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Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:3 Issue: 1, Winter 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, Winter 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Sadegh Fattahi, Mohammad Karimi Alivije, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Masomeh Bayani, Mahmoud Sadeghi-Haddad-Zavareh, Mohsen Asouri, Maryam Lotfi, Galia Amirbozorgi, Morteza Gholami, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki* Pages 1-7
    MicroRNAs are small non coding RNAs that are involved in gene expression regulation. Mir-122 was reported to inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV), but little is known about the role of mir-122 polymorphisms on HBV infection development. This present study aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mir-122 gene region with HBV infection. Study cases were HBV positive and negative individuals. 67 SNPs in mir-122 gene and its flanking regions were analyzed by sequencing method. mirVas software was used to assay the impact of polymorphisms on the secondary structure of mir-122 gene. 66 out of 67 studied SNPs were monomorphic and rs 17669 was the only polymorphic SNP in the studied population, with the T allele being four times more frequent than the C allele. However, there was no significant difference in alleles distribution between patient and control groups. Rs 17669 variant located near the mir-122 gene showed the highest impact for centroid, maximal expected accuracy, and minimal free energy structures in the arm, flank, and flank regions of mir-122, respectively. Therefore, rs17669 variant was predicted to exert an effect on mir-122 stability. The study of larger samples from different ethnicities may help to find a possible association between rs17669 genotype and HBV infection.
    Keywords: Mir-122, HBV, single nucleotide polymorphism, rs17669, mirVas
  • Bineta KÉnÉmÉ*, Fatimata Mbaye, Sidy Ka, Balla Diop, Ahmadou Dem, MbackÉ SembÈne Pages 8-16
    Mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) is a part of the mediator complex, which is believed to regulate transcription. MED12 is mutated at high frequency and with different mutation frequencies in uterine fibroids and breast fibroadenomas of different populations. This study aimed to analyze MED12 mutations in Senegalese population. MED12 was sequenced in the tumoral tissues and blood samples of Senegalese women with uterine fibroids or breast fibroadenomas. Surveyor software version 5.0.1, DnaSP version 5.10, MEGA version 6.06 and Arlequin version 3.5.1.3 were used to determine the level of mutations and genetics parameters. Our results showed the presence of variants in the tumoral tissues only, with most of them being heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms. Deletion in polyA tail was identified for the first time in the studied population. Data also showed that MED12 exon 2 was under positive selection in case of uterine fibroids and breast fibroadenomas. The variants frequencies were not similar to those found in the Finnish or Southern United States populations for cases of uterine fibroids, and to Japanese population for cases of breast fibroadenomas. These results suggest that MED12 variants could contribute to the development of uterine fibroids and breast fibroadenomas. The present study contributes to the current information on MED12 variations in different populations and may aid in the development of personalized diagnoses for patients with uterine fibroids or breast fibroadenomas in the future.
    Keywords: Uterine fibroid, breast fibroadenoma, MED12 mutations
  • Armel Herve Nwabo Kamdje*, Gaetan Nkem, Haverie Ghislaine Ateba Mimfoumou Pages 17-20
    Clinical examinations are accompanied by biological analyzes to guide or confirm the clinical diagnosis. The results of these analyzes are interpreted by comparison with reference values. Studies on the biological norms of Africans are rare if not quasi-nonexistent. The aim of this study was to establish population-specific reference values for biochemical indices serving as renal function biomarkers in adults living in Ngaoundere, Cameroon. 205 presumed healthy subjects (118 women and 87 men) residing in the city of Ngaoundere aged 18 to 50 years from various socio-cultural backgrounds, were included in this study. Blood urea and creatinine were tested under standard conditions. Reference intervals varied between 10-44 mg/dl and 0.6-1.4 mg/dl for urea and creatinine, respectively. Urea mean values (27.93± 8.15 mg/dl) were higher in males in comparison with females (23.56± 7.14 mg/dl) (P= 0.02). Similarly, creatinine mean values (1.11 ± 0.13 mg/dl) were higher in males in comparison with females (0.82± 0.11 mg/dl) (P= 0.04). Also, an increase in uraemia was observed with age. The gender differences for creatinemia and uraemia may be related to anthropometric features differences such as the muscle mass. The increase of uraemia with age could be explained by the increase of poor hygiene, notably the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and meat, which is mostly a male habit. The results of this study may help to a better interpretation of the biochemical indices of African subjects, and avoid errors of appreciation by excess or by default.
