فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical Sciences - Volume:23 Issue:3, 2017
  • Volume:23 Issue:3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Satyajit D. Sarker*, Lutfun Nahar Pages 170-171
  • Elias Adikwu*, Bonsome Bokolo Pages 172-181
    Background
    Tramadol (TD) has played an important role in the treatment of pain. However, renal toxicity due to TD abuse is a serious clinical challenge. This study assessed the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) and melatonin (MT) on TD-induced renal toxicity in albino rats.
    Methods
    Rats were randomized into groups and treated with MT (10mg/kg/day), NAC (10mg/kg/day) and TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day) respectively. Rats were pretreated with MT (10mg/kg/day) and NAC (10mg/kg/day) prior to treatment with TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day) intraperitonialy for 7days respectively. Rats were sacrificed, serum extracted and evaluated for creatinine, urea and uric acid. The kidneys were evaluated for malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels.
    Results
    Treatment with MT and NAC did not produce significant (P>0.05) effects on serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels when compare to saline control. In contrast, serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA levels were increased while kidney SOD, CAT, and GSH levels were decreased significantly (P
    Conclusion
    The present study showed prospects of n-acetylcysteine and melatonin as remedies for tramadol associated renal toxicity.
    Keywords: Tramadol, Antioxants, Kidney, Toxicity, Rats
  • Vajihe Ghorbanzadeh, Mustafa Mohammadi*, Gisou Mohaddes, Hassan Darishnejad, Leila Chodari Pages 182-188
    Background
    Excessive apoptosis of the pancreatic beta-cell has been associated with type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia significantly stimulates pancreatic islet cell apoptosis. We evaluated the role of crocin and voluntary exercise on apoptosis of pancreas tissue in type2 diabetic rats.
    Methods
    Animals divided into 5 groups as: control (Con), diabetes (Dia), diabetic-crocin (Dia-Cro), diabetic-voluntary exercise (Dia-Exe), diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise (Dia-Cro-Exe). Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (i.p, 35 mg/kg). Animals received crocin orally (50 mg/kg), voluntary exercise performed alone or together for 8 weeks. At the final of study, blood glucose levels and HbA1c were detected. Also p53 protein levels of pancreas tissue were measured by ELISA.
    Results
    P53 levels in pancreas tissue of diabetic group were significantly higher than control group. Crocin and exercise significantly decreased the blood glucose, HbA1c levels and p53 expression in treated diabetic groups compared to diabetic group. The glucose, HbA1c and p53 levels were also significantly lower in crocin-voluntary exercise group in comparison to the other experimental groups.
    Conclusion
    Our results reveal that both crocin and voluntary exercise reduce apoptosis of pancreas through reduction of p53 levels. Moreover, treatments with crocin and voluntary exercise have synergistic anti-apoptotic effects on pancreas tissue of type 2 diabetic rats. Protective effects of these interventions probably perform through the decreasing of glucose and HbA1c levels in blood of rats suffering from diabetes.
    Keywords: Crocin, Voluntary exercise, Apoptosis, P53 protein, Type 2 diabetes
  • Akbar Vosoughi, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh*, Amir Bahrami, Fatemeh Abbasalizadeh, Mitra Niafar, Farzad Najafipour, Naser Aghamohammadzadeh, Zeinab Nikniaz Pages 189-192
    Background
    The present study was designed to primarily investigate the association between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a sample of Iranian woman.
    Methods
    In the present cross-sectional study 136 pregnant women (68 with GDM and 68 non GDM) who were referred to a university hospital clinic of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during July to September 2016 were studied. All pregnant women were assessed for GDM and also serum vitamin D was assessed in all participants.
    Results
    The mean serum 25(OH) D of pregnant women was 13.42±7.78 ng/mL. In the term of the mean serum 25(OH) D level, there was not significant differences between GDM (14.45±8.73) and non-GDM (12.38±6.62) pregnant women (p=0.12). Totally 83.8% of participants were vitamin D deficient and 11.8% of them had insufficient amount of serum vitamin D. Only 4.4% of participants were vitamin D sufficient. The results of logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between GDM and vitamin D status in both unadjusted and adjusted (for mother`s age, parity, BMI and gestational week) models.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study could not show any association between serum vitamin D and GDM. It seems that other factors rather than serum level of 25 (OH) vitamin D level likely explain the growing prevalence of GDM.
