فهرست مطالب

Shiraz Emedical Journal - Volume:18 Issue: 12, 2017
  • Volume:18 Issue: 12, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani *, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Manoochehr Karami, Jalal Ghaderkhani Page 1
    Background
    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens responsible for several nosocomial infections. A major problem in treatment is antibiotic resistance.
    Methods
    By searching international and national databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SID, Magiran, IranDoc and IranMedex, 38 articles between years 2002 to 2016 published world-wide were extracted and analyzed using the meta-analysis method and random effects model. The heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data were analyzed with the R and STATA (Ver 11/2) software.
    Results
    Forty-three articles were selected for this study. Drug-resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii towards Polymyxin was reported as 5%, yet for Colistin 4% was estimated. Resistance rates to Polymyxin and Colistin in the continent of America and Asia was 6% and Sensitivity rate to Polymyxin and Colistin was 96% and 80%, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Given that drug resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to Polymyxin and Colistin in this study was 5% and 4%, respectively, thus indicating high sensitivity of Acinetobacter baumannii to these antibiotics, this group can be administered as appropriate therapeutic agents against these bacteria.
    Keywords: Prevalence of Resistance, Antibiotics, Polymyxins, Colistin, Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Enam Alhagh Charkhat Gorgich, Maryam Sarbishegi *, Sanam Barfroshan, Ayub Abedi Page 2
    Background
    Anatomy is taught to medical students during first and second years of study and there is a big interval between learning the theory and its usage in the clinic.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students knowledge about clinical importance and effective teaching methods of anatomy.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 preclinical and clinical medical students from the city of Zahedan, Iran, during October 2015 to April 2016. Participants were selected using the convenience sampling method. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire after proving its validity and reliability. Data were reported as descriptive and analytical statistics t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation) by the SPSS software version 16. The significant level was set as P
    Results
    The results showed that preclinical students’ mean knowledge score was 23.05 ± 4.14 and that of clinical students was 26.83 ± 3.90. There was a significant difference between students’ course (P = 0.001) and ward (P = 0.001) and their level of knowledge. The most effective methods of learning anatomy from the perspective of preclinical and clinical students were giving lectures by the teacher and clinical students mentioned teaching theoretical topics simultaneously with clinical tips.
    Conclusions
    Anatomy plays an important role in improving clinical skills of medical students. Changes in teaching methods and using novel methods may be effective for teaching and learning anatomy and improving the students’ attitude regarding the clinical importance of anatomy.
    Keywords: Knowledge, Medical Students, Anatomy, Teaching, Education
  • Yosra Sayahi, Nahid Javadifar, Bahman Cheraghian, Miaad Sayahi *, Pourandokht Afshari Page 3
    Background And Objectives
    Parents’ attachment is a strong and fundamental indicator in the formation of infant secure attachment and provides a model for the present-future emotional-social functioning. Since the unwanted pregnancy has harmful consequences for the health of the mother and the child and can affect the attachment of the parent to infant, this study was to determine the relationship between unwanted pregnancy and parental attachment in Ahvaz city.
    Methods
    The sample consisted of 320 couple (320 mothers and 320 fathers) who have visited the healthcare centers for their 2 to 6-month-old infants. The data were collected through Muller (for mothers), Condon (for fathers), and demographic-reproductive questionnaires. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 24.
    Findings: According to the scores of two distinct questionnaires, the father attachment mean score in the group of unwanted was obtained 68.43 ± 15.5, and 79.77 ± 10.63 in the group of wanted. The mother attachment mean score was obtained 87.51 ± 5.13 in the group of unwanted and, 97.33 ± 7.91 in the group of wanted. There was a significant difference in father’s and mother’s attachment scores between the two groups of wanted and unwanted pregnancy (P
    Conclusions
    To improve parental attachment regarding parents exposed with this type of pregnancy, serious attention should be given to the issue of unwanted pregnancies through making decisions about giving training and consultation services to the parents in healthcare centers.
    Keywords: Infant, Mother Attachment, Father Attachment, Unwanted Pregnancy
  • Somayeh Anisi, Ehsan Zarei *, Hamid Kariman, Mohammad Kazem Kazemi, Mohammad Chehrazi Page 4
    Background and
    Purpose
    Patient absconding from a hospital or leaving without permission is a major challenge with economic and social consequences for patients, healthcare staff, and society. Identification of the characteristics of absconding patients is essential to the prediction and prevention of such behaviors.
    Methods
    This cross sectional study was performed in a large general teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data of 460 absconding patients and 460 nonabsconding patients, admitted during March 2010 - March 2016, were extracted from the hospital information system. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to describe the importance and effect of each predictor.
    Results
    The findings showed that 0.4% of the patients had left the hospital without permission or notice to the staff. Addiction (OR, 27.15), lack of insurance coverage (OR, 12.39), male gender (OR, 2.14), age ≤ 40 years (OR, 1.89), and emergency admission (OR, 1.77) were predictors of absconding. Hospital financial loss amounted to 3,818,788,624 IRR ($126,283) due to this problem, with an average cost of 7,178,174 IRR ($237) per patient.
    Conclusions
    Identification of high-risk individuals, including young men, uninsured patients, and drug addicts with emergency admission warrants preventive measures. Moreover, assessment of patients by physicians or nurses upon admission, staff training and raising awareness, and use of technologies such as radiofrequency identification can be other strategies for preventing or reducing this problem.
    Keywords: Patient Absconding, General Hospital, Inpatient
  • Bahram Harati, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri *, Ali Karimi, Kamal Azam, Ali Harati, Alireza Ahmadi, Maryam Afzali Rad Page 5
    Background
    Exposure to benzene causes several adverse effects, including decreased number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, and red blood cells, and results in aplastic anemia. The aim of this study was to investigate hematological changes due to benzene exposure in painting workers.
    Methods
    This study was conducted on benzene-exposed and nonexposed workers in Tehran, Iran. The study sample included 40 painters exposed to different levels of benzene and 40 unexposed controls in an automobile manufacturing company. Sampling was carried out with an active pump sampler, using the NIOSH method 1501. Varian C-3800 gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for the analysis of 40 benzene samples. Blood samples from 80 workers were collected from both the case and control groups. Hematological indices were analyzed for red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, and white cell differential count.
    Results
    The average amount of benzene in painting workers was 0.775 ± 0.12 ppm. Benzene was not detected in the breathing zone of the control group. Long-term occupational exposure to benzene was lower than 1 ppm. Some blood indices, including the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and eosinophil count, showed significant differences in comparison with the control group (P 0.05). Moreover, the platelet count was normal in workers with exposure to benzene.
    Conclusions
    The painters showed evidence of relative exposure to benzene at a concentration below 1 ppm, causing changes in blood cells. The results of this study demonstrated that eosinophils are more sensitive than lymphocytes or neutrophils.
    Keywords: Benzene, Hematologic, Painter
  • Masoumeh Shohan, Gholamreza Noori, Elham Mohammadyari, Aminollah Vasigh, Behrang Kazeminezhad, Hamed Tavan * Page 6