    Keywords: Biochemical parameters, urea, creatinine, Cameroon
  • Md. Anowar Khasru Parvez*, Taslin Jahan Mou, Feroz Ahmed Pages 21-24
    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteria has become a considerable global concern because of their potential dissemination in humans, in domestic animals, wildlife and the environment. The present study aimed to explore the ESBL producing enterobacteria in aquatic sources of Bangladesh as the water may be the potential source of dissemination of this alarming antimicrobial resistance. A total of 94 water samples (53 tube well and 41 supplied water) were collected from 35 districts of Bangladesh from which 60 Enterobacter were isolated based on their biochemical profile. Among these 36 were Enterobacter sp and 24 were E coli. 73% of the isolates were Multidrug resistant (MDR) as revealed by Antimicrobial susceptibility test whereas 29% of these MDR isolates were phenotypically detected as ESBL producing as observed by Double disk synergy test (DDST) test. The ESBL type SHV was found to be dominant among the isolates revealed by PCR. Therefore, strategies can be employed to reduce the dissemination of ESBL producing bacteria in the aquatic sources which may threaten the human life, animal and surrounding environment.Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteria has become a considerable global concern because of their potential dissemination in humans, in domestic animals, wildlife and the environment. The present study aimed to explore the ESBL producing enterobacteria in aquatic sources of Bangladesh as the water may be the potential source of dissemination of this alarming antimicrobial resistance. A total of 94 water samples (53 tube well and 41 supplied water) were collected from 35 districts of Bangladesh from which 60 Enterobacter were isolated based on their biochemical profile. Among these 36 were Enterobacter sp and 24 were E coli. 73% of the isolates were Multidrug resistant (MDR) as revealed by Antimicrobial susceptibility test whereas 29% of these MDR isolates were phenotypically detected as ESBL producing as observed by Double disk synergy test (DDST) test. The ESBL type SHV was found to be dominant among the isolates revealed by PCR. Therefore, strategies can be employed to reduce the dissemination of ESBL producing bacteria in the aquatic sources which may threaten the human life, animal and surrounding environment.
    Keywords: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), multidrug resistant, Enterobacteria, aquatic sources
  • Kilavan Packiam Kannan*, Mohamed Imdhiyas Abdul Basheed, Sabarivasan Kannadhasan, Sampath Pondurai, Madhankumar Dhakshinamoorthy Pages 25-29
    Endophytes are organisms present in the internal tissues living in symbiotic association with plants. These organisms may be used as alternative source of many secondary metabolites production. The present study was conducted to explore the endophytic fungi that colonize the inner tissues of medicinal plant Mimusops elengi L. Out of 100 plant segments of both leaves and twigs of Mimusops elengi. L were surface sterilized and inoculated in potato dextrose agar plates and incubated for 4 weeks. A total of 17 endophytic fungi were isolated. Endophytic infection rate of Mimusops elengi L. was 88% in both leaves and twigs segments. Among them 10 were sterile morpho species differentiated by their morphological characteristics. The remaining 7 species were classified into 6 genera, with 2 species from Phoma genera and belonging to Coelomycetes, and 5 species from 5 genera belonging to Hyphomycetes. Nigrospora sphaerica showed the highest frequency of colonization of 42% and 34% in leaves and twigs, respectively, followed by sterile form IS6, Alternaria Sp., and sterile form IS4. Shannon diversity index was higher in twigs (H’= 0.35) and lower in leaves (H’= 0.18). Shannon evenness and relative index for Shannon were predominated in twigs (E’= 0.153 and RIH’= 0.093, respectively) followed by leaves (E’= 0.079 and RIH’= 0.048, respectively). Both twigs and leaves showed similar Gleason index (HG’) and relative index of Gleason (RIG’) equal to 2.378 and 0.20, respectively. The enumeration of biodiversity of endophytic fungi were dominated by Nigrospora sphaerica, Sterile form IS6, Sterile form IS4, Alternaria Sp., and Phoma Sp.
    Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Mimusops elengi. L, Nigrospora sphaerica, Alternaria Sp
  • Cletus Anes Ukwubile*, Ikpefanemmanuel Oise, Shuaibu A. Umar Pages 30-33
    Helminths infections are chronic illness in human being and cattle. The use of alternate drugs has been a remedial measure against the resistant strains of helminth parasites, as well as means of reducing the cost of controlling diseases caused by helminthes. Pseudocedrelakotschyi is a medicinally valuable plant and possesses various pharmacological properties. P. kotschyi has been traditionally used as an anthelminthic agent. To justify the ethnomedicinal claims, the anthelminthic property of P. kotschyi was evaluated using Lumbricusterrestris as an experimental model because of similar anatomical features with intestinal helminthes. Piperazine citrate was used as the standard reference drug. Among the various concentrations tested (10-50 mg/mL), 50 mg/mL aqueous extract showed efficient paralysis effect (13.1 min), and also showed significant anthelminthic activity with 25.4 min death time . Standard drug at 10mg/mL concentration showed paralysis at 6.4 min and time of death was 19.1 min. This investigation revealed that aqueous extract of Pseudocedrelakotschyi showed significant anthelminthic activity against Lumbricusterrestris. It therefore validates the ethnomedicinal use of Pseudocedrelakotschyi stem bark as an anthelminthic agent.
    Keywords: Pseudocedrelakotschyi, anthelminthic agent, Lumbricusterrestris, aqueous extract, paralysis
  • Hamilton Ekeke, Joy Telu* Pages 34-39
    Cooperative learning (CL) is a learning style that refers to small, heterogeneous groups of students working together to achieve a common goal. This involves student-student interaction within small groups in a way that each group member’s success is dependent on the group’s success. Self-regulated learning (SRL) style believe on what ‘knowing’ is and how one ‘comes to know.’ SRL recognizes that individuals may to some extent control their own learning through contexts, relationships, and situations. The purpose of this study was to determine how these two learning styles impact on students’ achievement in Biology. The influence of sex and ability (high and low) were also investigated when comparing CL and SRL styles.. The study was carried out in third term of 2013/2014 academic session in Bayelsa State, Nigeria on senior secondary 2 students aged 14-17 years. The biology ability test question (BATQ) which was adopted from standardised West African examination council (WAEC) past examination question papers on the topics in the syllabus that were covered within the period of the research, was used for data collection. Significant higher achievement test scores were observed for students of varying abilities in cooperative learners in comparison with self-regulated learners; No significant difference in test scores achievement was observed between the male and female students. Moreover, no significant interaction effect was observed between sex and ability, sex and method, ability and method and among method, sex and ability on achievement. The implication of this in teaching/learning of Biology is that teachers should model their instructions to enforce student – student interaction.
    Keywords: Learning style, achievement, biology, cooperative learning, self-regulated learning, Nigeria
  • Damulak Obadiah Dapus*, Oj Egesie, Ed Jatau, S. Pam, Ii Onche Pages 40-43
    Sickle cell trait is a benign haemoglobin disorder which rarely results in disease or complications. A few cases of osteonecrosis have been reported in the literature in parts of the world with advanced health care system. There are various predispositions to developing avascular necrosis in general, while the sickle beta globin gene inheritance is the most efficient factor. Injection drug abuse has not been strongly link to the development of bone necrosis. Here we report a case of bone necrosis in an elderly man and raise awareness on osteonecrosis being a possible complication of injection drug misuse in heterozygous sickle haemoglobin disorder. A 68 year old retired health dispensary attendant presented at the clinic with an 18 months history of progressive right hip pain associated with difficulty in walking. He had engaged in self prescriptions, procurements and repeated administrations of pentazocine injection into his anterior thighs. He had an abnormal gait with bilateral discharging ulcers on both thighs anteriorly. Haemoglobin protein electrophoresis revealed AS status, while the pelvic X-ray showed necrosis of the right femoral head. Consequently, osteonecrosis may be one of the ultimate complications of parenteral drug abuse in heterozygous sickle haemoglobinopathy.
    Keywords: Heterozygous sickle cell haemoglobinopathy, parenteral drug abuse, avascular necrosis
  • Aybala Agac*, Saadet Akturan, Tuba Hilal Guclu, Ahmet Alyanak, HÜseyin Gobut, Huseyin Gobut, Gulten Ki, Yak Pages 44-46
    Using fillers for aesthetic corrections purposes are becoming more and more popular amongst patients due to its less invasive nature compared to surgery. A 46-year old female patient said after her first baby born, she lost the perkiness and fullness of the breasts. Then she injected her breasts with baby oil found at home with a syringe with about 200 cc for each breast and she was quite content with the results. Segmented mastectomy and reconstruction was performed. The post-op pathology results reported the removed tissue as foreign-body granulation tissue. This is the first report of breast baby oil self-injection complications in the literature.
    Keywords: Breast fillers, self, injection, foreign body granuloma