فهرست مطالب

Pediatrics - Volume:5 Issue: 47, 2017
  • Volume:5 Issue: 47, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • Seyedeh Fatemeh Miri, Maryam Javadi, Chung-Ying Lin, Khadijeh Irandoost, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Amir Pakpour* Pages 5975-5984
    Identifying and investigating the factors influencing self-efficacy and eventually health related quality of life (HRQoL) can be an important step toward the prevention and treatment of the obesity. The aim of the study was to compare weight self-efficacy and HRQoL among normal-weight, overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.
    Materials And Methods
    In this case-control study, 118 obese and overweight adolescents (case group) and 118 adolescents with normal weight (control group) were recruited. Adolescent's anthropometric characteristics were measured. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL), pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0) and self-reported physical activity were completed by the adolescents.
    Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for various confounders indicated that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to be physically active (adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.911), had lower ability to cope with social pressure (AOR= 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.93), involved in less positive activities (AOR= 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.75), and felt more negative emotions (AOR= 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36) than their normal-weight counterparts. Moreover, obese and overweight adolescents were more likely to report deteriorated quality of life in all PedsQL subscales than those with normal weight P
    Weight management programs should focus on increasing adolescent’s control on situations related to negative emotions to improve their HRQoL.
    Keywords: Adolescent, Emotions, Obesity, Quality of life, Self-efficacy
  • Elaheh Seddighi, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Hossein Shahnazi *, Behzad Mahaki Pages 5985-5998
    The present study aimed to explore effects of companionship in training sessions on primiparous women’s knowledge, attitude and performance toward breastfeeding.
    Materials And Methods
    In this case- control interventional study, 105 primiparous women in the 30th to 34th weeks of pregnancy were selected and assigned to three groups, namely the intervention group without a companion (n=35), the intervention group with a companion (n=35), and the comparison group (n=35). Data gathering tools was a questionnaire and breastfeeding observational checklist. The control group received routine training in the hospital, but the other groups were trained by the researcher in four 90-minute sessions. Data were collected before and after the education, immediately after childbirth, and four and eight weeks after childbirth and analyzed using SPSS(version 20.0) software and appropriate statistical tests.
    No significant difference was observed in terms of demographic variables such as: maternal and paternal educational level and occupation status between control and intervention groups (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding in the two intervention groups before and after the educational intervention, right after child birth, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after child birth (P
    According to results of this study, education during pregnancy and support from the accompanying person, before and after childbirth expand knowledge of breastfeeding, reinforce attitude toward it, and boost its performance.
    Keywords: Attitude, breastfeeding, Education, Knowledge, Performance, Primipara
  • Mohammad Reza Mohammadi-Sardo, Soheil Salehi, Sahar Mirbaha, Atefeh Abdollahi * Pages 5999-6008
    BackgroundResistant Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), is the most prevalent source of diarrhea in pediatrics. This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains of diabetic and non-diabetic pediatrics with diarrhea.
    Materials And Methods
    This was a case-control study conducted from December 2014 to September 2015 in an educational hospital, Jiroft city, Iran. Diarrheic stool samples were collected from diabetic (n= 385) and non-diabetic (n= 300) pediatrics. The samples were cultured and the STEC strains were tested by disk diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were applied for detecting antibiotic resistance genes.
    ResultsSampling was performed from 685 patients (51.8% male). Total prevalence of STEC strains in diabetic and non-diabetic pediatrics were 6.5% and 3.0%, respectively (P = 0.007). Prevalence of the gens that encode resistance against ampicillin (CITM), fluoroquinolone (qnr), trimethoprim (dfrA1), tetracycline (tetA), gentamicin [aac(3)-IV] and sulfonamide (sul1) were 97.1%, 64.7%, 61.8%, 58.8%, 58.3% and 52.9%, respectively. Non-diabetic pediatrics harbored the lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (P = 0.034).
