0.000), intensity (P=0.000), with whom (P=0.000), and enjoyment (P=0.000) compared to healthy children. Based on the total scores in the parent version, children with cancer showed significantly lower scores in diversity (P=0.001), intensity (P=0.000), with whom (P=0.001), enjoyment (P=0.002), and satisfaction (P=0.000) compared to the healthy group.
    Conclusion
    The findings of the present study show that cancer diagnosis and treatment can restrict children’s participation in daily life activities. Early planning and intervention to facilitate participation in these activities can minimize negative consequences and may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term functional effects of childhood cancer.
    Keywords: Childhood cancer, Participation, Daily life activities, ICPAS
  • Salman Khazaei, Kamyar Mansori, Mokhtar Soheylizad, Behzad Gholamaliee, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Zaher Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi * Pages 223-228
    Background
    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In Iran, this cancer ranks second in cancerrelated deaths for men and third for women. The aim of this study is to discover the geographic distribution of the age-standardized incidence rate for lung cancer in both genders in Iran.
    Methods
    This ecological study used re-analysis medical records aggregated to provinces from the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention Report of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education for lung cancer in 2008. For each province, we calculated the average annual age-standardized incidence rate.
    Results
    Our study showed that squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were the most common histological types of lung cancer in males (28.6%) and females (28.8%). The central and southern Iranian provinces had the highest age-standardized incidence rates for lung cancer. The highest age-standardized incidence rates in both genders related to the 80-84 year age group for both males (131.51) and females (38.82).
    Conclusion
    The central and southern Iranian provinces are lung cancer hot zones. Thus, implementation of prevention programs and increased access to screening services should be considered.
    Keywords: Lung cancer, Epidemiology, Incidence rate
  • Noushin Afshar Moghadam, Mitra Shavakhi *, Behnaz Sabaghi, Alireza Momeni Pages 229-232
    Although meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system, primary extracranial meningiomas are extremely rare. These tumors constitute approximately1% of all meningiomas. This study has reported a very rare case of meningioma on the left carotid sheath that presented as a left neck mass. We performed a core biopsy of the mass. Subsequently, the tumor was excised and histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of primary extra cranial meningioma.
    Keywords: Meningioma, Carotid sheath, Extracranial, Neck
  • Brijesh Sharma*, Desh Deepak, Mohammed Ali, Mahender Singh Rajput, Rajni Parmar, Rajesh Taneja Pages 233-239
    Cases of primary pleural and bronchial melanoma have been described in the literature in the absence of melanocytic cells in the pleura and bronchi. We described a case of congenital giant melanocytic nevus that had a presentation suggestive of primary pleural melanoma. However, biopsy of a chest wall lesion confirmed the presence of another melanoma deposit in a subcutaneous swelling concealed within the congenital giant melanocytic nevus. Histopathology with immunohistochemistry results showed that the pleural and chest wall swelling were similar. The difficult clinical detection of the primary tumor contributes to the fact that 24% of cases of congenital giant melanocytic nevus receive a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma without identification of the primary site. We propose that it is probable that the entity “primary pleural melanoma” may, in fact, not exist. Instead, all such reported tumors in the pleura may actually be metastatic from an unknown, regressed, or missed primary site.
    Keywords: Giant congenital pigmented nevus, Melanoma, Pleural neoplasms, Neoplasm metastasis, Immunohistochemistry