فهرست مطالب

Wildlife and Biodiversity - Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Taghi Ghasemi Khademi Pages 1-11
    In this research, phylogenetic relationships of 24 species from the subfamily Antilopinae were evaluated using complete mitochondrial genomes. The average base composition of mtDNA sequences was 27.8% T, 25.2% C, 33.7% A, and 13.3% G, showing a strong AT bias (61.5%). The phylogenetic trees were investigated using the NJ, ME and UPGMA methods and found that they have very identical topologies. Overall, consistent with findings of previous studies, the results revealed that the Antilopini tribe has been correctly demarcated. Also, it was found that the Oreotragini tribe, which is represented by a single species (Oreotragus oreotragus), is completely separated from the Antilopini tribe and thus its taxonomic position must be reviewed again. In general, the results of this study indicated that the complete mitochondrial genomes are very useful, powerful, and accurate tools for evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of animals and biosystematics studies. Besides, using these genomes, we can meticulously reconstruct and modify the animal classification.
    Keywords: Antilopinae, phylogeny, mtDNA, biosystematics, taxonomy
  • Olyagholi Khalilipour, Hamid Reza Rezaei, Afshin Alizadeh Shabani, Mohammad Kaboli, Sohrab Ashrafi, Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh Pages 12-18
    Phylogenetic relationships between Afghan Pika (O. rufescens) and others in the world are still unclear. Morphological phylogeny study of the genus Ochotona by different experts showed the different taxonomic position of the Afghan Pika, but could not determine the taxonomic position of this species. Previous phylogenetic studies based on mtDNA markers showed the different sister groups of the species. In this study, we aimed to unveil the phylogenetic relationship of the Afghan Pika, adding more specimens to the phylogenetic trees. In total, 355 different sequences relating to different pikas were retrieved from GenBank and 25 individuals from Iran were also sequenced for cytb. The phylogenetic tree revealed that samples of individuals from Northern Iran, Southern Iran and the Toulouse lab aggregate in the same clade. Results of K2P showed that the pairwise genetic distance of O. rufescens was closer to that of Conothoa subgenus than to others. It seems that the phylogenetic status of O. rufescens, is more related to the Conothoa subgenera than to Ochotona or Pika.
    Keywords: Ochotona rufescens, taxonomic position, cytb, mtDNA, Pika
  • Amir Ansari Pages 19-23
    Markazi Province with its extended deserts and plains provides a suitable habitat for the Persian Gazelle. The habitat fragmentation due to the human-initiated activities is one of the major threatening factors against the species viability, especially Persian Gazelle.The present study is conducted using the MaxEnt method based on the maximum entropy or near to reality approach with 10 different variables and 30 focal points of Persian Gazelle. The study results show that a 215150.6 ha area equivalent to 14% in the southern half of Markazi Province covers a favorable habitat for the Persian Gazelle. The ROC model specifies that the validity of habitat suitability model is 0.985, suggesting the superior performance of MaxEnt method. Among the development variables, the highest impact on the Persian Gazelle ecology is assigned to distance to mines variable (10 km) while the lowest impact is related to distance from unpaved road variable. Further, among the ecologic variables, the highest and lowest impacts were detected for slope (0-5%) and height variables, respectively. The main objective followed in the present work is the protection of the extant population, inter-regional corridors, as well as live capturing, sending, and restoring the Persian Gazelle from other regions to Haftad Qolleh, West Haftad Qolleh, and Muteh.
    Keywords: MaxEnt, Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa, Habitat fragmentation, Haftad Qolleh
  • Troy A. Ladine Pages 24-32
    Motion-sensor cameras provide several benefits for research not available through mark-recapture and other more traditional methods of assessment of medium-sized mammals. Urban systems provide unique pressures on a population that can alter the activity of the population. The current study investigates the activity and social organization of raccoons taken in photos from cameras located in a small urban system on the Environmental Studies Area of East Texas Baptist University in Marshall, TX (32°33’N; 942°2’W). Multiple raccoons were in close enough proximity to be in a single photo on 33 occasions. Seven photos exhibited mating behaviour. Mating behaviour occurred on the site between 26 Sep. and 27 Feb. Monthly activity periods concurred with previously reported activity from Sep. - May. Activity during the summer months (Jun. – Aug.) showed a shift towards sunset away from ca. 2300 h.