    ConclusionHigh numbers of STEC, especially O157 strains, showed a multidrug-resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. CITM, qnr, dfrA1, tetA, [aac(3)-IV] and sul1 antibiotic resistance genes were identified in the STEC strains of diarrheic samples of diabetic and non-diabetic pediatric patients.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance properties, Diabetes, Diarrhea, Pediatrics, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli
  • Mohammad Forozeshfard, Raheb Ghorbani, Mohammadreza Razavi, Navid Danaie, Shamsollah Nooripour * Pages 6009-6015
    BackgroundBacterial colonization during and shortly after birth are common in newborn infants. The aim of this study was to determine the umbilical cord bacterial colonization in newborn infants rooming in with mothers and neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
    Materials and MethodsIn a cross-sectional study, 180 newborn infants were studied in three groups including: newborn infants born via normal delivery and stayed with their mothers (n=60), newborn infants born by cesarean section and stayed with their mothers (n=60), and newborn infants admitted in NICU (n=60). Umbilical cord care was done as natural drying without use of any disinfectant or local antibiotic for all newborn infants. Bacterial culture was performed on the second day in three groups and in days of 5-7 only among the infants admitted in NICU.
    ResultsAmong the subjects, 50% (n=90) were boy and 50% (n=90) were the first-time mothers. Normal gestational age (38 to 42 weeks) was seen in 67.2% (n=121) of subjects. Three groups had no significant differences in terms of gender (p=0.247), and first-time mothers (p=0.344), but had a significant difference in terms of gestational age (p=0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria responsible for the colonization in the first culture (n=31, 17.22%), and second culture (n=17, 13.5%). Bacterial colonization was more common in newborn infants who were born by cesarean section and stayed with their mothers compared to the other groups (pConclusionAccording to the study, bacterial colonization was common in newborn infants who were born by cesarean section and stayed with their mothers and Staphylococcus aureus had an important role in this colonization. Future study is recommended to confirm our results.
    Keywords: Cesarean section, Colonization, delivery, Infants, Umbilical cord
  • Ali Khani Jeihooni, Alireza Askari, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Zahra Khiyali, Seyyed Hannan Kashfi, Omid Safari, Babak Rastegarimehr, Morteza Mansourian * Pages 6017-6029
    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. Prevention of osteoporosis during childhood and adolescence is an important issue in World Health Organization. The purpose of this study was to investigate application of health belief model in prevention of osteoporosis among primary school girl students, in Fasa city, Fars Province, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study, 140 primary school girl students who were randomly divided into groups, experimental (n=70) and control (n=70) in Fasa city, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2015. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention and four months later. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 software.
    The mean age of students was 11.45±1.13 and 11.25±1.60 years old in the Experimental and the control group, respectively. Immediately and Four months after the intervention, the mean scores of the HBM components (Perceived susceptibility, Perceived severity, Perceived benefits, Perceived barriers, Self-efficacy, Internal cues to action), and nutritional and walking performance in experimental group was better than the control group (P
    The findings of the present study confirmed the practicability and effectiveness of the Health Belief Model based educational program in promoting behaviors about prevention of osteoporosis. Hence, these models can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the osteoporosis prevention.
    Keywords: Health Belief Model, Prevention, Osteoporosis, Students, Nutritional Status
  • Fatemeh Ataei, Isa Neshandar Asli, Masoumeh Mohkam, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh, Neamatollah Ataei *, Alireza Ghavi, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Alireza Oraii, Mostafa Hosseini Pages 6031-6040
    Imaging modalities such as voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC), and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS) with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99mDMSA), are helpful in detecting possible abnormalities of urinary tract such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, there are confounding data regarding the preference of these modalities. In the present study, we aimed to assess the role of Tc-99mDMSA scan in prediction of possible VUR and the subsequent need for VCUG or DRNC.
    Materials And Methods
    Three hundred fifty seven children under 14 years old with first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) who were admitted between April 2004 and February 2017 were enrolled. Data regarding to VCUG or DRNC in order to evaluate the presence of possible VUR were recorded. Finally, accuracy of Tc-99mDMSA scans in prediction of VUR were assessed.
    Analyses showed a sensitivity and specificity of 95.65% and 14.72%, respectively for Tc-99mDMSA scan in detection of VUR. Patients with mild renal involvement in Tc-99mDMSA scans had a 3.5-fold greater risk of having VUR than those with a normal scans (odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-8.58; p=0.007). In addition, the risk of VUR is up to 7.0-fold greater in children with moderate renal involvement (odds ratio=7.0; 95% CI: 2.6-13.2; p
    According to the results, Tc-99mDMSA scan can be used as a screening test in prediction of VUR in infants and children with first- time febrile UTI.
