فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:21 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:21 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
|
  • Nguyen Xuan*, Nong Van Hai Pages 3-8
    Klotho (KL) encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is predominantly expressed in the kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroid plexus. Genetic studies on the KL gene have revealed that DNA hypermethylation is one of the major risk factors for aging, diseases, and cancer. Besides, KL exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects by regulating signaling pathways and the expression of target genes. KL participates in modulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, which induces the growth hormone (GH) secretion. Accordingly, KL mutant mice display multiple aging-like phenotypes, which are ameliorated by overexpression of KL. Therefore, KL is an important contributor to lifespan. KL is further identified as a regulator of calcium (Ca2) channel-dependent cell physiological processes. KL has been also shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis, thus, it is considered as a potential tumor suppressor. Our recent studies have indicated that KL modulates an influx of Ca2 from the extracellular space, leading to a change in CCL21-dependent migration in dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, the regulation of the expression of KL was mediated through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in DCs. Moreover, downregulating of KL expression by using siRNA knockdown technique, we observed that the expression of Ca2 channels including Orai3, but not Orai1, Orai2, TRPV5 and TRPV6 was significantly reduced in KL-silenced as compared to control BMDCs. Clearly, additional research is required to define the role of KL in the regulation of organismic and cellular functions through the PI3K signaling and the expression of the Ca2 channels.
    Keywords: Aging, Ca2+ channel, Cancer, Dendritic cells, Klotho
  • Sayyed Mohammad Abutorabzadeh, Fatemeh Mosafa, Farzin Hadizadeh, Razieh Ghodsi * Pages 9-18
    Objective(s)
    In the present study,a new series of 6-methoxy-2-arylquinoline analogues was designed and synthesized as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors using quinine and flavones as the lead compounds.
    Materials And Methods
    The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against two human cancer cell lines including EPG85-257RDB, multidrug-resistant gastric carcinoma cells (P-gp-positive gastric carcinoma cell line), and EPG85-257P, drug-sensitive gastric carcinoma cells. Compounds showing low to moderate toxicity in the MTT test were selected to investigate their P-gp inhibition activity. Moreover, trying to explain the results of biological experiments, docking studies of the selected compounds into the homology-modeled human P-gp, were carried out. The physicochemical and ADME properties of the compounds as drug candidate were also predicted.
    Results
    Most of our compounds exhibited negligible or much lower cytotoxic effect in both cancer cells. Among the series, 5a and 5b, alcoholic quinoline derivatives were found to inhibit the efflux of rhodamine 123 at the concentration of 10 μM significantly.
    Conclusion
    Among the tested quinolines, 5a and 5b showed the most potent P-gp inhibitory activity in the series and were 1.3-fold and 2.1-fold stronger than verapamil, respectively. SAR data revealed that hydroxyl methyl in position 4 of quinolines has a key role in P-gp efflux inhibition of our compounds. ADME studies suggested that all of the compounds included in this study may have a good human intestinal absorption.
    Keywords: Molecular docking, P-glycoprotein, P-gp inhibition, Quinoline, Synthesis
  • Iman Fatemi, Amin Khaluoi, Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Sara Heydari, Mohammad Allahtavakoli * Pages 19-25
    Objective(s)
    Metformin (Met), an antidiabetic biguanide, reduces hyperglycemia via improving glucose utilization and reducing the gluconeogenesis. Met has been shown to exert neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the possible effect of Met on the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Met (1 and 10 mg/kg/p.o.), was administrated daily in D-gal-received (500 mg/kg/p.o.) mice model of aging for six weeks. Anxiety-like behavior, cognitive function, and physical power were evaluated by the elevated plus-maze, novel object recognition task (NORT), and forced swimming capacity test, respectively. The brains were analyzed for the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
    Results
    Met decreased the anxiety-like behavior in D-gal-treated mice. Also, Met treated mice showed significantly improved learning and memory ability in NORT compared to the D-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, Met increased the physical power as well as the activity of SOD and BDNF level in D-gal-treated mice.
