- Volume:11 Issue: 3, 2017
- تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/23
- تعداد عناوین: 11
Medical sequencing of de novo ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins and evaluation of the potential eligibility for recombinant EDA therapyPages 135-139The purpose of this study was to test two 8-year-old identical twins with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) and their unaffected parents for the presence of mutations in the EDA gene with the hypothesis that they might be carrying a de novo mutation in EDA and potentially eligible for recombinant EDA therapy. DNA was extracted using saliva samples obtained from the identical twin girls and both parents. PCR products of Ectodyplasin A (EDA), Ectodysplasin Receptor (EDAR), Ectodysplasin Receptor Associated Death Domain (EDARADD), and Connexin-30 (GJB6) were sequenced by the Sanger method and the results analyzed using a reference sequence. Exons and exon-intron boundaries of EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, and GJB6 were sequenced in both parents and the affected identical twin pair. No mutations were detected in EDA or GJB6. Genetic variants located in the intron of EDAR were found but determined to be non-contributory to the twins ED. A microsatellite polymorphism was detected in all four subjects in exon 4 of the EDARADD gene but determined not to be causal to the ED. There was a silent mutation detected in exon 6 of the EDARADD gene of both the daughters and their unaffected mother but also unlikely to be the cause of ED. These results suggest that ED of the subjects is caused by a de novo mutation in a gene not studied here. It is likely these subjects and their future offspring would not benefit from the development of recombinant EDA replacement therapy.Keywords: Ectodermal Dysplasia, EDA, Mutation
Comparison of in vitro properties of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from permanent and deciduous teethPages 140-148Background. Stem cells have contributed to the development of tissue-engineered-based regenerative periodontal therapies. In order to find the best stem cell sources for such therapies, the biologic properties of stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments (PDL) of deciduous (DePDLSC) and permanent (PePDLSC) teeth were comparatively evaluated.
Methods. PDL stem cells were isolated from six sound fully erupted premolars and six deciduous canines of healthy subjects. In vitro biologic characteristics such as colony formation, viability, stem cell marker identification and osteogenic differentiation (using alkaline phosphatase analysis and Alizarin red staining) were comparatively assessed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests using SPSS 13.0.
Results. Stem cell populations isolated from both groups were CD105 and CD90 and CD45‒. No statistically significant differences were found in stem cell markers, colony formation and viability. Both groups were capable of osteogenic differentiation. However, alkaline phosphatase activity test showed a statistically significant difference, with PePDLSC exhibiting higher alkaline phosphatase activity (P=0.000). No statistically significant difference was seen in quantitative alizarine red staining (P=0.559).
Conclusion. Mesenchymal stem cells of PDL could successfully be isolated from permanent and deciduous teeth. A minor difference was observed in the osteogenic properties of the two cell types, which might affect their future clinical applications.Keywords: Deciduous tooth, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament, permanent dentition
Stress distribution pattern of screw-retained restorations with segmented vs. non-segmented abutments: A finite element analysisPages 149-155Background. Screw-retained restorations are favored in some clinical situations such as limited inter-occlusal spaces. This study was designed to compare stresses developed in the peri-implant bone in two different types of screw-retained restorations (segmented vs. non-segmented abutment) using a finite element model.
Methods. An implant, 4.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, was placed in the first molar site of a mandibular model with 1 mm of cortical bone on the buccal and lingual sides. Segmented and non-segmented screw abutments with their crowns were placed on the simulated implant in each model. After loading (100 N, axial and 45° non-axial), von Mises stress was recorded using ANSYS software, version 12.0.1.
Results. The maximum stresses in the non-segmented abutment screw were less than those of segmented abutment (87 vs. 100, and 375 vs. 430 MPa under axial and non-axial loading, respectively). The maximum stresses in the peri-implant bone for the model with segmented abutment were less than those of non-segmented ones (21 vs. 24 MPa, and 31 vs. 126 MPa under vertical and angular loading, respectively). In addition, the micro-strain of peri-implant bone for the segmented abutment restoration was less than that of non-segmented abutment.