    Keywords: Children, Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid Scan, Vesicoureteral reflux, Urinary tract infection
  • Mehrzad Mehdizadeh, Sara Memarian, Rahman Khosravi, Farzaneh Motamed, Parisa Rahmani, Maryam Saidi, Reihaneh Mohsenipour, Hosein Alimadadi, Behdad Gharib * Pages 6041-6046
    We present a 13.5 year old boy with chronic intussusception that was misdiagnosed as Crohn disease and received treatment for the wrong diagnosis. Because his condition didn’t improve, more work-ups were performed and the radiologic work-ups revealed the diagnosis of a missed intussusception with fistula.We suggest that prolonged intussusception should be considered in the list of differential diagnosis for the refractory abdominal pain and distention, bloody diarrhea, and radiologist consultancy should be requested, as Crohn disease, infectious gastroenteritis, abdominal malignancies and prolonged intussusception should be carefully investigated and considered in such situations.
    Keywords: Crohn disease, Intussusception, Burkitt lymphoma
  • Mojdeh Banaei, Azam Moridi *, Asiyeh Pormehr-Yabandeh, Nasibeh Roozbeh, Soheila Moradi, Shirin Soltani Pages 6047-6048
    Infant health care should be one of the first and most important tasks of every nation and one of the main programs of any government, because children, as a vulnerable group, have a special place in health services . Based on the findings, the number of live births in 2014 and 2015 was 39627 and 41575, respectively. The number of neonatal deaths in 2014 was 12.5%̧ while it was 10.5% in 2015. The most common causes of neonatal mortality in 2014 and 2015 were respectively premature birth defects, congenital anomalies, and respiratory infections, which were similar to previous years. it is necessary to identify the preventable factors in neonatal mortality and design the necessary interventions to reduce infant mortality.
    Keywords: Children, Iran, Mortality Rate Neonate, prevalence
  • Somayeh Hashemian, Peyman Eshraqhi, Rahim Vakili, Mahdi Behnam* Pages 6049-6055
    Thyroid ectopia is a dysgenesis of thyroid gland and Lingual position represents the most frequent ectopic location accounting up to 90% of ectopic cases. Hypothyroidism is commonly present because of absence of a normal thyroid gland in most instances. Primary hypothyroidism in juvenile population generally leads to retardation of linear growth and delay or even arrested puberty. We present a 20 years old female with typical and profound presentation of hypothyroidism due to lingual thyroid.
    Keywords: Ectopic thyroid, Hypothyroidism, Lingual thyroid, Thyroid dysgenesis
  • Alireza Didarloo, Naser Sharafkhani, Rasool Gharaaghaji, Siamak Sheikhi Pages 6057-6067
    Obesity is regarded as the epidemic of diseases correlated with an unhealthy lifestyle. The avoidance of inactivity could prevent obesity and its relevant issues. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to improve obesity-preventive lifestyle among Iranian students.
    Materials And Methods
    The current study was a quasi-experimental study. Using multistage sampling, 100 Junior High-school students in Khoy, Iran in 2016 were selected and assigned to two groups, namely intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). To collect the study data, researchers utilized a researcher-made questionnaire including items about demographic information and TPB constructs such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), behavioral intention, and behaviors related to physical activities, television watching, and computer-game playing. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0.