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that the use of Met can be an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of D-gal-induced aging in animal models. This effect seems to be mediated by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of the neurotrophic factors.
    Keywords: Aging, D-galactose, Metformin, Mouse, Oxidative stress
  • Elaheh Gheybi, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Jafar Salimian, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Raheleh Halabian, Jafar Amani * Pages 26-32
    Objective(s)
    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is on the increase. MUC1 and HER2 as tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are abnormally expressed to some extent in 75–80% of breast cancers. In our present research, a novel chimeric MUC1-HER2 (HM) protein was designed and used to study whether an immune response can be generated against these TAAs. In vitro analysis of the HER2-MUC1 construct confirmed the co-expression of MUC1 and HER2.
    Materials And Methods
    BALB/c mice were immunized with this novel chimeric protein. The humoral immune response was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously 2×105 4T1-MUC1-HER2 tumor cells. Subsequently, tumor size and tumor necrosis measurements, MTT, cytokines assay and survival test were performed.
    Results
    The results implied a critical role of HER2 and MUC1 antibodies in vaccination against breast cancer. This engineered protein can be a good vaccine to stop breast cancer.
    Conclusion
    The results implied a critical role of HER2 and MUC1 antibodies in vaccination against breast cancer. This engineered protein can be a good vaccine to stop breast cancer.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, HER2, MUC1, Recombinant antigen, Vaccine
  • Ying Huang, Yuan Qi, Jianqing Du, Daifu Zhang* Pages 33-38
    Objective(s)
    Protosappanin A (PrA) is an effective and major ingredient of Caesalpinia sappan L. The current study was aimed to explore the effect of PrA on atherosclerosis (AS).
    Materials And Methods
    Firstly, the experimental model of AS was established in rabbits by two-month feeding of high fat diet. Then, the rabbits were randomly divided into five groups and treated with continuous high lipid diet (model control), high lipid diet containing rosuvastatin (positive control), 5 mg/kg PrA (low dose) or 25 mg/kg PrA (high dose).
    Results
    Our results showed that PrA markedly alleviated AS as indicated by hematoxylin/eosin (HE) staining. PrA also reduced hyperlipidemia (as demonstrated by the serum levels of total blood cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) in a time and dose-dependent manner, and decreased inflammation (as indicated by the serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]). Moreover, PrA significantly inactivated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling as indicated by nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression, as well as the mRNA expression and serum levels of downstream genes, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10).
    Conclusion
    This study proved that PrA might protect against atherosclerosis via anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-inflammation and NF-κB signaling pathways in hyperlipidemic rabbits.
    Keywords: Anti-hyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Atherosclerosis, NF-κB, Protosappanin A
  • Mohammad Hassan Houshdar Tehrani *, Abdolhamid Bamoniri, Mohammadreza Gholibeikian Pages 39-46
    Objective
    Cancer has risen as the main cause of diseases with the highest rate of mortality in the world. Drugs used in cancer, usually demonstrate side effects on normal tissues. On the other hand, anticancer small peptides, effective on target tissues, should be safe on healthy organs, as being naturally originated compounds. In addition, they may have good pharmacokinetic properties. carnosine, a natural dipeptide, has shown many biological functions, including anti-oxidant, anti-senescence, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. This study, with the aim of introducing new anticancer agents with better properties, is focused on the synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of some peptide analogues of carnosine.
    Materials And Methods
    The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized peptides, prepared by the solid-phase peptide synthesis method, was evaluated against two cell lines of HepG2 and HT-29 using MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and flow­ cytometry analysis.
    Results
    Linear and cyclic analogues of carnosine peptide showed cytotoxicity, demonstrated by several experiments, against HepG2 and HT-29 cell lines with mean IC50 values ranging from 9.81 to 16.23 µg/ml. Among the peptides, compounds 1c, 3c and 6b (linear analogue of 3c) showed a considerable toxic activity on the cancerous cell lines.
