فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:2 Issue: 4, Autumn 2016
  • Volume:2 Issue: 4, Autumn 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Bulent Elitok*, Bulent Ungur Pages 134-139
    Canine ehrlichiosis which becomes widespread worldwide is generated by a pathogen bacteria called Ehrlichia Canis. The prevalence of ehrlichiosis changes according to geographic regions in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the canine ehrlichiosis in Uşak, Turkey, together with clinical, hematological and biochemical signs. 100 dogs found in 6 different regions of Uşak city were checked for the presence of Ehrlichia Canis. Clinical signs most frequently described in 7 dogs (7%) having ehrlichiosis were anorexia, weight loss, thinness, fever and lymphadenopathy. Hematological signs most commonly detected in the dogs having ehrlichiosis were anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Increase on hypoalbuminemia, alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activities were recorded as biochemical changes most frequently seen in the dogs having ehrlichiosis. This is the first study in which the prevalence of the canine ehrlichiosis is determined in Uşak, Turkey, together with clinical, hematological and biochemical signs.
    Keywords: Canine ehrlichiosis, clinical signs, hematological indices, biochemical profile, Uşak
  • Henry Chineke, Prosper Adogu*, Bede Azudialu, Benedict Ezemenahi, Chukwuma Okeafor, Chukwudi Egwuatu Pages 140-148
    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection is a pandemic, even among pregnant women. It has no cure and so, great importance should be placed on care and support for the sufferer. There is an increasing concern and desire to curb the high incidence of mother to child transmission (MTCT) in Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of HIV infection at Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2013. In this 5 years retrospective hospital-based study, information was obtained from the records of the antenatal clinic, prenatal ward, postnatal clinic and pediatric unit. Of 2727 records of the antenatal care attendees reviewed, 2598 were screened and HIV prevalence was found to be 17.8%. Women aged 31-35 years had the highest age specific prevalence rate (ASPR) of 38.5%, followed closely by age group 26-30 years which recorded ASPR of 35.9%. The lowest ASPR of 1.5% occurred among women aged more than 40 years. The year 2011 recorded the highest HIV prevalence rate of 26.9% while the lowest was in 2009 with a prevalence rate of 11%. All the neonates of booked patients were sero-negative while only 22.2% of their un-booked counterparts tested negative. About 43% of partners of HIV positive women tested positive. Behavioral change communication and expansion of HIV prevention services should be given priority to enhance compliance among the HIV seropositive pregnant women.
    Keywords: Prevalence, management, HIV infection, antenatal care, Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH)
  • Hari Prasad Kaphle*, Shiva Poudel, Neena Gupta, Nirmala Neupane Pages 149-155
    It is crucial to monitor the growth and development of a child in early stage of life to take early corrective action in time to ensure normal growth. Child health card (CHC) is a tool used to maintain records and monitor the under five children. The objective of this study was to find out the maternal awareness on CHC and factor associated with its retention. This was a cross sectional analytical study conducted among 198 mothers having
    Keywords: Awareness, retention, child health card, Nepal
  • Emmanuel Okrikata*, Olajumoke Anuoluwa Yusuf Pages 156-166
    A field survey was conducted in Wukari, Taraba State to assess the diversity and abundance of insect species in selected habitats (residential, open field made up of grassland and an agroecosystem). Sampling were done biweekly using light, pitfall and yellow pan traps set in 3 replicates, 30 m apart. Insects recovered were wet preserved in 70% ethanol except butterflies and moths. Representative samples were taken to the Insect Museum of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria for identification. A total of 4,501 insects spread across 9 orders, 34 families and 77 species were recovered. The most dominant order was Coleoptera with a relative abundance of (44.41%) and, the least was Orthoptera (0.84%). The most dominant insect species were Heteronychus mossambicus (11.44%) followed by Termes sp. (7.77%) and, Goryphus sp. (7.71%). Chlaenius dusaulti, Cheilomenes sulphurea, Copris sp., Cicindela sp., Pseudantheraea sp., Derobranchus germinatus, Glaurocara townsendi, Camponotus perrisi, and Gryllus bimaculatus were the rare species with relative abundance of 0.02%. Species richness is based on number of individual insects measured. The highest species diversity was observed in the order Coleoptera (Shanon H’= 2.547) while, Isoptera was the least (H’= 0.00). However, the highest species evenness was observed in the order Isoptera (E’= 1.00). Fisher-alpha (α) index of diversity showed that the agroecosystem had the highest index of diversity (α = 14.24) while, the residential area had the least (α = 11.9). This study therefore, brings to the fore the diversity and abundance of insects in Wukari and underscores the need for sustainable actions to be taken in conserving beneficial rare species while, managing the abundant pestiferous ones.
