فهرست مطالب

Agricultural Science and Technology - Volume:19 Issue: 6, 2017
  • Volume:19 Issue: 6, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Z. Permeh, M. Ghorbani *, H. Tavakolian *, N. Shahnoshi Pages 1211-1226
    This study aimed to develop a multi-sector Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (Large DSGE) model for Iran’s economy. In this model, economy was divided into three sectors: Agriculture, non-agriculture, and oil. Imports and exports were also included in the model. In order to adapt the model with Iran’s economic conditions, price stickiness in agriculture and non-agriculture were included. Then, the impact of rising oil prices on agricultural sector was examined. To calculate the required coefficients, 1971-2012 data was gathered and Bayesian method was used. The results showed the negative impacts of rising oil prices on agriculture as well as the negative effects of Dutch Disease.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Bayesian, DSGE, Multi-sector, Oil Prices, Stickiness
  • H. Mortezapour *, S. J. Rashedi, H. R. Akhavan, H. Maghsoudi Pages 1227-1240
    In hot air dryers, only a small percentage of the provided thermal energy is used for the drying process, while a large fraction is lost via the exhaust air. To recycle waste heat from the exhaust air, the present study aimed to develop a solar dryer equipped with a novel heat recovery system. The designed dryer comprised of a solar air collector, a drying chamber, an internal closed-loop air circuit and an open-duct heat recovery system. The evaluation tests were conducted at different allowable relative humidities (RH) and mass flow rates of the recirculating air. The results indicated that the best solar fraction was at the highest RH and air flow rate. Increasing the RH from 7 to 17% caused a reduction of 51% in electricity consumption. Furthermore, electrical energy needed for drying increased by 24% with raising the air flow rate from 0.008 to 0.016 kg s-1. A minimum specific energy consumption of 7.54 MJ kg-1 was observed at the highest RH and the lowest air flow rate. At a constant RH, reduction of the air flow rate led to an increasing trend in lightness and decreasing trends in browning index of the products. Moreover, increasing the RH from 7 to 17% increased lightness and decreased browning index. In general, it can be stated that the best colour quality was achieved when the minimum air flow rate and the maximum RH were used for the solar drying.
    Keywords: Browning index, Energy recycling, Specific energy consumption, Surface colour
  • M. Beikzadeh, S. H. Peighambardoust, S. Beikzadeh, A. Homayouni-Rad* Pages 1241-1252
    A major challenge currently facing the food industry is the need for increased nutritional value in foods. A feasible and nutritional method to achieve this aim in bakery products is the addition of prebiotics which makes possible the sale of more nutritional food with equal sensory features. The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of oligofructose, inulin and oligofructose-enriched inulin on the features of prebiotic cake. In the control sample, the highest symmetry and volume was observed, along with the lowest apparent density and specific gravity. The crumb was observed to become less yellowish and more reddish when fructans were added, except during the addition of 2.5% oligofructose-enriched inulin. In the storage period of the product, the control sample had the highest hardness and least moisture. Samples with 2.5% inulin/oligofructose and 10% oligofructose/inulin demonstrated an increased level of protein, total fiber, and ash, respectively. The highest and the lowest scores in terms of sensory evaluation of the cakes (one day post-baking) were attained by the 2.5% oligofructose/inulin and 10% inulin, respectively.
    Keywords: Dietary fibre, Fructans, Nutritional value, Prebiotic cake, Sensory evaluation
  • D. Dziki *, G. Cacak-Pietrzak, U. Gawlik-Dziki, M. ?, Wieca, A. Mi?, R. R., Oacute, ?, Y?o., K. Jo?, Czyk Pages 1253-1266
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the origin of wheat grown by different farming systems on the physicochemical properties and milling characteristics of grain. Four varieties of spring wheat from two growing years and cropped under Organic (OR), Integrated (IN) and Conventional (CO) management systems were included in this investigation. Grain from IN farming was characterized by the highest values for grain weight and diameter, and the lowest values for grain hardness and average particle size. The values for these parameters obtained for wheat from OR and CO farming systems were similar. Grinding energy indices showed that grain from the IN farming system was characterized by the lowest grinding energy requirements, whereas the energy requirement for size reduction of grain from OR and CO cropping was similar. Moreover, IN farming caused an increase in the milling efficiency index and the amount of phenolic acids in flour. The data showed that the studied farming systems influenced the results of grinding and milling by modifying the physicochemical properties of wheat grain during plant growth.