    Conclusion
    The cyclic peptide analogues of carnosine withHis-β-Ala-­Pro-β-Ala-­His (1c) and β-Ala-­His- Pro­-­His-­β-Ala (3c) sequences showed cytotoxic activity on cancerous cells of HepG2 and HT-29, better than carnosine, and thus can be good candidates to develop new anticancer agents. The mechanism of cytotoxicity may be through cell apoptosis.
    Keywords: Anticancer agents, Carnosine analogues, Cytotoxicity, Flow? cytometry, Peptide synthesis, MTT assay
  • Oveis Jafari, Homayoon Babaei *, Reza Kheirandish, Amir-Saied Samimi, Ali Zahmatkesh Pages 47-52
    Objective(s)
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia is known to cause male infertility. This study was designed to explore the effects of bacterial LPS on histomorphometric changes of mice testicular tissues.
    Materials And Methods
    In experiment 1, a pilot dose responsive study was performed with mice that were divided into five groups, receiving 36000, 18000, 9000, and 6750 µg/kg body weight (B.W) of LPS or only saline (control). White blood cells (WBC) were observed for 3 days after LPS inoculation. In experiment 2, two groups of mice were treated with 6750 µg/kg B.W of LPS or only saline (control). Five cases from each experimental group were sacrificed at 3, 30, and 60 days after LPS inoculation. Left testes were fixed in Bouin’s solution, and stained for morphometrical assays.
    Results
    Time-course changes of WBC obtained from different doses of LPS-treated mice showed that inoculation of 6750 µg/kg B.W produced a reversible endotoxemia that lasts for 72 hr and so it was used in the second experiment. In experiment 2, during the first 3 days, no significant changes were observed in the evaluated parameters instead of seminiferous tubules diameter. Spermatogenesis, Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, and epithelial height were significantly affected at 30th day. However, complete recovery was only observed for the spermatogenesis at day 60. Interestingly, deleterious effects of LPS on spermatogonia were only seen at 60th day (P
    Conclusion
    Endotoxemia induced by LPS has long-term detrimental effects on spermatogonia and later stage germ cells, which are reversible at the next spermatogenic cycle.
    Keywords: Endotoxemia Lipopolysaccharide, Meiotic index, Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia
  • Mahila Lotfi Aski, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Mehdi Khaksari, Zeynab Hafizi, Zeynab Pirmoradi, Somayeh Niknazar, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjerdi * Pages 53-58
    Objective(s)
    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of berberine chloride on vascular dementia. Berberine, as an ancient medicine in China and India, is the main active component derived from the Berberis sp. Several studies have revealed the beneficial effects of berberine in various neurodegenerative disorders.
    Materials And Methods
    To induce vascular dementia, chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats. After surgery, the rats were treated daily by oral administration of berberine chloride (50 mg/kg) for two months. The cognition function of treated rats, were evaluated by Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. In addition, Nissl and TUNEL staining were chosen to assess neuronal damage within the hippocampal CA1 area.
    Results
    It was obvious that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), caused cognitive impairment and neuronal damages within CA1 hippocampal subregion. Berberine chloride was able to prevent cognitive deficits, (P
    Conclusion
    Berberine chloride may be considered as a potential treatment for cognitive deficits and neuronal injury caused by CCH in the hippocampal CA1 area.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Berberine, Hippocampus, Memory, Vascular dementia
  • Bibi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani, Rasoul Aliannejad*, Afsaneh Arefi Oskuei, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Shiva Kalantari, Mohammad Taghi Naseri, Alireza Bagheban, Hadi Parastar, Ghazale Aliakbarzadeh Pages 59-69
    Objective(s)
    This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs) and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls) were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA).
    Results
    A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL)) and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid). This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.
    Keywords: GC-MS, Metabolomics, Multivariate analysis, NMR spectroscopy, Sulfur mustard
  • Mohammad Reza Pourfath, Abbas Behzad Behbahani, Seyedeh Sara Hashemi *, Amin Derakhsahnfar, Mohammad Naser Taheri, Saeede Salehi Pages 70-76
    Objective(s)
    Human Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWMSCs) are undifferentiated cells commonly used in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable tool for tracking hWMSCs when utilized as therapeutics in burnt disorders and also to optimize the cell-based treatment procedure.