    Keywords: Abundance, diversity, Fisher-alpha (α), insects, Jaccard's similarity index, Margalef (d), Shanon index (H')
  • Cletus Anes Ukwubile*, Ikpefan Emmanuel Oise Pages 167-170
    Physalis angulata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of malaria, ulcer, pains and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction or writhing analgesic models in Swiss albino mice (13-23g) were used for studying analgesic activity of the leaf extract. 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract were administered intraperitoneally. Analgesic activities of the extract were compared with standard reference drug ibuprofen (100 mg/kg) and negative control. The plant extract showed a significant dose dependent analgesic effect, with 72.7% inhibition at 400 mg/kg compared to that of the 100 mg/kg standard drug ibuprofen which showed 21.2% inhibition (P
    Keywords: Physalis angulata, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, Carrageenan
  • Revathi Pitchaipillai*, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah Pages 171-175
    The current epidemic of diabetes indicates the need of proper and effective medications that are limited in their potency to have many side effects. Thus, introduction of alternative and complementary medicine is now in picture. The main objective of this study was to analyze the rate of glucose transport across cell membrane in yeast cells system in the presence of the ethanolic extract of Bruguiera cylindrical leaves. After the treatment of the yeast cells with the ethanolic extract of B. cylindrica, the glucose uptake did not increase in a dose dependent manner. The increase of percentage of glucose uptake by the yeast cells was found in the glucose concentrations varying from 5 to 25 mM in the presence of 1 and 5 mg/ml of B. cylindrical ethanolic extract (BCEE). The BCEE can serve as a therapeutic agent and can be used as potential source of novel bioactive compounds for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Bruguiera cylindrica, ethanolic extract, glucose uptake, antidiabetic activity
  • Bulent Elitok*, Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt, Durmus Fatih Baser Pages 176-179
    Renal hypoplasia refers to a congenitally small kidney where there is essentially normal residual parenchyma but smaller calyces, lobules, and papillae. This anomaly can be divided into two broad groups: complete (global) renal hypoplasia and segmental renal hypoplasia. In this study, a 3 days-old simmental calf was diagnosed with renal hypoplasia and unreconstructed exstrophic bladder. It presented very low body temperature, pulmonary distress and tachycardia in preoperative clinical examinations along with inability to urinate for 3 days according to its owner's claim. Urine bladder cannulation showed no urine in the bladder. pH, pCO2, PO2, cHCO3, cSO2, were measured as 7.352, 41,3 mmHg, 29.5 mmHg, 22.9 mEq/L, and 53.1%, respectively. The concentrations of Na (mmol/L), K (mmol/L), Ca (mmol/L), Cl- (mmol/L), cTCO2 (mmol/L), Hct% and cHgb (g/dL) were seen as 128, 7.1, 0.47, 103, 24.2, 19 and 6.5, respectively in blood hematological and biochemical examinations. Polycystic areas were also detected in the area of kidneys in ultrasonographic examination. Diuretics along with fluid theraphy were not effective on the urine flow from bladder, and the calf died on the 3rd day of its life.
    Keywords: Renal hypoplasia, calf, blood chemistry, ultrasonography, necropsy, findings