فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:2 Issue: 3, Summer 2016
  • Volume:2 Issue: 3, Summer 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Ahmad Karkhah*, Ebrahim Zabihi, Forough Ebrahimtabar, Tahereh Babajani Roshan Pages 91-97
    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disorder of the medium and large-sized arteries. Recent experiments demonstrated that atherosclerosis is a Th1 dominant autoimmune condition, whereas Th2 cells are rarely detected within the atherosclerotic lesions. Several studies have indicated that Th2 type cytokines could be effective in the reduction and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, modulation of the adaptive immune response by shifting immune responses toward Th2 cells could represent a promising approach to prevent from progression and thromboembolic events in coronary artery disease. Since Th2-mediated immune response is mostly implicated in asthma and most allergic disorders, this evidence-based review will discuss how asthma and other Th2-mediated allergic disorders can decrease the risk of thromboembolic events in atherosclerotic patients with focus on the suggested immune mechanisms.
    Keywords: Atherosclerosis, allergic disorders, Th1, Th2 balance, atheroprotection
  • Dejan Spasovski* Pages 98-103
    Anti-cyclic peptide antibodies (CCP/ACPA) are directed towards synthetic citrullinated peptides and are specific markers in diagnosis of Rheumatoid arthritis. This study aimed to compare the values and acuracy of the test in anticyclic citrullinated peptides (Anti-CCP /ACPA) antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP) and disease activity index (PASI) in early diagnosis of untreated psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Using the ELISA method, sera of 70 participants were examined (35 untreated PsA patients and 35 healthy controls). RF and CRP were determined with the agglutination test. At the same time, the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative test, and accuracy were determined. From 35 PsA patients, 1 patient showed presence of Anti-CCP antibodies (sensitivity test 2.86%), while RF was not detected (sensitivity test 0%). In the healthy control group positive values for RF, CRP and erythroid sedimentation rate were detected in 1 participant. Therefore, ACPA antibodies have low sensitivity, but high specificity in PsA.
    Keywords: Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (Anti-CCP), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid factor (RF)
  • Cletus .A. Ukwubile*, Ikpefan .E. Oise, Aguh .I. Bruno Pages 104-109
    Exosomes are nanoparticles (carriers) that play vital role in intercellular communication of cells. The present study was aimed at investigating exosomes isolated from biological fluids for their biological applications in disease treatment especially as analgesic drug carrier. Exosomes were isolated from the kidney of cattle through ultracentrifugation of blood, and characterized by inverted scanning biological microscope. Then, Melastomastrum capitatum-exosome complexes (MCEC) were formed. A total number of 25 Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of five mice each. MCEC was administered intraperitoneally to the mice in dosages of group I (100 mg/kg M. capitatum extract), group II (200 mg/kg Ibuprofen; standard drug), group III (300 mg/kg MCEC), group IV (400 mg/kg MCEC), and group V (500 mg/kg MCEC). Results showed that MCEC decreased mean abdominal writhing in mice in a dose dependent fashion with group V having the best mean abdominal contraction value of 12.0± 02 and 67% inhibition of pains in mice. This result was significantly different from the value obtained in the control group I, where the extract was delivered ordinarily (P
    Keywords: Exosome, nanoparticles, analgesic, Melastomastrum capitatum
  • Bulent Elitok*, Durmus Fatih Baser Pages 110-119
    The objective of the present study was to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of orally administered sepiolite on neonatal calf with diarrhea. The study was conducted on fifty 1-30 days old public owned calves (40 animals for experiment and 10 animals for control groups), in Afyonkarahisar region, Turkey. Sepiolite was administered orally to all animals in the experiment group for 30 days, once daily at a rate equal to 2% of their total food intake weight. All studied animals were examined for their clinical, hematological, immunological and blood biochemical parameters, in addition to native examination of feces for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, Giarda protozoa; rota and corona viruses and E.coli using SRID kits before and after sepiolite intake on days 1, 2, 3 and weeks 1 and 2. The treatment with sepiolite had a significant effect on the body weight and the treatment of diarrhea. No toxic effects were observed. The data obtained from this study indicate that oral intake of sepiolite in calves with diarrhea might contribute to the prevention of economic losses due to diarrhea.
    Keywords: Sepiolite, calves, diarrhea, treatment
  • Muhammad Rowshanul Habib, Muhammad Anwar Ul Islam, Muhammad Rezaul Karim* Pages 120-126
    Calotropis gigantea (Linn) and Amoora rohituka (Roxb.) have long been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various ailments in Bangladesh. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from these two plants. Two compounds, named β-boswellic acid (compound-1) and 2-methoxy-14-calamenenone (compound-2) were isolated from the flowers of Calotropis gigantea and stem bark of Amoora rohituka, respectively. The structures of these compounds were confirmed on the basis of IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy, and their cytotoxic activity against A431 (human vulval-derived epidermoid carcinoma) cell line was examined. When compared with standard drug doxorubicin (IC50: 0.31 ± 0.02 μg/mL), compound-1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against A431 cell line with IC50 value of 0.36 ± 0.07 μg/mL whereas the IC50 of compound-1 was 0.56 ± 0.05 (μg/mL). On comparison with ampicillin trihydrate (IC50: 7.21 ± 0.47 μg/mL), compound-1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with IC50 value of 15.26 ± 0.57 μg/mL.
    Keywords: Calotropis gigantea, Amoora rohituka, cytotoxicity
  • Toma Ibrahim*, Gidado Gidado, Khan Muluh, Abel Alexander Pages 127-133
    Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanolic crude extracts of Commiphora kerstingii leaves were investigated. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of different solvent extracts of Commiphora kerstingii plant were scrutinized. The phytochemical screening of the various extracts was carried out using standard methods and the results revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, saponins and volatile oils. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was screened using hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging assay to obtain an IC50 value. The IC50 values of ascorbic acid (standard drug), methanolic and aqueous extracts were 0.49, 0.33 and 0.54 mg/ml, respectively. The antibacterial activity was tested using Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. The results showed reasonable zones of inhibition at almost all concentrations used against tested organisms; with Streptococcus mutans being most inhibited (diameter of inhibition of 23 mm) and Escherichia coli being least inhibited (3mm) with the methanolic extract. In contrast, Escherichia coli was the most inhibited (8 mm) and Streptococcus mutans showed least inhibition (3 mm) in the presence of aqueous extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.05 g/ml on the average. The results, thus support the use of the plant traditionally to treat dental caries, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection, and suggest its usage in the formulation of new antioxidant and antibacterial drugs.
    Keywords: Commiphora kerstingii, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, antioxidant activity