    Materials And Methods
    The hWMSCs were first isolated from fresh umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and cultured. The 293LTV cell line was transfected by cGFP containing lentiviral vector and the helper plasmids for production of the viral particle. The viral particles were collected to transduce the hWMSCs. The transduced cells were finally selected based on resistance to puromycin. The burned rats (n=24) were treated with cGFP expressing hWMSCs using the cell spray method, with the cells being tracked 7, 14 and 21 days later. The rats were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days following treatment and paraffin embedded sections prepared from the burned area for downstream pathological analyses.
    Results
    The lentiviral particles carrying the cGFP gene were generated and the hWMSCs were transduced. The cGFP-expressing hWMSCs were detected in the burned tissue and the burned injuries were improved dramatically as compared to control.
    Conclusion
    Because of the establishment of stably transduced cGFP expressing cells and the ability to detect cGFP for a relatively long-time interval, the method was found to be quite efficient for the purpose of cell tracking. The combination of hWMSC-based cell therapy and sterile Gauze Vaseline (GV) as covering was proven much more efficient than the traditional methods based on GV alone.
    Keywords: Cell, tissue-based therapy, Cell Tracking, Lentivirus, Mesenchymal stem cells, Wound Healing
  • Hossein Sadeghi, Najmeh Rahmanian, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Hossein Amirfakhrian, Seyed Mohammad Abedi, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr * Pages 77-82
    Objectives
    The monitoring of cancer treatment response to chemotherapy is considered an essential strategy for follow-up of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 99mTc-glucarate as a radiotracer for in vivo quantification and visualization of necrotic area and therapeutic effect of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer xenografted nude mice.
    Materials And Methods
    After implantation of human ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) in nude mice, tumor xenografted mice were enrolled in two groups as control and treatment (paclitaxel) groups. 99mTc-glucarate uptakes were quantified in tumors of control and treatment groups and also tumor imaging was performed with a gamma camera. The necrotic and viable areas of tumor and tumoral masses were evaluated through histopathological and macroscopic observations, respectively.
    Results
    99mTc-glucarate uptake in tumor of treatment group was higher than control group.99mTc-glucarate uptake in ovarian tumor was clearly visualized with gamma imaging in both groups, but paclitaxel treated group showed higher radioactive uptake than control mice. The necrotic area in tumoral mass of mice treated with paclitaxel was confirmed by histopathological observations.
    Conclusion
    99mTc-glucarate is an effective radiotracer for evaluation and monitoring of tumor necrosis caused by chemotherapy, and it may be helpful for therapy monitoring in patients with cancer.
    Keywords: 99mTc-glucarate, Imaging, Necrosis, Ovarian cancer, Paclitaxel
  • Ming Lu, Ying Luo, Pengfei Hu, Liping Dou, Shuwei Huang* Pages 83-88
    Objective(s)
    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting.
    Results
    AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway.
    Conclusion
    Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.
    Keywords: Advanced, ERK1-2, Glycation end products, JNK, P38, Tanshinone IIA, Vascular Smooth Muscle
  • Leila Rezaeian, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini, Mehdi Dianatpur *, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh, Nader Tanideh, Asghar Mogheiseh, Amin Tamadon Pages 89-96
    Objective(s)
    End-stage hepatic failure is a potentially life-threatening condition for which orthotopic liver transplantation is the only effective treatment. However, a shortage of available donor organs for transplantation each year results in the death of many patients waiting for liver transplantation. Xenotransplantation, or the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, was proposed as a possible solution to the worldwide shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to reconstruct human liver tissue by xenotransplantation of human Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs) into fetal rabbit.