    Keywords: Wheat, Farming system, Physicochemical properties, milling
  • V. Raufirad *, R. Khalili, B. Endress, S. Bagheri, M. Jafari Pages 1267-1277
    Today, identifying and evaluating the factors that influence People’s Participation (PP) in Sustainable Natural Resource Management (SNRM) are the most common challenges that natural resource scientists should address. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographic, socio-cultural, and religious factors that influence PP in SNRM in Isfahan city, Iran. Using a multi-stage, stratified random sampling method, 200 experts and natural resource users were selected through Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient (0.93). Data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. A panel of experts and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient, respectively, approved the content validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Results showed that public awareness factors were the key elements when approaching SNRM in the view of natural resource experts, while natural resource users identified religious characteristics as the key factors that influence PP. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant difference between personal characteristics (age, education background, marital status) and PP in SNRM. Thus, it can be concluded that the natural resource experts and users perceive the factors that influence the adoption of SNRM approaches differently. Since these factors are still poorly understood and vary widely across the country, more research is needed in order to better understand the PP and adoption of SNRM.
    Keywords: Cronbach's Alpha, Public awareness, Religious factors, Sociocultural factors
  • S. Sabahi, L. Fekrat *, M. Zakiaghl Pages 1279-1290
    Quick and authentic identification of exotic and potentially invasive taxa with capability of causing high economic losses or detriments is essential prerequisite for effective plant quarantine and biological control initiatives. The order Thysanoptera includes several agricultural pest species that, not only because of their minute size but also due to their cryptic behavior, incline to undetected transport through international trade of plants. Identification of thrips, particularly at species level, is pretty demanding and requires expertise in knowledge about Thysanoptera. Moreover, in most cases, identification of larval Thysanoptera to species is impossible without presence of adults. Hence, there is a great desire for a facile, accurate, and highly reliable technique for thrips identification. The present study describes species-specific primers for four pest thrips species, and the use of a multiplex PCR assay to detect and to distinguish between the four target species. Five primers were used to simultaneously amplify a specific region of the mitochondrial DNA and produce species-specific fragments. Results indicated that the primers were capable of detecting these four species and amplifying uniquely sized, species-specific PCR products. Furthermore, using a multiplex PCR assay, the primers maintained specificity and sensitivity, and allowed detection of each of the four species in a single reaction. The stringency of the method was tested using specimens of different developmental stages and consistent results were obtained for all of the examined samples. This method is simple enough to be implemented by non-experts and also can be extended to any organism for which quick and reliable identification is needed.
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA, Multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Species identification, Thripidae, Thysanoptera
  • M. Soufbaf, Y. Fathipour *, C. Hui Pages 1291-1302
    Little is known about the effect of artificial diversity of plant – insect communities on the carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry, weight, and water content of the modern crops. Using a microcosm experiment with two closely related crop species (Brassica napus and B. juncea), the sap feeder turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), the folivore diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and its larval-pupal parasitoid wasp, Diadegma semiclausum, the Shannon biodiversity index was evaluated and regressed to the experimental data of carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry, water content and weight of the crops. Carbon: Nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the modern cultivar under single planting had a logarithmic relationship with the artificial biodiversity index, while this relationship under plant interference was linear and positive. Water content of both experimental crops changed with the artificial biodiversity index conversely under single planting setup. When insects (either the folivore or the phloem feeder) damaged the host plants, the weight and water content of both crop species were 1.8 – 4.1 times higher than the control treatment. Apart from being a recurrent demonstration of the plant tolerance against insect feeding activity, current results can take a step forward for developing a theory on functional artificial biodiversity after herbivore insect–crop interactions.
    Keywords: C:N balance, Diamondback moth, Species richness, Shannon index, Stoichiometric analysis
  • N. Fallahnejad-Mojarrad, Sh. Goldasteh *, Z. Rafiei-Karahroodi, R. Vafaei Shoushtari Pages 1303-1318
    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the major limiting factors in host plant production in the world and Iran. In this study, the effect of semi-artificial diets based on the seeds of different cultivars of white and red kidney bean, canola, soybean, and cowpea on eco-physiological parameters of H. armigera were investigated. The results showed that the shortest (22.71 days) and longest (28.94 days) development time of H. armigera was observed on cowpea cultivar Mashhad and canola cultivar Opera, respectively. The maximum immature mortality of H. armigera was on soybean cultivars M7 and Clark. Cowpea cultivar Mashhad had the highest r (0.299 day-1). The lowest level of proteolytic activity was 2.829 U mg-1 on soybean cultivar M7 for the 3rd instar larvae, 2.525 U mg-1 on soybean cultivars Crark for the 4th instar larvae, and 2.292 U mg-1 on soybean cultivar Sari for the 5th instar larvae. Nutritional indices of 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and whole instar larvae of H. armigera were affected by the artificial diets, i.e. seeds of different cultivars. According to the results, semi-artificial diets containing bean seeds (specifically cowpea cultivar Mashhad and white kidney bean cultivar Daneshkadeh) were more suitable than semi-artificial diets containing soybean and canola seeds for rearing of H. armigera.
