فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:8 Issue:1, 2018
  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/10/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Majid Nimrouzi, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas Pages 1-13
    Objective
    Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use.
    Materialsand
    Methods
    For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords.
    Results
    Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs’ temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro – psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament).
    Conclusion
    Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials.
    Keywords: Anorexia, Eating Disorder, Traditional Medicine
  • Elaheh Mohammadi, Soghra Mehri, Hasan Badie Bostan, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Pages 14-23
    Objective
    Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon, which attribute to different diseases and abnormalities in living systems. Oxidative stress, which is an important factor in aging, exacerbates this process via different mechanisms. Crocin (CR), one of the active components of saffron showed strong antioxidant effects. In the present study, anti-aging property of crocin was investigated in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    The model of aging was induced using administration of d-galactose (500 mg/kg, s. c.) for 42 days. Animals were treated with crocin (10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p.) during treatment with d-galactose. At the end of treatment, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker and glutathione content (GSH) in the liver and brain were measured. Also, biochemical factors including liver enzymes (ALT and AST), male sex hormones including testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-SO4) and pro-inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and interlukine-6 (IL-6) in serum, were evaluated.
    Results
    Administration of d-galactose led to induction of lipid peroxidation in liver and brain tissues, as well as elevation of AST, ALT, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of male sex hormones levels in serum. Interestingly, treatment of animals with crocin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) diminished lipid peroxidation in the liver and brain tissues while elevated GSH content. Also, a decline in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an elevation of male sex hormones were observed following treatment with crocin.
    Conclusion
    Administration of crocin reduced d-galactose-induced aging in mice through inhibition of oxidative stress, reduction of inflammation and elevation of sex hormones.
    Keywords: D-galactose, Crocin, Crocus sativus, Aging, Oxidative stress
  • Majid Hajifaraji, Mohammad Matlabi, Farihe Ahmadzadeh-Sani Ahmadzadeh Sani, Yadollah Mehrabi, Mohammad Salem Rezaee, Homa Hajimehdipour, Abbas Hasanzadeh, Katayoun Roghani Pages 24-32
    Objective
    Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia.
    Materials And Methods
    This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old) with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks.
    Results
    Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations.
    Conclusion
    sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.
    Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Polygenic dyslipidemia, Sour tea, Lipid profile
  • Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Javad Asili, Seyed Hossein Nemati, Gholamreza Karimi Pages 33-42
    Objective
    In this study, the levels and antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites isolated from five pistachio (Pistacia vera)cultivars collected from four different geographical regions of Iran, were studied.
    Materials And Methods
    Total phenolic compounds levels were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined as AlCl3 complex and expressed as mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry extract and total proantocyanidins content was expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CA)/g dry extract. In order to evaluated the antioxidant activity of the compounds, DPPH and FRAP assays were used.
    Results
    The highest level of total phenols (156.42 mg GA/g DE), total flavonoids (130.94 mg QE/g DE) and total proantocyanidins (152.816 mg CA/g DE) were obtained in Akbari cultivar from Rafsanjan, followed by Badami-e-sefid and Ahmad aghaei. The lowest amount of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total proanthocyanidin content (TPrAC) were found in Badami-e-sefid from Feizabad (128.140 mg GA/g DE, 93.176 mg QE/g DE and 118.870 mg CA/g DE, respectively). Also, a positive correlation (r2=0.9834) was found between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.
    Conclusion
    Pistachio increased their phytochemical compounds to contrast with abiotic stress. Our data could be useful for introducing special characteristics to the plants, and can be considered when planning a new breeding program or choosing a specific cultivar for a particular use.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, DPPH, Ferric reducing, Pistacia vera
  • Gholamali Jelodar, Zahra Javid, Ali Sahraian, Sina Jelodar Pages 43-50
    Objectives
    A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus) is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated.
    Material and
    Methods
    This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old) diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle.
    Results
    A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p
    Conclusion
    Saffron has beneficial effects on depression and homocysteine level in patients with major depression.
    Keywords: saffron, Homocysteine, Major Depression
  • Vahid Zarezade, Jalal Moludi, Mostafa Mostafazadeh, Mohammad Mohammadi, Ali Veisi Pages 51-62
    Objective
    The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia dracunculus (HAAD) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 20-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Rats were pre-treated with either 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of HAAD or silymarin (100 mg/kg; served as the positive control group) for 15 days and they received a single dose of CCl4 on the last day. Hepatoprotective effects were investigated by assessment of serum biochemical enzymes such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH), along with histopathological studies.
