فهرست مطالب

ECOPERSIA - Volume:5 Issue:3, 2017
  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Maede Nasry, Mehdi Ghorbani *, Mohammad Jafari, Hamed Rafiee Pages 1829-1836
    Background
    The participation of local communities is considered as one of the major factors contributing to social and economic growth and development in rangeland management. Therefore, an analysis of variables affecting their participation contributes greatly to foreseeing the needs and fulfilling the shortages of a participation program. The present paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of socio- economic variables effecting local communities’ participation.
    Materials And Methods
    The pilot area of the present study was Gomorgan village in Malard County (Tehran Province). Regression function was used for examining the impact of explanatory variables (socio-economic) upon participation of local communities to rangeland protection. Shazam 9 software was applied for logit regression function analysis.
    Results
    It was found out that the variables such as age, education, bid and importance of rangelands as livestock production inputs had negative effects upon local communities’ participation in Malard’s rangeland protection, whileincome had positive effects.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that enhancing the socio- economic condition of local community could be a useful tool to increase the success level of the conservation projects in rangeland management.
    Keywords: Communities, Logit Model, Malard County, Rangelands, Socio-Economic Variables
  • Iman Pazhouhan, Akbar Najafi *, Abolghasem Kamkar Rouhani, Jvad Vahidi Pages 1837-1847
    Background
    In this study for the first time terrestrial laser scanning survey was implemented on upland Hyrcanian forest, through which a and new method was applied to automatically extract DBH and tree position as a necessary step for height calculation and fitting the clustering as a circle.
    Materials And Methods
    Tree height extracted by fixing a cylinder around the trees center. The accuracies of these methods were investigated by field measurement. Among 4 shapes fitting algorithm, Monte Carlo had more suitable result to fitting circle in each height above the ground.
    Results
    Tree detection rates were 85% for Carpinus betulus and 87% for Diyospyrus lotus with respect to field measurement. R2 and RMSE for DBH measurement were 0.98, 2.06 cm for Carpinus betulus and 0.98, 1.26 cm for Diyospyrus lotus. Value of R2 and RMSE for height measurement were 0.96, 3.37 meters and 0.93, 3.02 meters for Carpinus betulus and Diyospyrus lotus, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The accuracy of DBH by TLS is very suitable, and about the height of trees we extracted underestimated value in comparison to field measurement and that we need to develop more effective algorithms in order to reach more accurate measurement of trees’ height in Hyrcanian forest.
    Keywords: Breast height, DTM, Forest inventory, LIDAR, Point cloud
  • J., Oacute, Zsef Tibor Aranyos *, Marianna Mak, Aacute, Di, Vikt, Oacute, Ria Orosz, Attila Tom, Oacute, Csik, Ibolya Demeterj., Oacute, Zsef MEsz, Aacute, Ros, Lajos Blask, Oacute Pages 1849-1857
    Background
    The large part of sandy soils in Hungary has unfavorable water management properties. Studies have shown that the sewage sludge compost, due to its high organic content, is suitable for improving structure and water management of these soils. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of the application of sewage sludge compost on physical properties of sandy soil.
    Materials And Methods
    The experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of the University of Debrecen in Hungary to study the utilization of sewage sludge compost in agriculture. In this study, however, the changes of water retention and erodibility of soil were measured for three periods. The soil type of the experiment is Arenosol (Dystric Lamellic Arenosol). The applied compost contained sewage sludge of 40%, straw of 25%, bentonite of 5% and rhyolite of 30%. The compost is applied every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter.
    Results
    The compost treatment had a beneficial effect on soil structure thereby reducing the runoff and sediment loss under high intensity rainfall (130 mm h-1). However, in the control plot there was significantly higher water erosion. The water retention of soil was slightly increased after compost application.
    Conclusions
    The compost application improved the water management properties of sandy soil, which is connected with organic matter addition into soil. The compost treatment had a beneficial effect on soil structure thereby reducing the runoff and sediment loss.
    Keywords: Erosion, Sandy Soil, Sewage Sludge Compost, Water Management
  • Hamid Ebrahimy *, Aliakbar Rasuly, Davoud Mokhtari Pages 1859-1873
    Background
    The online and efficient information about the spatial distribution of wildfire susceptibility and occurrence has a major role in improving of fire prevention activities.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach was used for modeling wildfire susceptibility in East Azerbaijan Province and a webGIS system called fire susceptibility webGIS system (FSWS) was developed to easily share and utilize data and facilities among local people and managers. The methodology was composed of three different phases. First, dependent and independent variables were produced by several methods includingimage processing technique, interpolation method and GIS analysis. Next, the wildfire susceptibility was analyzed by using a MaxEnt approach to predict the possibility of wildfire occurrence based on history of wildfire data and environmental variables (anthropogenic, topography, climate and vegetation datasets) during 2005–2015 and the model performs well in terms of accuracy, with an area under ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.909. Finally, the webGIS system was developed by up to date and proper information.
    Results
    This webGIS system was provided from the spatial database of variables, wildfire susceptibility map, fire occurrence layers and base maps. FSWS was set up based on ArcGIS component and provided the facilities and capabilities of a web application that would be used by any user even without any prior knowledge of the GIS field.
    Conclusions
    By FSWS, the environmental authorities will be able to design many operational plans to control the wildfires, supporting conservation managers in improving pre-fire management and raise the awareness among the local people.