Conclusion. Under axial and non-axial loadings, non-segmented abutment showed less stress concentration in the screw, while there was less stress and strain in the peri-implant bone in the segmented abutment.Keywords: Antibacterial, biofilm, Enterococcus faecalis, sodium hypochlorite
Effect of flap design and duration of surgery on acute postoperative symptoms and signs after extraction of lower third molars: A randomized prospective studyPages 156-160Background. Different surgical variables are assumed to play a role in postoperative course after lower third molar extraction. The aim of study was to assess whether flap design and duration of surgery can influence acute postoperative symptoms and signs after lower third molar extraction.
Methods. Twenty-five patients scheduled for lower third molar extraction were included in this study and randomly assigned to two groups in terms of flap design: group A (envelope flap) and group B (triangular flap). Swelling and trismus were assessed before and after surgery on days 0, 2 and 7. Pain was assessed for seven days after surgery. Maximum postoperative pain was chosen as the main outcome variable. ANOVA was used to assess differences between the groups regarding maximum postoperative pain, trismus and swelling at 2- and 7-day intervals. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlation between duration of surgery and postoperative symptoms and signs.
Results. No significant difference was found between the two flap designs for any postoperative symptoms and signs. The duration of surgery was found to be correlated with both trismus (r = -0.44, P = 0.04) and swelling (r = 0.59, P = 0.004) as assessed 2 days after surgery. No associations were found between duration of surgery and maximum postoperative pain and trismus and swelling at 7-day interval.
Conclusion. Within the limits of the present study, the duration of surgery, and not the flap design, affected the acute postoperative symptoms and signs after lower third molar extraction.Keywords: Oral surgery, postoperative pain, third molar
Comparison of the accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in root canal working length determination: An in vitro studyPages 161-165Background. Digital radiography has widespread use in endodontics. Determining a correct working length is vital for a proper endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic techniques for root canal working length determination.
Methods. After determining the real working lengths of 50 permanent maxillary central incisors (gold standard), the conventional (E- and F-speed films) and digital (CCD, PSP) images were obtained using the parallel technique. The mean registered working length of each modality was compared with the other and with the gold standard using one-way ANOVA at PResults. No significant difference was found between the recorded working length values using the conventional and digital radiographic techniques (P=0.828).
Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there was no difference between the measurement accuracy of CCD, PSP and conventional imaging techniques in root canal working length determination.Keywords: Digital radiography, endodontics, root canal therapy
Deep neck infections are associated with high morbidity rates in dentistry. Early diagnosis and intervention play an essential part in decreasing morbidity rates. The present study aims to report a case of odontogenic deep neck infection after third molar extraction. A 51-year-old male patient underwent extraction of the mandibular right third molar. Seven days later, the patient developed symptoms and signs of progressive infection. Laboratorial and radiologic examinations in association with clinical investigations confirmed deep neck infection. Extraoral drainage was performed under orotracheal intubation. Postoperative laboratory tests and clinical examinations revealed signs of complete remission within a follow-up period of 10 days. Considering the invasive nature of pathogens related to deep neck infections, it is possible to infer that a combination of accurate diagnosis and early intervention plays an essential role in the field of maxillofacial surgery and pathology.Keywords: Abscess, infection, extraction, neck, third molar
Association between demographic and radiographic characteristics of the schneiderian membrane and periapical and periodontal diseases using cone-beam computed tomography scanning: A retrospective studyPages 170-176Background. This study was undertaken to assess the pathological and spatial associations between periapical and periodontal diseases of the maxillary first molars and thickening of maxillary sinus mucosa with cone-beam computed tomography.
Methods. A total of 132 CBCT images of subjects 20‒60 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. The patient's sex and age and demographic and pathologic findings of the maxillary sinus in the first molar area were recorded, graded and analyzed.