    The mean age of the intervention group was 13.88 ± 0.79 and that of the control group was 14.12 ± 0.77 years. Prior to the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the scores of both the TPB constructs and their health performances. However, three months after the intervention, the mean score of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and behavior of students changed, and all these changes were statistically significant between two groups (p
    The results of the study showed that the TPB could be an appropriate theoretical basis for designing and evaluating interventions to encourage people to avoid a sedentary lifestyle and inactivity.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior, Obesity Preventive Lifestyle, School-based Intervention
  • Navid Danaie, Marzieh Seddigh, Raheb Ghorbani, Shamsollah Nooripour * Pages 6069-6076
    BackgroundINtubate-SURfactant-Extubate (INSURE) method is one of the effective methods in treatment of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This study was performed to predict risk factors for the failure of INSURE method in treatment of RDS in preterm infants.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 192 infants who born between July 2011 and April 2016 at women and children's hospital of Amiralmoemenin in Semnan, Iran, were included to the study. Inclusion criteria were infants with moderate to severe RDS, 26 to 38 gestational weeks and weighted 500 to 3,500 grams. All patients were treated with INSURE method, then were divided to success and failure INSURE. Severity of RDS was determined by RDS scoring system. The collected data including gender status, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), maternal diabetes mellitus, delivery type and neonatal morbidity (including intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) stage 1, sepsis, chronic lung disease (CLD), pneumothorax, and pulmonary bleeding. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software, version 22.0.
    Of the 192 patients, 82 (42.7%) infants were females. The mean GA and BW were 30.25 ± 1.85 weeks and 1950 ± 270 grams, respectively. Of all the patients, 156 infants (81.25%) were born via cesarean section. INSURE failure was observed in 79 infants (41.1 %) and INSURE success was observed in 113 (58.9%). Among the factors, INSURE method failure had a significant relationship with GA, BW, RDS severity and increased probability of IVH, CLD, pneumothorax and pulmonary bleeding (pConclusionAccording to the finding, among the risk factors, only higher severity of RDS and GA were able to predict INSURE method failure in treatment of RDS in preterm infants. Additional studies are recommended in this regard.
    Keywords: Infants, INSURE method, Gestational age, Respiratory distress syndrome
  • Noor Mohammad Noori, Alireza Teimouri *, Maryam Nakhaey Moghaddam Pages 6077-6094
    BackgroundN-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a marker to evaluate the cardiac involvement in thalassemia. We aimed to evaluate conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography findings and its relation to plasma NT-pro BNP, Ferritin and Iron levels in beta-thalassemia patients.
    Materials and MethodsThis study performed on 164 participants equal of major beta- thalassemia patients (n=82), and controls (82 healthy children with normal cardiovascular status). The patients collected from outpatients after applied exclusion criteria. Blood samples were taken from participants in fasting to measure NT- pro BNP, Ferritin and Iron serum. Participants were under echocardiography by Pediatric cardiologist. The level of error considered as 0.05 for data analysis by SPSS version 20.0.
    Results NT- pro BNP, Iron, Ferritin, left S', left A', right A', EF, FS, left and right A/A'; right and left MPI were significantly different in patients group (P 10 years, and FS had different values significantly in lower levels. In lower level of left E/E' resulted that FS was significantly higher in the age group ConclusionThe study confirmed that NT-pro BNP increases in thalassemia and association with age and LV diastolic dysfunction. NT-pro BNP with E/E' and S' were shown diastolic and systolic dysfunction in thalassemia. Therefore, an increased level of ferritin and NT-pro BNP can be used as a marker for the intensification of iron chelation therapy, which reverses iron-induced cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords: Children, Cardiac involvement, Echocardiography, NT-pro BNP, Beta-Thalassemia
  • Zahra Jalili, Cyrus Jalili * Pages 6095-6102
    BackgroundDown syndrome is the most common chromosomal anomaly. Dysmorphic features can occur in several organs in this syndrome. Cardiac anomalies with a prevalence of 50% are the most common anomalies responsible for death during the first two years of life. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiac anomalies among Down syndrome patients admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran from 2002 to 2016.
    Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive study, the medical records of all patients with Down syndrome admitted to two university hospitals namely Imam Ali and Imam Reza, Kermanshah city located in Western part of Iran in the study period were reviewed. All patients had received Echocardiography two-dimensional (2D). The required data including cardiac anomaly type, consanguinity of parents, maternal age, surgical interventions, and survival were collected into a checklist.