    Keywords: Data Sharing, Environmental Management, GIS, Iran, Wildfire Susceptibility
  • Mohadeseh Ehsani, Esmaeil Sheydayi Karkaj *, Fatemeh Aliloo Pages 1875-1883
    Background
    Grazing intensity has a major effect on soil and biomass organic carbon storage (C). Various plants and ecosytems with deiffernt charactristices have their unique responses to the grazing. Recognizing the effects of grazing intensity on C in various envrionments dominated by Halocnemum strobilaceum, such as Incheboron salt land of Golestan province, helps plannig the grazing startegies.
    Materials And Methods
    Three grazing sites, viz. heavy grazing (in vicinity of resting point), moderate grazing (at a distance of 650 meters from resting point) and light grazing (at a distance of 2050 meters from resting point) were selceted. Sampling of soil and H. strobilaceum species was carried out with systematic-random method in Nov. 2012. In this regard, fifteen plants along the five 100 meters transects (with distance of 30m) were randomly selected and underground and abovegrond organs were extracted. The amount of biomass C was determined by combustion method. Also, soil sampling with five repetation was carried out in two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and the amount of stored C was determined by Walkly and Black method.
    Results
    The sum of underground and aboveground biomass C in light grazing site was more than the heavy and moderate grazing sites, which were about 1.17, 1.07 and 0.567 ton/hectare respectively. The amount of soil C for the mentioned sites were 162.56, 137,39 and 80.76 ton/hectare, respectively. Besides, the depth 0-20 cm in all sites had a higher C. The soil C comprised more than 99 percent of ecosystem total stored C (biomas and soil C) in each site. In terms of total ecosystem C, the heavy and moderate grazing site had about 84.37 and 32.20 ton/hectare less C compred to light grazing site.
    Conclusions
    From a management perspective, it is concluded that light grazing intesity in saltalnd region can lead to maintenance of C in high level and grazing systems should avoid high stocking rates because it may adversely affect soil C. Heavy grazing has more negative effects on C compared to moderate grazing. Both soil and biomass respond similarly to different grazing intensities. The soil, especially first depth as the main resourcse of C, should be protected from detrioration to prevent C decling. In view point of C sequestration, it is suggested to plan grazing intesity in light level and protect the soil of rangelands.the five 100 meters transects (with distance of 30m) were selected and underground and abovegrond organs were extracted. The amount of biomass C was determined by combustion method. Also, soil sampling with five repetation was carried out on two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and the amount of stored C was determined by Walkly and Black method. The results showed that the sum of underground and aboveground biomass C in light grazing site is more than the heavy and moderate grazing sites. This value is about 1.17, 1.07 and 0.567 ton/hectare for light, moderate and heavy grazing, respectively. The amount of soil C for the and soil C) in each of sites.
    Keywords: Biomass, Carbon sequestration, Grazing intensive, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Soil
  • Leila Goli Mokhtari *, Mohammad Hossein Ramesht, Mehdi Momeni Pages 1887-1901
    Background
    The concept of allometry states that the relative rate of change of a system unit is a constant fraction of the relative rate of change of the entire system, or of another part of the system.This concept is stated as a nonlinear relationship and has been verified in a variety of natural systems.
    Materials And Methods
    The allometric relations in various phases of basin evolution in forms of static and dynamic models wasinvestigated.In order to study the dynamic allometry, a model consistingof two basins was developed.The evolution stages and the erosion changes caused by artificial rainfall and tectonic movements and also in static form (natural basins) were monitored.
    Results
    The existence of allometricrelations in drainage basins that are progressing toward the equilibrium (natural basins and basins affected by erosion) are significant and verifiable.This kind of relations do not exist in tectonic affected basins that were moving away from the equilibrium.
    Conclusions
    Allometric relations in drainage basins can define different states of system such as equilibrium. Moreover, any factor that causes the basin to move away from equilibrium needs to have an initial effect on basin relations to cause disorder in the system,and this change,in many cases,can be formulated or demonstrated by allometric model. Therefore the allometric equations could be considered an important tool in predicting the evolution of drainage basins and assessing their performance in the past and present.
    Keywords: Allometry, Drainage basin, Morphometric Characteristics Experimental basin, Tectonic movements
  • Hamid Niknahad Gharmakher *, Morteza Saberi, Gholamali Heshmati, Hossein Barani, Alireza Shahriyari Pages 1903-1917
    Background
    Environmental stresses, especially salinity and drought, are effective on seed germination and growth.
    Materials And Methods
    After breaking seed dormancy by simultaneous use of leaching (48 hours) and gibberllic acid (1000 ppm), germination characteristics and seedling growth of Citrullus colocynthis from two ecotypes of Sistan-Baluchestan with six levels of drought (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2, -1.5 Mpa) and salinity (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mM) were studied. This experiment was carried out in two different factorial experiments using completely randomized design with four replications. Statistical analysis was performed using version 18 of SPSS software and Factorial analysis of variance (general linear model) and mean comparisons were done using Duncan's multiple range test.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that there were significant differences among different levels of drought and salinity in all measured traits (PDiscussion and
    Conclusions
    This species has acceptable germination at -0.6 Mpa droughts and 50 mM salinity. These issues must be considered in its intense planting in Sistan-Baluchestan province and using of Zabol’ ecotype seed is recommended.
    Keywords: Citrullus colocynthis, Drought, Germination, Salinity, Sistan, Baluchestan