    Keywords: 25 (OH) vitamin D, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Iran
  • Sajad Azizi, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari*, Aziz Shahrisa, Mehry Khoubnasabjafari, Jafar Soleymani, Abolghasem Jouyban Pages 193-197
    Background
    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a commonly used biomarker of oxidative stress in clinical studies and has been measured in many pathological conditions during last decades. Different analytical methods have been reported for determination of MDA in biological samples in which MDA was adducted with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to produce more sensitive chromophore and also convert it to a fluorescent compound. In spite of the routine applications of this derivatization and subsequent analysis of MDA in biomedical studies, its reliability, repeatability and reproducibility is questionable. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of some factors on the repeatability of MDA determinations in standard solutions and also in plasma samples using spectroscopic method.
    Methods
    MDA-TBA adduct is prepared in standard solutions and the effects of pH, temperature, reaction time, open, closed and reflux systems and the ratio of MDA and TBA is investigated by measuring the absorbance of the solution at 532 nm. These effects are also investigated in human plasma samples.
    Results
    The best results are obtained at pH 2.5, temperature of 70 °C, reaction time of 150 minutes, reflux system and ratio of 2.
    Conclusion
    Using the optimized conditions are resulted in better repeatability.
    Keywords: Malondialdehyde, Thiobarbituric acid, Derivatization, Reproducibility, Human plasma
  • Mojtaba Taran, Maryam Rad, Mehran Alavi* Pages 198-206
    Background
    There are several methods for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) including chemical, physical and biological process. In this study, Bacillus sp. FU4 was used as biological source for biosynthesis of CuO NPs.
    Methods
    CuO NPs have been prepared by copper sulfate (CuSO4). CuO NPs were formed after oxidation of Cu NPs. Design and analysis of Taguchi experiments (an orthogonal assay and analysis of variance (ANOVA)) carried out by the Qualitek-4 software. Average effect of CuSO4 concentration (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 M), incubation and culturing time (48, 72, 96 hours) as three controllable factors with three levels were evaluated in CuO NPs biosynthesis. Characterization of CuO NPs was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, the antimicrobial properties of CuO NPs were investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 as multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria.
    Results
    Results
    It was evaluated that, NPs size distributions were in the range of 2-41 nm with spherical shapes. The anti-bacterial activities of CuO NPs were measured based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests of NPs dispersed in batch cultures. Two levels of CuSO4 concentrations (0.1 and 0.01M) had antibacterial effect on E.coli (33±0.57 and 6 ±2mm). In the case of S. aureus, there was surprisingly no sign of growth.
    Conclusion
    CuO NPs have antibacterial activity that can be benefit in medicinal aspect for fighting against prominent pathogen bacteria such as E.coli ATCC 25922 and S.aureus ATCC 43300.
    Keywords: Green chemistry, Bacillus sp. FU4, Taguchi method, CuO nanoparticles, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
  • Mahmoud Robati Anaraki, Arash Jangjoo*, Fatemeh Alimoradi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Farzaneh Lotfipour* Pages 207-214
    Background
    metalic-Nanoparticles (NPs) is new antifungal materials versus the resistant fungi as Candida albicans (C. albicans) that is the main factor of acrylic-denture candidosis. Whenever Ag NPs as a strong antifungal metalic-NPs exhibit toxic effect on human cells, the aim of this study was evaluation the antifungal effects of ZnO NPs in acrylic resin (polymethyle methacrylate (PMMA)) as a more biocompatible material on C. albicans in comparison to acrylic resin (PMMA) containing Ag NPs.