    Materials And Methods
    Isolation and confirmation of hWJ-MSCs from human umbilical cord was performed. Eight rabbits at gestational day 14 were anesthetized. All rabbits carried pregnancies to term yielding 40 rabbit fetuses. Intrauterine injection of hWJ-MSCs was performed in 24 fetuses. Twenty-seven fetuses were born alive. Ten liver samples from injected fetuses were sampled, eight rabbits 3 days after birth and two rabbits 21 days after birth. The non-injected fetuses served as positive control. Fetuses of non-injected rabbits were negative controls. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA expression of albumin (ALB), α-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF4), and CYP2B6 (CYP) were detected in liver samples.
    Results
    The human ALB, AFP, HNF4, and CYP mRNAs were expressed in the injected sampled fetuses by hWJ-MSCs into fetuses of rabbits in utero.
    Conclusion
    Developing xenotransplantation of hWJ-MSCs into rabbit uterus can introduce an applied approach for producing human liver tissue in rabbits.
    Keywords: Human, Liver, Mesenchymal stem cells, Rabbit, Wharton jelly, Xenotransplantation
  • Amany Ahmed Mohamed Abd-Allah, Nasr Abdelwahab Mohamed Nasr El-Deen, Wafaa Mohamed*, Fatma Mohamed Naguib Pages 97-107
    Objective(s)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-produced oxidative disorders were involved at the pathophysiology of many inflammatory processes via the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant defense system suppression. Although herbal antioxidants as mono-therapy relief many inflammatory diseases including, autoimmunity rheumatoid arthritis, but as combination therapy with other proven anti-inflammatory drugs in order to decreasing their toxic impacts has not yet been studied clearly, especially against chemical substances that’s induced local inflammation with characteristic edema.
    Materials And Methods
    Grape seeds extract (GSE) at a concentration of 40 mg/kg B. wt alone or in combination with indomethacin (Indo.) at a dose of 5 mg/Kg B. wt orally given for 10 days prior (gps VI, VII, VIII) or as a single dose after edema induction (gps IX, X, XI) in rat's left hind paw by sub-planter single injection of 0.1 carrageenan: saline solution (1%) (gp. V) to assess the prophylactic and therapeutic anti-inflammatory activities of both through the estimation of selective inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage-related biomarkers as well as tissue mast cell scoring. Furthermore, both substances were given alone (gps II, III, IV) for their blood, liver and kidney safety evaluation comparing with negative control rats (gp. I) which kept without medication.
    Results
    A marked reduction on the inflammatory mediators, edema volume and oxidative byproducts in edema bearing rat's prophylactic and treated with grape seeds extract and indomethacin was observed. Indomethacin found to induce some toxicological impacts which minimized when administered together with GSE.
    Conclusion
    GSE is a safe antioxidant agent with anti-inflammatory property.
    Keywords: Gastritis, TNF-α IgE, Indomethacin, Proanthocyanidins, Toluidine-blue
  • Azam Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Dalili, Zahra Zafari, Siamak Saber, Morteza Karimipour, Vahid Akbari, Amirfarjam Fazelifar, Sirous Zeinali * Pages 108-111
    Objective(s)
    Jervell and Lange–Nielsen syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes. The disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and long QT syndrome.
    Methods
    Here we present a 3.5-year-old female patient, an offspring of consanguineous marriage, who had a history of recurrent syncope and congenital sensorineural deafness. The patient and the family members were screened for mutations in KCNQ1 gene by linkage analysis and DNA sequencing.
    Results
    DNA sequencing showed a c.1532_1534delG (p. A512Pfs*81) mutation in the KCNQ1 gene in homozygous form. The results of short tandem repeat (STR) markers showed that the disease in the family is linked to the KCNQ1 gene. The mutation was confirmed in the parents in heterozygous form.
    Conclusion
    This is the first report of this variant in KCNQ1 gene in an Iranian family. The data of this study could be used for early diagnosis of the condition in the family and genetic counseling.
    Keywords: Arrhythmia, Iran, Jervell, Lange-Nielsen syndrome, KCNQ1, Long-QT syndrome, Romano-Ward syndrome