    Keywords: beans, Cowpea, Enzyme, Life table
  • E. Shakeri, Y. Emam* Pages 1319-1332
    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is moderately tolerant to salinity and it is important as a candidate crop for both fodder and grain in salt-affected areas. This pot experiment was conducted at Research Greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran, to evaluate the relative effectiveness of biochemical traits and stress tolerance indices contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in 30 lines and 14 cultivars of sorghum. In addition, a new indicator, Storage Factor Index (SFI), was defined and used to quantify the Na partitioning between shoot and root. Among the indices, stress tolerance index was found useful as a selection criterion. Furthermore, the tolerant genotypes had higher Kﳖ ratio in shoot and root with greater SFI, indicating that most of Na was stored in their roots. Although peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced under salinity conditions in both sensitive and tolerant genotypes, only Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be promoted in tolerant lines/cultivars. Proline accumulation did not appear to be related to salinity tolerance in sorghum lines/cultivars. Overall, our findings suggested that salinity tolerance in sorghum genotypes was not only associated with Na exclusion from the shoot, but also with the enhancement of CAT activity.
    Keywords: Catalase, Proline, Storage factor index, Stress tolerance index
  • E. Dilsat Yegenoglu *, M. Sesli Pages 1333-1343
    Olive grows in the mid-latitudes in the world and in areas with Mediterranean climate. Olive is one of the important agricultural products in Mediterranean Basin and Turkey. Its contribution to economy makes it valuable to determine the genetic relations among different olive varieties. In this study, genetic variations among 13 different olive cultivars were determined through 22 ISSR primers by obtaining valuable bands from 7 of them. The cultivars were mainly Turkish, namely, Edremit, Gemlik, Domat, Uslu, Çilli, Eşek, Kaba, Çekişte Nazilli, Memecik, Tavşan Yüreği, Halhalı, Manzanilla, and Çekişte Bozdoğan, grown in different regions. Totally, 92 bands were obtained and it was observed that all of these were polymorphic. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), Marker Index (MI), and Resolving Power (RP) averaged 0.19, 2.36 and 2.73 per primer, respectively, showing the high efficiency and reliability of the markers used. In conclusion to ISSR markers analyses as the number of polymorphic loci, genetic diversity and olive relationships through UPGMA and Neighbor Joining dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distance and PCO, it was observed that Tavşan Yüreği and Halhalı varieties formed one set and Çekişte Nazilli and Manzanilla varieties formed another set together.
    Keywords: Neighbor Joining, Olea europaea sativa L, Principal coordinate analysis, UPGMA
  • M. M. Maboko *, C. P. Du Plooy, M. A. Sithole, A. Mbave Pages 1345-1354
    South Africa is considered as a water scarce country and water shortage is a major constrains that often limits growth, yield, and quality of Swiss chard. A field experiment was conducted on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) in loamy soil to evaluate Water Use Efficiency (WUE), weed control, yield, and quality response to organic and inorganic mulch application during the winter/spring season (June to September). Treatments included bare-soil (control), grass/hay, and newspaper, white-maize-meal bag, white plastic and black plastic mulches. Black plastic, newspaper, and grass/hay mulches suppressed weeds significantly, which were encouraged under bare-soil, white plastic, and maize-meal bag mulch conditions. There was an increase in the number of leaves and leaf fresh mass with white plastic mulch, while bare-soil reduced plant dry mass and leaf area significantly. Leaf area was improved with white plastic, black plastic and maize-meal bag mulches. White plastic and grass/hay mulch improved WUE significantly, and exceled above other treatments at 259.9 and 242.0 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively, followed by black plastic mulch at 207 kg ha-1 mm-1. Water use efficiency declined in the newspaper, maize-meal, and bare-soil treatments at 179, 130 and 74.7 kg ha-1 mm-1 WUE, respectively. Thus, the study reveals that the use of mulch under drip irrigation has an explicit role in increasing water productivity of Swiss chard.
