فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research - Volume:3 Issue:2, 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Ankit Jain, Naina Dubey, Asmita Gajbehiye, Sheilendra Patil Pages 1-7
    The present work was aimed to develop and characterize rosuvastatin loaded self emulsifying drug delivery system for the effective management of hypolipidemia (RSEDDS) for improving bioavailability, to enhance solubility, to prolong residence time and to provide sufficient amount of drug to a target site in a sustained release manner. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system was prepared by simple emulsification technique, six batches i.e. f1 to f6 were prepared by varying the concentration of oils, surfactant, co-surfactant and co-solvent and evaluated for the various parameters, e.g. optical microscopy, assessment of self emulsification, emulsification time, droplet size analysis, zeta potential measurement, transmission electron microscopy, viscosity determination, drug content, percentage transmittance, in vitro dissolution study and stability studies. The RSEDDS was optimized and batch F5 was opted for further studies. The drug content of selected batch F5 was found to be 97.65 ± 1.37%, which suggests that method for encapsulation was effective. The results of in vitro drug release studies showed about 83% of the drug release within 180 minutes, which exhibit sustained release of drug. There were no significant changes observed in the physical appearance, drug content and in vitro release during stability studies. The studies reveal that the RSEDDS is a potential candidate for sustained release drug delivery which can successfully increase bioavailability.
    Keywords: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, rosuvastatin, sustained release, tem, in vitro release
  • Mariem Chaabane, Awatef Elwej, Imen Ghorbel, Tahia Boudawara, Najiba Zeghal, Nejla Soudani Pages 8-18
    In the present study, we aimed to examine the potential protective effect of C. aurantinum L. peel extract against oxidative damage induced by hexavalent chromium in the heart of adult rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I served as controls and received standard diet. Group II received via drinking water potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) alone (700 ppm) during 3 weeks. Groups III and IV were pre-treated for 10 days by gavage with the ethanolic extract of C. aurantium peels at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks. Groups V and VI received by gavage only C. aurantium peel ethanolic extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, during 10 days. K2Cr2O7 treatment increased the cardiac levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), non-protein thiols, glutathione and vitamin C, as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Cardiac histological alterations, manifested by hemorrhage and cytoplasmic vacuolization, were also observed. Pre-treatment with C. aurantium peel extract (300 mg/kg) attenuated significantly the biochemical and histopathological changes observed following K2Cr2O7 exposure in rat’s heart. Our findings indicated that C. aurantium peel extract was able to hamper K2Cr2O7-induced myocardial injury, which could be attributed to its antioxidant activity.
    Keywords: Chromium, rats, heart, oxidative stress, C. aurantium peel
  • Imen Ghorbel, Awatef Elwej, Mariem Chaabane, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal Pages 19-25
    Our study pertains to evaluate the protective effect of selenium (Se), used as a nutritional supplement, against aluminium chloride induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats have received during 21 days either AlCl3 (400 ppm) via drinking water, AlCl3 associated with Na2SeO3 (0.5 mg/kg of diet) or only Na2SeO3. Co-administration of Se to AlCl3 treated rats alleviated heart oxidative stress objectified by a decrease of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and protein carbonyls levels. An improvement in antioxidant redox status, enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and non enzymatic (reduced glutathione, non protein thiols and vitamin C) was also observed in Se treated rats. LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with AlCl3. Cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile were restored to near control values by the supplementation of Se. Our results revealed that Se, a trace element with antioxidant properties, was effective in preventing heart damage induced by aluminium chloride.
    Keywords: Aluminium, rats, oxidative stress, selenium, heart
  • Naghme Jabbar Imani, Majid Saeedi, Zohreh Hajheydari, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani Pages 26-32
    Uremic pruritus is a common and distressing symptom that affects more than 40% of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Several medications as well as topical preparation have been used for relief this condition. Sambucus ebulus has been shown anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects. In this research, the antipruritic effect of S. ebulus fruit extract was evaluated on patients with uremic pruritus. S. ebulus fruits were collected from Sari suburb, Iran. Fruits were dried at room temperature and several fractions of extract were prepared. After formulating suitable gel (2%) a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 78 patients (40 patients received S. ebulus topical gel 2% and 38 patients received placebo gel) for 8 weeks and the changes in hyperuremic induced pruritus severity were evaluated. Sixty one patients completed the study. The Pruritus severity index was reduced in both groups after 8 weeks’ treatment. S. ebulus topical gel showed more effect than placebo, but this difference was not statistically significant. The results showed that S. ebulus topical gel can reduce uremic pruritus severity, and more study with higher extract concentration or more cases is proposed.
    Keywords: Uremic pruritus, Sambucus ebulus, topical preparation, clinical trial
  • Mohammad Shaterpour, Fatemeh Shaki, Maryam Ghasemi, Majid Jafari-Sabet, Ali Ziar, Ramin Ataee Pages 33-38
    Lithium is an element which has been used as salts of chloride or carbonate for many years in the treatment of some psychological disorders such as mania, bipolar or schizophrenic diseases. Chronic application of lithium may induce some serious nephropathies such as natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progression to progressive chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia and, most commonly, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Curcumin is an antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa (turmeric or curcuma) which has the ability to react directly with reactive species and up-regulation of many cytoprotective and antioxidant proteins. The preventive roles of curcumin in nephropathies were reported, but there was little information on the protective effect of curcumin against lithium-induced nephrotoxicity. In this study, male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six each and were treated as follows: group1; animals were received lithium chloride as 2 mmol/kg, group 2; animals were received normal saline (0, 5%), group 3; animals were received curcumin (200 mg/kg), group 4 animals were received curcumin plus lithium and group 5; animals were received solvent intraperitoneally for three weeks. Then the animals were killed and biochemical parameters of blood were assayed and histopathological assessment was performed. The results have shown that curcumin significantly improved the biochemicals (BUN, creatinine, malondialdehyde). Curcumin prevented significantly the histological parameters that were changed by lithium administration in rats. Our results provide new insights into beneficial usages of curcumin in chronic nephrotoxicity induced by lithium salts.
    Keywords: Lithium toxicity, curcumin, nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, histopathology
  • Hojjatolah Zamani, Saeid Rahbar, Seyed Reza Garakoui, Anahita Afsah Sahebi, Hannaneh Jafari Pages 39-44
    Biofilm formation is a major determinant factor in development of bacterial infections. In addition, bacteria embedded in a biofilm are more resistant to antimicrobials and thus the ability of bacteria to persist and grow in a biofilm seems to be the major factor for pathogenesis and therapeutic failure. In the current study, a Lactobacillus plantarum spp was isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, traditional cheese of Guilan province, Iran, and was identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular identification assays. Antibiofilm potential of the Lactobacillus plantarum spp cell free supernatant (CFS) against multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was characterized. According to the results, the CFS not only reduced biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria, but also disrupted preformed biofilms. The CFS remained unaffected by chemicals including EDTA, SDS and Tween 80, and showed stability at high temperatures (80 and 100 ˚C), as well as a wide range of pH. However, the antibiofilm activity was inhibited after treating with proteinase K. According to these results, L. plantarum spp could be regarded as a suitable strain to produce antibiofilm agents which could be used for preventive and therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords: Antibiofilm, multidrug resistance, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics