فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 7, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/05/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Nooshin Karimi Alavijeh, Sorour Chehrazi Madreseh, Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalaee Page 682
    Inequality in income distribution is the source of injustices such as class differences based on wealth, incomes, and consumption among members of society. Achieving fair distribution of income requires the proper use of economic instruments among which monetary policy is the most important tool. In this study, using annual data from 1979-2013, the effects of liquidity volume (monetary policy index) on inequality of income distribution (using Gini coefficient inequality index) have been addressed. Therefore, Gini coefficient function was estimated with particle swarm optimization algorithm and genetic algorithm. And based on performance assessment criteria, the model with particle swarm optimization algorithm was chosen to study the impact of monetary policy on income distribution in Iran. Research results show that the relation of liquidity volume variable with direct income distribution and the relation of government expenses with income distribution are significant and indirect. Also, the results show that by increasing human development index, income inequality in society increases and rising inflation reduces inequality of income distribution.
    Keywords: Monetary policy, Income Distribution, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, Gini Coefficient
  • Zahra Nasrollahi, Elahe Mahmoodi, Majid Mahmoodi Page 692
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between government size and openness for a 26-years panel of 30 Asian developing countries. It is argued that there is a negative relation between country size and government size and also between country size and openness. Considering that, some researchers concluded that there is a positive relationship between openness and the size of government. To reveal the relation between these two variables, we used two proxies for measuring the extent of openness. The proxy used for openness is the economic dimension of KOF index of globalization. Employing a non-stationary panel data technique and DOLS estimator, the results show that there is a positive relationship between economic globalization and government size.
    Keywords: Government Size, Openness, KOF index, Panel Data
  • Mohammad Hassani, Narges Nabizadeh Page 702
    This research investigated the effect of capital gains and stock liquidity on stock expected return. The stock expected return is measured based on capital assets pricing model. Stock liquidity is measured by stock trading turn over and capital gain is measured by the return made through the changes in stock prices. In order to control other factors that may have an effect on stock expected return, some variables like market to book ratio, size, dividend payout ratio, leverage and profitability have been studied. Research hypotheses tested using regression model based on pooled data. Research sample includes 172 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2010 – 2014. Results showed that there is not any significant relationship between capital gains and stock expected return. But the results found that stock liquidity has a significant and positive effect on stock expected return. In fact, stock expected return is a direct function of changes in stock liquidity.
    Keywords: Capital Gains, Stock Liquidity, Stock Expected Return, Capital Assets Pricing Model, Stock Trading Turn Over
  • Sajjad Shokohyar, Ruhollah Tavallaee, Khadijeh Karamatnia Page 720
    For today's organizations, customers have become important resources and communications with them have been considered as valuable assets and investments. Therefore, the effective management of customer relationship has become a preferred task and an approach for managing in many organizations. The dilemma, the organizations are faced with is that they go ahead directly toward the preparation and implementation of new technologies, especially the technology without determining their level of readiness and this causes that they fail at the implementation stage or they do not benefit from the investment and spending they have done. This study wants to investigate the indicators involved in successful acceptance of this product and the degree of importance of these indicators compared to other indicators. After identifying these indicators, according to the research background and internal expert's opinion, the status of these indicators has been assessed and they were ranked using multi-criteria decision-making model known as fuzzy analytic network process in Iran's Mellat Bank. Finally, by examining the fuzzy average of the studied organization data, a general consensus has been achieved about the importance of each indicator as well as their ranking based on the weight of each indicator compared to other indicators in assessing Iranian organization readiness to accept social customer relationship management. It is worth mentioning that this research paid more attention to negotiations and meetings with chief technology officers, customer relationship experts, strategic managers, project managers and human resource managers. This study wants to investigate the indicators involved in successful acceptance of this product and the degree of importance of these indicators compared to other indicators. After identifying these indicators, according to the research background and internal expert's opinion, the status of these indicators has been assessed and they were ranked using multi-criteria decision-making model known as fuzzy analytic network process in Iran's Mellat Bank. Finally, by examining the fuzzy average of the studied organization data, a general consensus has been achieved about the importance of each indicator as well as their ranking based on the weight of each indicator compared to other indicators in assessing Iranian organization readiness to accept social customer relationship management. It is worth mentioning that this research paid more attention to negotiations and meetings with chief technology officers, customer relationship experts, strategic managers, project managers and human resource managers.
    Keywords: Customer relationship management, social customer relationship management, social network, technology, customer, fuzzy analytic network process
  • Samaneh Sharafoddin, Alireza Shahriari Page 745
    Market development is one of the goals of accelerated and continuous economic growth which plays a major role and has always been one of the key topics in economic development, thus, market development is considered as one of the preconditions for growth and economic development. The objective of this article is evaluation of the effect of financial market and bank’s development on capital ratio of banks listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange during the period from 2009 to 2014 which includes 11 banks and 66 observations. Spss and Eviews were used to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that there is a direct and significant relation between the development of capital market and capital ratio of bank and direct and significant relation between the development of bank and capital ratio of bank.
    Keywords: Development of capital markets, Development of bank, Capital ratio, Economic development
  • Emmanuel Junior Tenakwah Page 760
    Tax evasion is a problem which has caused the Ghanaian tax system right from the colonial times. While some have blamed the situation on the tax authorities for not living up to expectation with regards to tax administration, others attribute it to the unpatriotic attitude of the taxpayers. It was in the light of these challenging positions that this research was carried out using a survey involving tax authorities and individual taxpayers in Abossey Okai, Accra. The study examined the factors contributing to tax evasion in the informal sector, identified the various ways through which tax evasion is perpetrated and the challenges faced by tax authorities in generating tax revenue from the informal sector. The study made use of convenient sampling technique where both taxpayers and tax authorities were selected. The survey revealed that the informal sector of the Ghanaian economy is largely characterized by activities of sole-proprietors who are involved in retailing, wholesaling as well as repairs. It was also revealed that the dominance of sole-proprietorship business in the informal sector has made it difficult for tax authorities to levy taxes on them. The dominance of this business unit is associated with many characteristics which induces tax evasion. These characteristics include but not limited to business registration, lack of permanent business location and predominance of cash transactions. Tax evasion and for that matter the informal sector has caused a great deal of harm to Ghana through its direct and indirect consequences and if care is not taken will gain deep roots in this country. It is therefore recommended that for the Government of Ghana to meet the needs of the citizenry, it would be appropriate to take a look at the factors responsible for the incidence of high tax evasion in the economy.
    Keywords: Evasion, Ghana, Informal, Sector, Tax
  • Wijerathnage Somarathna Chandrasekara Page 780
    Stigma associated with mental illness is identified as a potential barrier for seeking psychological help for mental health disorders. The purpose of this study is to assess the perceived barriers and supporting factors and to find out the strategies to promote the help seeking behavior among university students. 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with students and students’ counselors from three state universities in Sri Lanka. Already developed and tested three questionnaires on help seeking behavior were used to develop guidelines. Barriers, supporting factors and strategies to promote counseling services were investigated. According to the findings, the most significant barrier for seeking counseling services is mental illness stigma. Males have a greater level of mental illness stigma than female. The rest of barriers are reluctance to share their problems with counselors, self-dependency, lack of trust on counselors, and lack of awareness about services availability. Most significant supporting factors are availability of free counseling services, proximity, and easy access to the counseling service. The strategies for promoting counseling services are promoting mental health education among students; making easy access to counselors; and developing a good relationship between students and counselors.
    Keywords: Help seeking, Help seeking barriers, Counseling, Psychological difficulties