    Results
    Total phenolic content was 197.22±3.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/g HAAD dry weight. HAAD indicated powerful activity in FRAP, DPPH and ABTS tests. Acute toxicity study showed that the extract had an LD50 of >5000 mg/kg. Oral treatment with HAAD exhibited a significant decrease in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and TB and an increase in the level of TP. The extract significantly diminished MDA levels. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly augmented in rats pretreated with HAAD 200 mg/kg. Histopathological examination demonstrated lower liver damage in HAAD-treated groups as compared to CCl4 groups.
    Conclusion
    Our findings indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of A. dracunculus on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced by reducing oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Artemisia dracunculus L, Carbon Tetrachloride, Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative stress, Rats
  • Narges Amel Zabihi, Maryam Mahmoudabady, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Parichehr Hayatdavoudi, Farimah Beheshti, Saeed Niazmand Pages 63-72
    Objective
    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of hypercholesterolemia-induced complications. This study evaluated the effects of aspirin and Salix alba hydroethanolic extract on oxidative stress in the heart and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
    Materials And Methods
    The antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolic and salicin content of S. alba (Sa) extract were assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC methods, respectively. Animals were divided into two groups of control (fed with normal chow), and HD (fed with high cholesterol diet for 6 weeks). Then, hypercholesterolemic animals allocated to the following treatment groups: CHO (received HD), Sa extract (HD plus extract 60 and 120 mg/kg), and aspirin (HD plus aspirin 120 mg/kg) and received the treatments on a daily basis for 6 weeks. MDA, GSH, and nitrite concentrations as well as the activities of SOD and CAT were evaluated in cardiac and kidney tissues.
    Results
    The scavenging activity, total phenolic content and salicin were 19.1 µg/ml (IC50), 153.75 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid/g, and 18.03 µg/mg, respectively. In comparison to CHO group, MDA levels were diminished in Sa and ASA groups but GSH levels were improved. NO metabolites increased in the heart of Sa 120 mg/kg group and in the kidney of all Sa and ASA treated groups. SOD activity increased only in the heart of Sa groups and in the kidney of Sa and ASA groups. CAT activity increased in the heart and kidney tissues of all Sa and ASA treated groups.
    Conclusion
    The results showed S. alba extract improved redox homeostasis in heart and kidney tissues of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The extract antioxidant property may be related to its phenolic content.
    Keywords: Hypercholesterolemia, Salix alba, Oxidative stress, Heart, Kidney, Rabbit
  • Ademola Clement Famurewa, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie Pages 73-84
    Objective
    Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd) and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO) prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Subsequently, serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk ratios were determined. Hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were analyzed.
    Results
    Sub-chronic Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol while markedly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic activities of SOD and CAT as well as GSH content were suppressed by Cd, whereas MDA level was obviously increased. The co-administration of VCO polyphenol with Cd remarkably restored lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios and stabilized antioxidant defense systems comparable to control group.
    Conclusion
    This is the first study presenting that polyphenols isolated from VCO prevent Cd-induced lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk ratios by improving antioxidant defense systems.
    Keywords: Dyslipidemia, Lipid profile, Cadmium, Antioxidants, Polyphenols, Cardiovascular risks
  • Tarequl Islam (Md) Saddam Hussain, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Ashraful Mahmud Tuhin Pages 85-95
    Objectives
    Swas Kas Chintamani Ras (SKC) is an ayurvedic preparation indicated for respiratory diseases. Our study was aimed to determine the psychopharmacological and neurosafety profile of SKC.
    Materials And Methods
    Psychopharmacological effects and neurosafety profile of this drug were determined by nine complementary test methods namely, open field, locomotor activity, hole cross, hole board test, elevated plus maze, staircase, forced swimming test, and rotarod test. Male mice (Swiss-Webster strain, 20-40 g body weight) bred in the Animal House of the Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, were used for the pharmacological experiments.
    Results
    The drug decreased total ambulation and movement in the central region and standing up behavior and lowered emotional defecation. The drug also made the mice to take a shorter time to come out of the cage. Also, animals spent less time in open arm and the movement in the closed arm and locomotors reduced (p=0.003), where a number of rearing (p=0.04) behaviour indicating possible anxiolytic activity. Also, no signs of anti-depressant activity were observed among SKC-treated group.
    Conclusion
    We concluded that our drug showed no neurotoxic effect and it also showed some beneficial neuropharmacological properties.
    Keywords: SKC, Psychopharmacological, Neurosafety, Number of rearing