    During the study period, 166 patients with Down syndrome had received diagnostic and therapeutic services in the studied hospitals. There were 70 males (42.2%) and 96 females (57.8%). Familial consanguinity was documented in 95 patients (57.2%). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) maternal age at delivery was 26.33 (±4.7) years (range, 15 to 45 years). Of 166 studied patients, 123 (74.1%) had cardiac anomaly. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most prevalent single defect seen in 32 (26%) patients, followed by atrial septal defect (ASD) detected in in 22 (17.8%) patients. Seventy patients (42.1%) required surgical interventions. A total of 74 patients experienced relative improvement of the symptoms. Also, seven patients (10.2%) died including five females and two males.
    The frequency of cardiac anomalies in the studied population of Down syndrome patients was higher than former reported figures. The pattern of the anomalies is compatible with some former reports, but contradicts other reports.
    Keywords: Cardiac anomaly, Congenital Heart, Down syndrome, Iran, prevalence
  • Seyedhosseini, Davarani, Anahita Saeedi, Alaleh Rouhipour, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Alireza Baratloo * Pages 6103-6110

    BackgroundCurrently, almost all patients with probable abdominal injury undergo urinalysis in emergency department (ED). The present survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the diagnostic values of urinalysis compare with abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast for predicting possible intra-abdominal injuries in children affected by blunt trauma.

    Materials And Methods

    The present diagnostic accuracy study was accomplished on patient's ResultsSeventy eligible patients with the mean age of 7.1 ± 4.86 years were enrolled (68.6% male). Screening performance characteristics including sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of hematuria were 26.7%, 92.7%, 50.0% and 82.3%, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated as 3.67 and 0.79, respectively.
    ConclusionIt is likely that, presence of hematuria has acceptable specificity, but very low sensitivity in comparison with CT scan for prediction of abdominal organ injuries in children with blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, urinalysis is not useful for screening the presence of organ injuries in this population.

    Keywords: Abdominal injuries, Children, Emergency Department, Hematuria, Urinalysis
  • Gianmaria Pacifici *, Giovanna Marchini Pages 6111-6138
    Cefotaxime is a bactericidal "third generation" cephalosporin has a broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive microorganisms and exceptional activity against most gram-negative microorganisms. Cefotaxime is widely considered to be the antibiotic of choice for the management of neonatal meningitis and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Cefotaxime is active against Neisseria meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella specimens, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter species, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In neonates, the recommended dose of cefotaxime is 25 mg/kg every 6 hours by intravenous or intramuscular administration. Some authors administered cefotaxime at a daily dose of 150 or 300 mg/kg. After the intravenous administration of 50 mg/kg cefotaxime every 6 hours, the serum concentrations of this antibiotic are 56.9.7 µg/ml at 1 hour and 3.66.65 µg/ml at 6 hours after the administration. The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of cefotaxime, measured 1 hour after the intravenous administration of 50 mg/kg cefotaxime, is 3.72.57 µg/ml. The MIC50 (µg/ml) and the MBC50 (µg/ml) are 0.024.026 and 0.064.054, respectively, for Haemophilus influenzae, 0.062.034 and 0.240.027, respectively, for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 0.057.088 and 0.283.44, respectively, for Neisseria meningitis. In neonates, the half-life of cefotaxime is 2 to 6 hours, it varies with gestational and postnatal ages, and the clearance and distribution volume are 0.074.03 l/h/kg and 0.461.027 l/kg, respectively. Cefotaxime diffuses in tissues and penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid. This antibiotic is safe and well tolerated in neonates. The aim of this study is to review the effects and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in neonates and infants.
    Keywords: Cefotaxime, Effects, Neonate, Pharmacokinetics, Resistance, Susceptibility
  • Abdellatif Daoudi *, Nadia El Idrissi Slitine, Fatiha Bennaoui, Mariame Alaoui, Nabila Soraa, Fadl Mrabih Rabou Maoulainine Pages 6139-6142
    Mobile phones and stethoscopes used in neonatology units could be colonized by potentiel bacteria pathogens. It can be a vector of severe nosocomial infections and multi-drug-resistant pathogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbial contamination of mobile phones and stethoscopes, used by medical and paramedical staff. The study was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Mohamed VI University Hospital, Marrakech (Morocco) in April 2016. The bacteriological study was made on 17 mobile phones and 13 stethoscopes. Samples were taken from all surfaces of mobile phones and stethoscopes, with a sterile swab. Bacterial contamination rate of all mobile phones and stethoscopes was 100%. The cultures of bacteria isolated were polymorphic. Among the bacteria isolated, six multi-resistant bacterial strains were isolated at the mobile phones (35%), corresponding to 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2 strains of E. coli. A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae multidrug-resistant (7.7%) was found on a stethoscope. This study shows that mobile phones and stethoscopes could be involoved in the transmission of severe nosocomial infections, with multidrug-resistance. As part of the prevention of such risks, we must educate the medical staff, users of mobile phones on the importance of hand washing and use of hydro-alcoholic solutions after each use of mobile phones and stethoscopes.
