فهرست مطالب

Biodiversity and Ecological Sciences - Volume:5 Issue:4, 2015
  • Volume:5 Issue:4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/09/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Adebola S. I. *Awotoye O.O Pages 256-267
    Tree species in the soil seed bank (SSB) and overstory vegetation were assessed in six contrasting physiognomies; (secondary re-growth natural forest (SRNF), Terminalia superba plantation (TSP), Pinus caribaea plantation (PCP), Gmelina arborea plantation (GAP), Tectona grandis plantation (TGP) and Theobroma cacao plantation (TCP) in Shasha Forest Reserve. Eight plots 25m x 25m were randomly selected in each physiognomy for the overstory vegetation study. Tree species were identified and assigned into families. Twenty four composites soil samples were collected from three quadrats of 5m x 5m at surface soil layer (0-15 cm), in each physiognomies. The soils were spread in well-drained porous bowls and watered for a year for tree seedling emergence inside the screenhouse.
    Tree diversity indicated that overstory vegetation and soil seed bank emergence varied among the physiognomies, with the trio of secondary re-growth natural forest, T. superba and P. caribaea plantations having the highest tree diversity and abundance. The highest tree emergence was observed in TSP (33.3%) followed by GAP and SRNF (26.6% and 20.0%) while the least occurred in TCP, TGP and PCP (6.6%). The study revealed poor representation of standing overstory tree species at the SSB and showed the reason why traditional abandonment of forest fail to allow restoration of most tree species without human effort. This study concluded therefore, that future restoration planning should not be based on traditional abandoment of forest that relies on SSB succession; deliberate introduction of endangered tree species through enrichment planting of forest reserves is thereby recommended.
    Keywords: Physiognomies, Regeneration, Seedlings, Soil Seed
  • Roman Nega*, Woinshet Lule, Damtew Etisa Pages 268-281
    Arthrospira/Spirulina has a high content of proteins, pigments, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. In Ethiopia Lake Aranguade (HoraHadho) and Chitu and also in Kenya Lake simbi and nakuru are dominated (almost unialgal population) by Arthrospira. This microalga is the major food source for monkeys and the vast flocks of lesser flamingo in the lakes. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to assess and document community indigenous knowledge on traditional use of Arthrospira species in Lake Arenguade Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaire, personal interview, focus group discussion. Questionnaires were designed to collect information across 22 group informants (111 informants) who involved in the study from Gerbichakebele. From all study participants 98 (88.3%) were female and 13(11.7%) were male. Most of the respondents reported that Spirulina (thick algal mat) covered the lake during spring season, when there is cloudy air condition. All study participants said that no needs Spirulina for food but, monkeys are the only animal that uses Spirulina for food. Cattle also use the water for drinking during shortage of greases. All of the respondents reported that Spirulina is important for traditional medicines to prevent lesion and skin scabies for animals and humans. All respondents reported that uses Spirulina for house painting and wash their cloth. As a conclusion Arthrospira have been used for manypurposes by the farmers live around the lake for many years until now. All citizens have a responsibility to participate in the restoration of the lake as well as utilization of the resource wisely.
    Keywords: Arthrospira, Spirulina, indigenous knowledge, Lake Arenguade. INTRODUCTION Indigenous knowledge
  • Woinshet Lule, Roman Nega, Damtew Etisa Pages 282-288
    Microalgae have been one of the richest and most promising sources of bioactive primary and secondary metabolites and their discovery has significantly expanded in the past decades. The aim of the study was to assess the diversity of microalgae in Lake Arenguade and Kilole. Lake Arenguade and Killole are an alkaline soda lakes located in Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Sampling of the two lakes and data were collected during February 2016. The preserved Microalgal samples and the fresh water samples grow on liquid media (BBM and BG-11) were examined using binocular microscope and their identification to genus or species level were made on the basis of various descriptors of Microalgae. The result indicated that Arthrospira is dominant species in Lake Arenguade and maximum diversity index showed in two lakes by phylum Chlorophyta and other Cyanobacteria genera were common in Lake Killole.
    Keywords: Microalgae, diversity, Middle Rift Valley lakes, Arenguade, Killole
  • Bulganin Mitra*, Priyanka Das, Arna Mazumder, Imtiaz Imam Pages 296-311
    Diversity of avian species were studied in Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research Edo State Nigeria.. Ten transect lines of 1000 m each and 8 counting stations were randomly placed. Data were collected for twelve months (Dry and Wet seasons). Transects lines were patrolled three times a week and all birds seen and heard were recorded. In all, a total 807 individual bird species spread across 77 bird species, 22 families and 8 orders were recorded. The dominant family was Estrilda it has 7 of the total bird species. Two rare bird species of Malimbe (Malimbus erythrogaster and Malimbus scutalus) were encountered in the study area. The relative abundance of bird species were higher (25.2 and 18.9) dry season was higher than the wet season (18.9and 18.2 of the year, This study showed that the value of Shannon diversity index for bird species was higher in the dry season (3.52) than the farmland (3.438). A total of 13 taxas and 17 individual trees species belonging to 13 families were enumerated.
    Keywords: Home Range, Diversity, Avian Species, Agricultural intensification, Habitat Fragmentation
  • Sulmaz Janfaza*, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Nasr, Hamed Yousefzadeh, Roberto Botta, Asad Asadi Abkenar Pages 312-323
    The aim of this study is the evaluation of chloroplast rbcl markers in the genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), which is one of the valuable species of endangered Hyrcanian Forests .In this study, the use of molecular markers is the easy and fast way in identifying taxonomic position of northern Iranian Castanea. Meanwhile, leaf samples were collected from all the habitat of this species in Iran (4 sites listed in the western part of the province of Gilan). Genomic DNA from leaves were extracted by CTAB method.( modified by Janfaza and et al inter periation 2016) PCR reaction amplified by universal rbcl primers and the fragments were sequenced .The results showed that rbcl region in Iranian Castanea is about 542 nucleotides .The comparison of the available sequences in GenBank, the numbers of nucleotides adenine and thymine in Castanea were more than other nucleotides which was similar with Iranian Castanea species in nucleotide composition .Phylogenetic Tree analysis showed that from 542 nucleotide positions, there were 22 conserved sites, 17 variable sites, and 8 parsimony positions. Based on the phylogenetic tree drawn on the base of rbcl marker showed that Iranian Castanea is in the same group with C.sativa species .Also the highest genetic similarity was observed between the Hyrcanian Castanea and European Castanea .
    Keywords: Iranian Castanea, phylogeny, genetic diversity
  • Barwa M., Ranga M.M., Banerjee A.* Pages 324-339
    The present study was aimed to assess the diversity, distribution of butterflies on temporal scale along with to study the impact of temperature on butterfly diversity at different study sites of Sanjay park, Ambikapur, Chattisgarh. The present investigation was carried out during June 2015 to April 2016. The entire park were divided into five different study sites on the basis of habitat characteristics. Data were recorded during Monsoon, Winter, Summer seasons. During the entire study period 20 species of butterfly were recorded from five study sites at Sanjay Park. Butterfly diversity at Sanjay Park represented four families which includes Nymphalidae, Papiolionidae, Pieridae and Lycaenidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the most predominant over the other butterfly families. Practices such as monoplantation of flowering plants at different seasons, higher level of anthropogenic influence were found to be the significant factor to influence the butterfly diversity and distribution at Sanjay Park. Proper management practices needs to be implemented to conserve the butterfly diversity of Sanjay Park.
    Keywords: Nymphallidae, diversity, seasonal variation, Temperature, Indiar