    Methods
    In this laboratory study, eleven 10-member groups of acrylic resin specimens with ZnO NPs and Ag NPs (totally 110 specimens) were used. The weight percent of NPs 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20%, that were added to the monomer in each phase and after mixing with powder, flasking carried out in a conventional manner and in a flask with 12 cylindrical cavities with a diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 4 mm in internal space to produce discoid specimens, after deflasking the specimens were finished, polished, cleaned ultrasonically for 5 min in ethanol, rinsed with sterile water and dried in warm air. Afterward they inucleated by 0.1 ml of an inoculating suspension containing 103 concentration of C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and were incubated for 24 hours. Then, the sample was washed with 4.8 ml of 0.9%NaCl solution, and 0.1mL of the washing NaCl solution was taken and cultured on tutrient agar, then incubated for another 24 hours and colony numbers were counted and the data was analyzed by one way ANOVA.
    Results
    Ag & Zno NPs could significantly decrease population of C. albicans after 24 hour of exposure time, meanwhile Ag NPs exhibited stronger antifungal effect than ZnO NPs (P˂0.001).
    Conclusion
    Zno NPs can inhibited the C. albicans. To suggest this technique as a reliable method and determination of technical particle, the efficiency of ZnO NPs should be evaluated in clinical trials.
    Keywords: Ag Nanoparticles, ZnO Nanoparticles, Candida albicans, Acrylic resin, Antifungal effect
  • Sepideh Mardani, Maryam Maghsoodi*, Hamed Hamishehkar Pages 215-221
    Background
    The antisolvent precipitation technique has evolved into an effective method to prepare microcrystals of drug. Although this method has advantages, such as cost effectiveness, the processing is significantly sensitive to stabilizer. The aim of present study was to prepare celecoxib (CLX) microcrystals via antisolvent precipitation technique without any surfactants.
    Methods
    Acetone was used as a solvent for the CLX and water was used as an antisolvent. During the precipitation process, several experimental parameters, such as the volume ratio of antisolvent to CLX solution, the concentration of CLX solution, the temperature and the stirring speed, were investigated.
    Results
    The results showed that external characteristics such as particle size and its distribution were strongly influenced by the process parameters, while the internal structures such as chemical composition and crystal structure were unaffected during the process. Higher volume ratio of antisolvent to CLX solution, lower temperature and more- intense stirring led to the smaller crystals. However, increasing the concentration of CLX solution resulted in aggregation of crystals and consequently formation of large crystals with more heterogeneous distribution. It was found that this effect could be prevented by using of ethanol as co-solvent with volume ratio to acetone 5:1. Under the optimum conditions, the yielded powder had a mean particle size of 7 µm and 70 % of the particles were distributed in the range of 0.3- 15 µm.
    Conclusion
    Results of this study offer a useful starting point for a conceptual framework to guide the preparation of microcrystals without using a stabilizer.
    Keywords: Celecoxib, Microcrystals, Precipitation, Acetone, Surfactant free
  • Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Shirin Hashemi, Faranak Salmannejad, Tayebeh Ghari* Pages 222-230
    Background
    Cosmetic products are one of the most important fields of consumer market. Strategic marketing plan and creating competitive advantages through recognizing of key success factors has become as a main core competency of active firms in this area. Based on this, the aim of our study was to identify the key success factors of cosmetic product's marketing in the Iran's market.
    Methods
    To do this, knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of consumers in Iran were evaluated and key success factors were identified based on the mix marketing theory. Deep interviews and closed-ended questionnaires were used to collect data. The randomized sample population of this study was 1200 people. Results of KAP analysis were classified in seven clusters and then Topsis technique was used to analysis each cluster.
    Results
    Results showed that there are a significant relationship between attitude and practice and also between knowledge and practice because of t-values greater than 1.96 and path coefficient greater than 0.1. Moreover, the results indicated that the most and the least important factors for success of cosmetic's marketing are place (distribution and dispensing) and price, with sorted Cli of 0.9 and 0.1 respectively.
    Conclusion
    It demonstrates that appropriate sales and distribution strategies, scientific and enough information and strong marketing at the point of purchase are the most important key success factors in the marketing of cosmetics, and price has a minimum drawing effect on cosmetic's marketing.