    Keywords: Contamination, Mobile Phones, Newborn, Nosocomial infection, Stethoscopes
  • Smj Mortazavi * Pages 6143-6144
    This letter is regarding the article by Daoudi et al. entitled "Study of bacterial contamination of mobile phones and stethoscopes in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" published in International Journal of Pediatrics DOI: 10.22038/IJP.2017.25504.2170 (1). The authors have evaluated the microbial contamination of mobile phones and stethoscopes used by medical and paramedical staff. They reported that 100% of mobile phones and stethoscopes studied by their team showed bacterial contamination. Based on their findings, Daoudi et al. suggested that medical staff should wash their hands with care and use hydro-alcoholic solutions after using mobile phones and stethoscopes.
    Keywords: Bacterial contamination, Mobile Phones, Stethoscopes, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • Shamsuddin Hassan, Shyam Mina *, Shobha Sharma, Ajay Kumar, Rhea Shriyan Pages 6145-6149
    Neuromyelitis optica (also known as Devic's disease or Devic's syndrome) is an uncommon disorder in pediatric age group, and is characterized by acute or subacute optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Here we report an 11- year- old female child with relapsing Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) confirmed by positive NMO- IgG antibody and had clinical recovery with high dose methyl prednisolone therapy.
    Keywords: Children, Neuromyelitis optica, Optic neuritis, Transverse myelitis
  • Fatemeh Zahra Karimi, Masumeh Saeidi, Masoumeh Mirteimouri, Nahid Maleki- Saghooni * Pages 6151-6171
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multiple organ involvement and periods of relapse and remission that mainly affects young women of childbearing age. In this regard the reproductive health is an important issue. Although diagnosis, treatment and management of pregnancy in SLE women have been improved recently, but the main concern is effects of SLE on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with SLE.
    Materials And Methods
    The databases of PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science as well as domestic database (Persian) such as SID, Magiran, Irandoc, and Google Scholar were searched with using keywords such as" Systemic lupus erythematosus"; "Pregnancy"; "Neonatal lupus"; "maternal, fetus or neonatal outcome"; and equivalent Persian words. Included were all Persian and English articles, published between 2000 and May 2017. Finally, a total of 77 studies were included.
    Adverse perinatal outcomes increase in pregnancies with lupus. Outcomes include respiratory, cardiovascular, blood and skin disorders in mothers; stillbirth, spontaneous, and recurrent abortion in fetuses and neonatal lupus, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and small for gestational age (SGA) in neonates, respectively.
    Pregnant women with SLE are at high risk due to increased complications for both mother and fetus. It seems broad control of the women before fertilization, so that they be at full remission in the beginning of pregnancy and the disease activity be in complete control, it can help to improve outcomes of pregnancy and so better results can be expected.
    Keywords: Fetus, Neonate, pregnancy, Outcome, Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Masumeh Saeidi, Abbas Bahreini, Zahra Emami Moghadam, Habibolah Taghizadeh Moghaddam * Pages 6173-6178
    Human rights are the basic standards that people need to live in dignity. In addition to the rights that are available to all people, there are rights that apply only to children. Children need special rights because of their unique needs; they need additional protection that adults don’t. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international document that sets out all of the rights that children have – a child is defined in the Convention as any person under the age of 18 (1).
    Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors (2), including their right to association with both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for food, universal state-paid education, health care and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child's civil rights, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child's race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, religion, disability, color, ethnicity, or other characteristics (3-8).
    Keywords: Children, Muslims, Myanmar, Violence