    Keywords: Leaf area, Plant fresh mass, Water applied, Weed control
  • Sh. Heidari, R. Azizinezhad *, R. Haghparast Pages 1355-1368
    Tests were done to determine high-yielding and stable durum wheat genotypes. An experiment was set up as a RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replications on 17 advanced durum wheat genotypes under rainfed and supplementary irrigation conditions in the cropping seasons of 2011-13. Combined analysis of variance indicated that environment main effect accounted for 70.09% of total yield variation; and effects of genotype and Genotype×Environment Interaction (GEI) accounted for 2.95 and 10.71%, respectively. Results indicated remarkable difference in genotypes response across environments. G×E interaction was analyzed following Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model. The first two interaction Principal Component Axes (IPCA1 and IPCA2) explained 53.75 and 36.99% of total interaction effects, respectively. Based on the AMMI model, AMMI Stability Value (ASV) and Genotype Selection Index (GSI), genotypes G11, G8, and G14 were selected for all environments. According to the AMMI2 biplot, the G15, G16 and G17 exhibited specific adaptation with rainfed (E1) and irrigation (E2) environments. G3 and G4 displayed specific adaptation with rainfed (E3) environment and G10, G9, G1, and G12 indicated specific adaptability with irrigation (E4) environment. The E3 had high discrimination ability, so, this environment was considered sufficient for making genotypes recommendation. Results of this investigation illustrate that the AMMI stability parameters are suitable for characterizing stable genotypes and that the GSI parameter can detect genotypes with high grain yield and good stability for plant breeding research in durum wheat.
    Keywords: adaptation, AMMI analysis, ASV, GSI, GEI
  • R. Kapoor *, Kh. Choudhary Pages 1369-1379
    The present study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity in the ninety six oat (Avena sativa L.) elite cultivars representing the collection from various eco-geographical regions of India. The molecular diversity analysis using 40 SSR markers clustered all the 96 cultivar into ten clusters and significant level of distinction (dissimilarity coefficient ranged from 0.12 to 0.96) was depicted among the lines indicating a high degree of divergence among these lines. Genotypic pairs having utmost genetic dissimilarity (0.96) were OL1634 and OL1688, OL1702 and OL1688, OL1705 and OL1634, UPO03-3 and OL 1688, and UPO03-3 and OL1705 that can be used as parents in purposeful hybridization programs. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values ranged from as low as 0.06 to as high as 0.75 (AM 7). Owing to their highest PIC values, primer pairs AM7 (0.75), AM2 (0.69) and AM10 (0.69) can be further used in association mapping studies in oat. The Un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based dendrogram revealed the cluster V (19 genotypes) as the largest and cluster X (3 genotypes) as the smallest one. Thus, genotypes within clusters can be predicted as similarity pool in further oat improvement programs. The selected panel of SSR markers performed well in detection of genetic diversity patterns and can be recommended for future germplasm characterization studies in oats.
    Keywords: Dissimilarity coefficient, Molecular diversity analysis, Polymorphic information Content, SSRs
  • H. Poormazaheri, B. Baghban Kohnerouz *, N. Khosravi Dehaghi, M. R. Naghavi, E. Kalantar, E. Mohammadkhani, M. Omidi Pages 1381-1391
    Chelidonium majus is a perennial plant of the Papaveraceae family. This plant has been known as a rich source of isoquinoline alkaloids, chelidonine, and berberine, which are pharmaceutically important for their anti-cancerous activities. In the current study, four extraction techniques were compared in terms of their yield potential for chelidonine and berberine. Afterwards, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array type of UV/VIS detector was used for the detection of chelidonine and berberine from leaves and roots of five ecotypes of C. majus during various ontogenetical stages. Based on our results, ultrasonic procedures and refluxing were the best techniques for extraction of these alkaloids. HPLC results inferred that chelidonine and berberine content of ecotypes belonging to the Northern provinces of Iran, i.e. Mazandaran (IBRCP1006619) and Gorgan (IBRCP1006625), were higher than the other ecotypes. Generally, the roots of the C. majus were the most suitable organ for extraction of chelidonine at the generative stage, while at the vegetative stage, leaves are the most suitable organ for extraction of berberine.