    Keywords: KAP Analysis, Cosmetic products, Iran's market
  • Nidal Amin Jaradat*, Motasem Al-Masri, Fatmeh Hussen, Abed Naser Zaid, Iyad Ali, Ala Tammam, Doaa Mostafa Odeh, Omaima Hussein Shakarneh, Areej Rajabi Pages 231-237
    Background
    Since ancient times, the treatment of various diseases has relied on medicinal plants. The replacement of chemically synthesized drugs with natural medications gave the later advantageous due to their safety for humans. This study aimed to screen and to evaluate preliminarily phytoconstituents, total contents of flavonoids, tannins, and phenols also to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Cyclamen coum aerial parts methanol extract.
    Methods
    Screening of phytoconstituents, total flavonoids, tannins and phenols contents, as well as antioxidant properties, were investigated for the Cyclamen coum aerial parts by using standard phytochemical and analytical methods. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plant methanolic extract was performed by using broth microdilution method. American Type Culture Collections of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were utilized to evaluate antibacterial activity.
    Results
    Preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of the plant methanolic extract showed that the plant aerial parts contained amino acids, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, tannin, flavonoid, phenol, saponin, cardiac glycoside, and steroids. Total flavonoids, phenols, and tannins in plant methanolic extract were 60.88 mg QUE/g, 32.7 mg GAE/g and 11.7 mg CAE/g, respectively. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity was estimated to be 31 µg/mL and has very weak antibacterial activity on the studied pathogens.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, evaluation of total phenolic, tannins and flavonoid content from the aerial parts of C. coum can be an antioxidant naturally potent source. The results of in-vitro antibacterial studies showed that the studied plant has very weak antibacterial activity. In addition, the presence of antioxidant compounds in C. coum makes it a good candidate for manufacturing dietary supplements and food preservatives.
    Keywords: Cyclamen coum, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Phenols, Flavonoid, Tannins
  • Parina Asgharian, Abbas Delazar, Farzaneh Lotfipour, Solmaz Asnaashari* Pages 238-243
    Background
    The current study was assigned to evaluate the antioxidant, general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts obtained from rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla (Lamiaceae).
    Methods
    All activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of E. macrophylla in n-hexane, DCM (dichloromethane) and MeOH (methanol) by soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in terms of FRST (free radical scavenging activity test) by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality tests), MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and disc diffusion method were carried out to determine the general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antibacterial activities of the different extracts, respectively.
    Results
    The findings of the study for antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antibacterial effects showed that DCM extract was the most active fraction, but n-hexane extract indicated the most potent effect against Artemia salina.
    Conclusion
    The results revealed strong bioactive effects of nonpolar fractions of E. macrophylla rhizomes. Thus, it is possible to suggest some new potential antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial agents with no harmful effects on noncancerous cells.
    Keywords: Eremostachys macrophylla, Antioxidant, General toxicity, Antiproliferative, Antibacterial
  • Khashayar Namvar, Ameneh Mohammadi, Esmail Ataei Salehi, Peyman Feyzi* Pages 244-248
    Background
    The genus of Stachys with 300 species belongs to Lamiaceae family and this genus has 34 species in Iran. Stachys turcomanica Trautv is native to Iran and it used for treatment of infectious, rheumatic and inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine. The effect of solvent (methanol in water: 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100 %) on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from S. turcomanica were investigated using various in vitro assays.
    Methods
    The antioxidant activities of extracts were studied via three
    Methods
    FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and beta-carotene linoleic acid bleaching.
    Results
    The results of present work revealed that the solvent combinations have effects on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The relative methanol/water ratio of 80:20 v/v was effective solvent in the extracting of phenolic compounds. Also, there was a good correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content S. turcomanica extracts.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrated methanol/water (80:20) ratio was the best solvent to release of many secondary metabolites from S. turcomanica for future studies, which could provide natural sources of antioxidant compounds.
    Keywords: S. turcomanica, Total phenolic content, Antioxidant activity, DPPH, FRAP, Beta-carotene linoleic acid bleaching