    Keywords: urban ecosystem, trail cameras, mating behaviour, marking behaviour, seasonal behaviour
  • Mastureh Darabi, Zohreh Zeini, Abdolreza Karami, Ali Kaveh Pages 33-36
    Investigation about the activity pattern of the Hotson Jerboa with motorcycle and search light indicated that there is significant relationship between moon light intensity and encountering with the Hotson Jerboa’ or it’s trapping success. The results showed that the more moon light intensity the less the activity of this Jerboa. In the other word we can infer that the encounter rate with the individuals reaches its highest amount in the first and the last days of the lunar month and closing to the middle weeks of the month, they hardly can be detected. Although in completely cloudy nights even in the middle of the month the encounter rate increased as well. This is a predator-prey coevolutional mechanism that lowers the predation risk. Additionally, the activity shifted somewhat from the open to vegetation cover when the moon was high, however the least encounter rate was recorded in full moon status.
    Keywords: Moon phases, Encounter rate, Predation risk, Habitat preferences
  • Mehdi Alipour Erdi, Ebrahim Fataei, Mohammad Ramezani, Hadi Ravan Nakhchevani Pages 37-46
    Increasing human population growth leads to the increase in resource consumption and biodiversity degradation. The current threats to the biodiversity and widlife extinction emphasis on the protected areas role in the conservation plans. In this research we used systematic conservation planning map overlay method and analytical approach for zonation of Havashanq non-hunting area in GIS. For this purpose, 15 criteria were identified and entered in GIS and then were catagorized for modelling phase. The zonation mode was developed on McHarg and Makhdum models (the Iranian model to determine land capabilities). These models use all criteria and elements affecting environmental planning and management process in an area. Additionally, in these models, they were changed on the existing data. Owing to lack of socio–economic data, the area zoning had 7 zones, including strict nature reserve zone, protected area zone, intensive use zone, extensive use zone, recovery zone, special use zone and multiple use zones. The results showed that the strict zone 31 %, protected area 38.8%, intensive use zone 1.9%, extensive use zone 14%, recovery zone 8.3 %, special use zone 4.8 % and multiple use zone 1.2 %, compose area extent.
    Keywords: System Analysis, Conservation, Geographical Information system (GIS), Non- hunting area, Havashanaq, Ardabil province
  • Samira Ghafaripour, Morteza Naderi, Hamid R. Rezaei Pages 47-54
    Sand cat is known as a rare species mainly due to the destruction of its habitat. Because of its nocturnal and secretive behavior, dense hair in the soles, and the overall characteristics of its habitat, there is little data about this species, especially in Iran. In this study, like the general method for nocturnal mammalian species, spotlight surveying was used to estimate density and abundance of this species. During the study, 660 km strip transects in Samsoor and 615 km in the habitats located in Chahe-Hashem were traversed randomly. Data analysis was performed using Distance 6.2 which resulted that the density and abundance of sand cat in Samsoor area is 0.163 and 45 (CI: 29-72) respectively. Considering the recorded number of individuals and the length of the traversed transects, it can be inferred that the encounter rate with the species is equal with 0.04 individuals per km. To investigate the effect of the moon status, we planned study design and covered all lunar nights. The results revealed that the highest rate of encounter rate with the species occurred at the initial and final phases of the lunar nights while encounter rate with the species was at the lowest level in two middle weeks of the lunar months (0.052 and 0.02 individuals per km respectively). The increased agricultural activities, grazing livestock including camels and goats, and accompanying dogs are some of the main threatening factors. As a solution, we suggest establishing environmental force guard stations in the region and also employing some local peaoples as wildlife protection guards.
    Keywords: Abundance, Density, Distance methods, Morphology, Sand cat