فهرست مطالب

پزشکی قانونی - سال بیست و سوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 82، تابستان 1396)
  • سال بیست و سوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 82، تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Abbas Yadollahi Baghlouyi, Mohammad Azin, Reza Omani Samani * Pages 75-83
    In the legal system of Iran every contract has a specific nature, the explanation of which, has a significant role in exact understanding of it, including conclusion, termination and the resulting right and obligations. A contract is either mentioned in laws, and its conditions, rules and effects are explained there, or it accepted according to the principle of freedom of contract, there by its conclusion, in compliance with general legal rules, is completely dependent on mutual agreement of the involved parties.
    The Surrogacy contract for pregnancy is also an agreement to transfer the concepted egg of an unfertile couple to another woman's woman in order to keep it alive and let it grow there and then delivering the neonate to the donors of sperm and egg. The nature of this contract, considering the fact of its being a novelty and nonexistence of legislation in this regard, should be discussed.
    Some have regarded it as a new legal concept to be analyzed using current legal formats such as rent and deposit and others consider it an undetermined contract governed by the Article 10 of the Iranian Civil Law. The present study has tried to explain and criticize these points of view.
    Keywords: Surrogacy contract in pregnancy, Nature of contract, Hiring a person, article 10 of the Civil Law
  • Farshid Nazem*, Fardin Mardani Pages 84-94
    Background
    The process of documentation is an essential activity in crime scene investigation; hence, the researchers in this paper studied the process of documentation, particularly for scenes of murder.
    Methods
    At first, a detailed description through desk review of relevant literature was provided for the main concepts of the issue such as crime scene and its various types, crime scene investigation methods, the nature and purpose of documentation, crime scene investigation team, and its relationship with other contributing factors such as prosecutor and forensic agent. Then, by using the method of field study and a prepared checklist, the documents of murder scenes provided by investigation teams in Isfahan were examined.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that the scene investigation process, particularly documentation process studied in this paper, is far away from the accepted standards of this field, and the reasons of such a status are poor training on documentation techniques, lack of knowledge and awareness of modern documentation practices, lack of supervision over the activities of documentation team, unfamiliarity with scene investigation forms, and lack of precision in filling the forms. Furthermore, there is a poor coordination among three involved organizations, including forensic Medicine Organization, police, and the judiciary system due to such reasons as poor sense of duty in involved individuals, and failure to supervise the performance of these institutions at the end of any scene investigation.
    Conclusion
    Providing adequate and continuous training, monitoring the prepared documentation, having attention and focus on the preparation of documentation (especially forms), and finally the use of appropriate equipment can lead to the reduction in the inadvertent seizure of accused, escape of real criminals from the justice, and People's distrust of institutions like the police and the judiciary in Isfahan province.
    Keywords: Crime scene documentation, Murder, Scene investigation team
  • Roya Bahrami *, Hassan Forati, Lyla Dosti Pages 95-103
    Background
    Disproportion between personality characteristics and the proportion of job dissatisfaction with their jobs, the major challenges that forensic directors in connection with its staff faced. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personality characteristics and job satisfaction forensics is Lorestan province in 1393.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study, descriptive and analytical. Legal Medicine Lorestan Province was studied population of employees. Staff of forensic Medicine Lorestan Province was studied population. Smith and colleagues gauges to measure job satisfaction questionnaire and personality characteristics of Eysenck, which had a total of 61 questions, is used. Data from the study were analyzed using partial least squares method.
    Results
    The total number of participants (n = 44) were 60% male and 40% female. The correlation coefficient between personality characteristics and job satisfaction was 0/726. The correlation coefficient introverted character, extroverted, stable, neuroticism and job satisfaction, respectively was, 0/231, 0/448,0/ 613,- 0/453.
    Conclusion
    The characteristics of personality (introverted, extroverted, emotional stability) had relationship with the components of job satisfaction (nature of the work, manager’s behavior, job commitment, payments, citizenship behavior, colleagues’ behavior, promotion and enhancement). But the neurotic personality type there is a significant negative correlation with job satisfaction. As a result, employees who are neurotic are slower than job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Characteristics Personality, Extroversion, Introversion, Job satisfaction, Emotion register, Neurotics
  • Nader Aghakhani, Abbas Zareei Kheirabad, Jaber Gharadaghi, Narges Nazimi, Amin Soheili, Mohammad Delirrad, Yaghub Zeinimohammad, Ali Eftekhari * Pages 104-114
    Background
    Addiction is such a widespread problem that requires a comprehensive action conducted by a range of researchers and specialists in different fields. Unfortunately, this phenomenon is sometimes accompanied with a record of quitting, but it is seen that addicts turn into addiction. Identifying its factors can help to prevent this problem. Since a detailed study about the onset of addiction based on cultural and economic factors in Urmia, was not carried out, the present study was performed.
    Methods
    A number of 400 addicts referred to addiction treatment centers in Urmia, were included in a descriptive-analylical study carried out using a demographic and researcher made questionnaire, by multistage cluster sampling metod, 46% of them had at least one record of quitting and the rest were referred for the first time. Scientific validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by using apparent validity and the content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and the members of the scientific board and its reliability was confirmed by a test of internal compatibility.
    Findings: The study showed that encouragement of friends, spending time with them and not being accepted by them after quitting drugs, were the most important causes of tendency to re-addiction in the subjects referred to addiction treatment centers in Urmia. A significant relationship between their tendency and the level of literacy and cigarette smoking of their father has been observed, but other demographic factors does not have significant effect on this issue (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    On the basis of the results of this study, taking legal measures to increase awareness in this regard, reducing the factors enticing the youth to drug addiction and re-addiction and establishing and enhancing the role of advice giving centers, can be useful in reducing these problems.