Results. Approximately 59% of patients were male and 41% were female, with no significant difference in the thickness of schneiderian membrane between males and females. Based on the periapical index scoring, the highest frequency was detected in group 1. Based on the results of ANOVA, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of endodontic‒periodontal lesions and an increase in schneiderian membrane thickness. There were significant relationships between periapical and periodontal infections (PConclusion. A retrospective inspection of CBCT imaging revealed that periapical lesions and periodontal infections in the posterior area of the maxilla were associated with thickening of the schneiderian membrane. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the location of maxillary posterior teeth, i.e. the thickness of bone from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor, and schneiderian membrane thickness.Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, schneiderian membrane, periapical abscess, periodontitis
Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluationPages 177-182Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator).
Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference.
Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system).
Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5%) for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.Keywords: Sonication, primary teeth, root canal, sodium hypochlorite
Effect of denture cleansing agents on tensile and shear bond strengths of soft liners to acrylic denture basePages 183-188Background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Corega and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite cleansing agents on the shear and tensile bond strengths of GC soft liner to denture base.
Methods. A total of 144 samples (72 samples for tensile and 72 for shear bond strength evaluations) were prepared. The samples in each group were subdivided into three subgroups in terms of the cleansing agent used (2.5% sodium hypochlorite, Corega and distilled water [control group]). All the samples were stored in distilled water, during which each sample was immersed for 15 minutes daily in sodium hypochlorite or Corega solutions. After 20 days the tensile and shear bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. In addition, a stereomicroscope was used to evaluate fracture modes. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, using SPSS 16.
Results. The results of post hoc Tukey tests showed significant differences in the mean tensile and shear bond strength values between the sodium hypochlorite group with Corega and control groups (P=0.001 for comparison of tensile bond strengths between the sodium hypochlorite and control groups, and PConclusion. Immersion of soft liners in Corega will result in longevity of soft liners compared to immersion in sodium hypochlorite solution and sodium hypochlorite solution significantly decreased the tensile and shear bond strengths compared to the control and Corega groups.Keywords: Denture cleansers, soft liners, shear bond strength, tensile bond strength
Efficacy of radiographic density values of the first and second cervical vertebrae recorded by CBCT technique to identify patients with osteoporosis and osteopeniaPages 189-194Background. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone strength with an increase in the risk of fractures. This study aimed at evaluating the ability to predict osteoporosis and osteopenia based on radiographic density values obtained from CBCT imaging technique.
Methods. CBCT images of 108 patients were prepared by using NewTom VGI (QR, Verona, Italy). Then the patients were assigned to osteoporosis, osteopenia and healthy group, using the T-score derived from the DEXA technique. Finally, RD of the lateral mass of C1 on the left and right sides and body and dens of the C2 were measured. RD values were compared between the three groups by one-way ANOVA, followed by an appropriate post hoc test.
Results. The results of the comparisons of RD values at the first and second cervical vertebrae in the three groups showed that all the values had statistically significant differences (PConclusion. Based on the findings of this study, it is possible to predict the osteoporosis status of the patient through the RD related to the body of C2 and the left lateral mass of C1 more accurately than the other areas.Keywords: CBCT, osteoporosis, cervical vertebrae, radiography
Pages 195-199Background. There is no clear consensus on operative hand instrumentation. In general, there is one hand instrument that completes one task. Consequently, numerous instruments are required for the placement, shaping and carving of a restoration. This reduces clinical efficiency, increases cost and may generate frustration.
Methods. A novel dental hand instrument has been developed. The instrument (GTI) can complete several tasks. The instrument was assessed in a laboratory setting with amalgam, composite and glass-ionomer restorations on dentoform teeth.
Results. Results indicated that class II amalgam and composite restorations were significantly faster than conventional instrumentation (PConclusion. The GTI is an industry-translated, novel medical device that offers the clinician an alternative to standard instrumentation. Further investigations are required with increased samples sizes, clinical assessment and expanded utility.Keywords: Instrumentation, medical device, translational research