    Keywords: Extraction techniques, Generative stage, Isoquinoline alkaloids, Vegetative stage
  • H. Kilic, T. Sanal, I. Erdemci, K. Karaca Pages 1393-1404
    High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) compositions of 122 genotypes from bread wheat crossing block were investigated in terms of some quality traits such as grain Protein Content (PC), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), the Particle Size Index (PSI), and Thousand Kernel Weight (TKW), by using SDS-PAGE. In total, 12 different HMW-GS combinations were determined. Considerable diversity in terms of three Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci were identified. In Glu-A1 locus, 1/2*, 1 and 2* alleles were found with the frequency of 2.5, 12.3 and 85.5%, respectively. Whereas, in Glu-B1, out of 7 reported alleles, 7 (20.5%) and 17 (17.2%) were detected. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-D1 was revealed; in fact, 54.1% of them demonstrated the subunits 5 correlated with good bread making properties. The Glu-1 score of genotypes ranged from 6 to 10. Among the genotypes, only 23 (18.9%) had 10 Glu-1 quality score value. In the evaluation using the Genotype-Traits (GT) Biplotgraph, PC and PSI were involved in section I while SDS sedimentation value and Glu-1 score were involved in section II. On the other hand, section III included the only TKWwhich was negatively associated with other traits. The desired genotypes can be used for the crossing programs to improve technological quality of bread wheat.
    Keywords: Biplot, HMW-GS, Landraces, quality
  • F. Saeidnia, M. M. Majidi *, A. Mirlohi Pages 1405-1416
    To develop synthetic varieties, not only the estimation of General Combining Ability (GCA) for forage production is required but also the stability of GCA for parental genotypes is necessary. Little is known about genetic analysis and selection for high production, combining ability, and stability in grasses. In this study, half-sib families derived from the polycross of 25 smooth bromegrass genotypes were evaluated under 10 environments (combination of five years and two moisture environments, including non-stressed and drought stress conditions). Considerable variation for genetic and Genotype×Environment (G×E) interaction was found among half-sib families. Low broad sense heritability (27%) was found for forage yield indicating that selection based on an index may be more useful for improvement of this trait in recurrent selection programs. On the other hand, since the interactions of genetic by environment are significant, selection of superior genotypes for development of synthetic varieties should be done based on multi-environments trails.
    Keywords: Additive effects, Bromus inermis, Drought stress, Polycross, Synthetic variety
  • S. W. Przemieniecki *, T. P. Kurowski, M. M. Damszel, A. Karwowska, E. Adamiak Pages 1417-1427
    Studies on determination of the effect of herbicides on survivability of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria have a strategic usefulness in determination of plant health and the fate of applied agrochemicals in agroecosystem. Antimicrobial potential was assessed using estimation of a minimum inhibitory concentration of the Roundup 360 SL against Pseudomonas sp. A quantitative analysis of bacteria was performed, and the tendency of physicochemical changes in the mineral medium was evaluated during long-term exposure to the herbicide. Furthermore, the antagonism of the SP0113 strain against F. culmorum and F. oxysporum under stress conditions caused by Roundup® 360 SL was verified. It was demonstrated that use of the undiluted and 2.6-fold diluted product resulted in the inhibition of growth of the investigated strain. Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 showed survivability and resistance to near recommended dose concentration of Roundup® 360 SL. The possibility of bacterial development on the Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) medium at contact concentrations of 14.4 and 5.4 mg mL-1, as per the diluents quantity declared by the producer, indicates the role of cofactors such as: adiuvant or pH, redox potential (mV) or salinity. They comprise pH change, oxidation and salinity that may be due to the reaction of the active substance of the herbicide with mineral nutrient ingredients. The high salinity of environment, as a result of the reactions with the ingredients contained in the medium, is characteristic for concentrations higher than those recommended in practice. Furthermore, it was found that glyphosate limits the growth of fungi of the Fusarium genus, which support plant protection using strain SP0113.
    Keywords: biocontrol, Glyphosate, Plant growth promotion bacteria, PGPB
  • P. Azadi *, K. Bagheri, M. Gholami, M. Mirmasoumi, A. Moradi, A. Sharafi Pages 1429-1435
    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a sterile species and biotechnological method is suggested to improve different characteristic in this valuable plant. In this study, an efficient protocol was provided for callus induction and regeneration of saffron using thin cell layer explants. Longitudinally and transversally, thin cell layer explants with approximately 1 mm thickness of apical buds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) and 1-NaphthaleneAcetic Acid (NAA). The highest amount of callus induction (100%) was obtained from transverse thin cell layer explants of apical bud in MS medium containing 2 mg L-1 BAP and 2 mg L-1 NAA during 3 months incubation under dark condition at 20°C. The maximum percent of shoot regeneration (75%) was observed on the MS medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 BAP. The results of this investigation revealed that the thin cell layers from buds are suitable explants for regeneration.
    Keywords: Callus induction, Tissue culture, Growth Regulators, Shoot induction