    Keywords: Tendency, Methamphetamine Addiction, Addicts, Urmia
  • Lamya Rostami Tabrizi, Aref Khalili Paji *, Abbas Zabihzadeh Pages 115-123
    Background
    Inhibitory control defined as the ability to control the improper responses or behaviors, is one of the main components of executive function and considered as a determinant component of several psychiatric disorders. The main aim of this study was to compare different aspects of inhibitory control in a number of adolescents with conduct disorder and normal adolescents. This comparison demonstrates the importance of different aspects of inhibitory control in criminal acts.
    Methods
    The research design of this causal study was comparative. A total of 64 individuals (32 adolescents with conduct disorder and 32 normal adolescents) participated in this study, voluntarily. Computerized Stroop and GO NO GO Tests were used for collecting data.
    Findings: The results revealed that adolescents with conduct disorder reported significantly higher speed and lower precision in their functions in Stroop and GO NO GO tests.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study are discussed regarding the role of abnormality in inhibitory control system on formation and persistence of criminal behavior.
    Keywords: Psychopathology, Conduct Disorder, Crime, Inhibitory Control
  • Elaheh Esfandiari *, Roshanak Ghafari, Shahrzad Javadinejad Pages 124-131
    Background
    Forensic odontologists are the specialists that can be asked to assist in estimating the age of persons who may or may not have reached the legal age. In this regard, selecting a practical method would be a priority. The present study aimed to measure the apices of third molar to discriminate between individuals who are or not 18 years of age or older and to fix a cutoff for evaluation of the age in these cases.
    Methods
    Panoramic radiographs belonging to 150 healthy individuals aged between14-23, were randomly selected. To evaluate the individuals, using Cameriere method, the third molar maturity index- I3M- of the left side was calculated as follows: The sum of the distances between the inner sides of the open apices divided by the tooth length to normalise the measurements. For the statistical assessment of the data, SAS software and Proc Logistic were used.
    Results
    If an individual has I3M≤0/01, he is 18 or more and if I3M>0/01 it can be predicted that the probability of being 18 years or more using the calculated formula. According to the results, there was no significant correlation between gender and Cameriere method model.
    Conclusion
    Calculating the third molar maturity index is a practical method to estimate age in Iranian population. Concordant percentage of 89.3% and C factor 90% showed that this method is suitable to estimate the age of an individual of more or less than 18 years.
    Keywords: Dental age, Cameriere method, Maturity index of the third molar, Forensic dentistry
  • Azimi Khadijeh, Maryam Poorbakhtiar *, Ziba Taghizadeh, Kamran Soltani, Masoud Ghadipasha, Hamidreza Daneshparvar Pages 132-141
    Background
    Considering the process of pregnancy and undeniable role of obstetricians and midwives in women's health, the possibility of medical malpractice complaints in this regard is particularly important. Therefore, studying medical malpractice among them can be seen as a step toward protecting the health of mothers and neonates.
    Methods
    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, a number of 7616 cases of medical malpractice complaints filed in the field of obstetrics & gynecology and midwifery from all 31 provinces of the country to be assessed by the National High Commission of Forensic Medicine, two periods (2011-2012) were studied. A researcher- made checklist was used to collect information and the data were analyzed using SPSS software v.16.
    Findings: Among a total of 7616 medical malpractice lawsuits related to pregnancy and childbirth, the most common type of malpractice was recklessness (71/67%). Medical malpractice, due to lack of skills was seen in 50% of cases of malpractice by obstetricians and gynecologists, while non-compliance with government regulations was the mistake of 66/66% of technically responsible persons in hospitals.
    Conclusion
    Considering the increasing number of complaints for medical malpractice in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, it is necessary for gynecologists and midwives, to perform their duties in accordance with scientific standards and protocols, clinical skills and cooperating in teamwork, in order to reduce medical malpractice and guarantee the health and wellbeing of mothers and neonates.
    Keywords: Medical malpractice, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetricians, Gynecologists, Midwives
  • Mehdi Norouzi, Mohammadreza Eskandarion, Yalda Zargar * Pages 142-146
    Background
    Lead poisoning has been known since ancient times and today, contaminated opium has become a new source of lead poisoning. This report is another case of lead poisoning due to consumption of lead contaminated opium, with a dose 10 times more than normal, by an opium addict in Isfahan, Iran
    Introducing patient: A 41 years old afghan man addicted to opium with 15 years of history of addiction was referred to the hospital with severe abdominal pain more focused in epigastric area accompanied with nausea and vomiting and weakness and lethargy as well as bone pain and severe constipation. After hospitalization in gastroenterology service, the patient was discharged due to financial problems with personal satisfaction. Then, he was admitted in the emergency department the same day again, due to lack of vital signs and revived with the CPR. In a fast Sonography, free fluid in the abdomen was reported. A sharp drop in blood pressure and the possibility of mesenteric ischemia and peritonitis led to exploratory limited laparotomy that revealed large amounts of funky serous fluid in the peritoneum and pale intestines without pulse. The abdominal wall was repaired without any specific action and death was declared. The patient's abnormal test results, including leukocytosis, disturbances in electrolytes and a little increasing in liver enzymes were checked. The positive points observed in pathology after death, including autolysis in the intestinal wall and mucosal and lung bleeding, tissue autolysis and the large number of pigmented histiocytes within the alveoli. Toxicological tests revealed morphine in bile and 16.32 PPM equivalent to 1632 micrograms per deciliter lead was found in the blood using voltammetry polarography method. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, the cause of death was determined as lead poisoning and its complications.
    Conclusion
    Because of the fatality of lead poisoning at high doses and irremediable complications of damages, it is always necessary to consider lead poisoning in differential diagnosis of addict individuals with unexplained abdominal pains.
    Keywords: Acute lead poisoning, Opium, Death, Legal medicine