فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال نهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 21، زمستان 1396)
  • سال نهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 21، زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • فخری زارعی، سیدکاظم موسوی، غلامحسین مددی صفحات 1-16
    کنش ها و واکنش های دفاعی در برابر فشارهای روانی همواره از موضوعات مشترک روان شناسی و ادبیات بوده است. در این زمینه، داستان یکی از بهترین جایگاه ها برای شناخت و ارائه این کنش ها و واکنش هاست و می تواند جلوه گاه پژوهش های میان رشته ای از جمله در حوزه های روان شناسی و داستان پردازی باشد. در شاهنامه فردوسی، به دلیل تعدد و تعامل شخصیت ها و گوناگونی حوادث، می توان شاهد بسیاری از رفتارها و مکانیسم های دفاعی در برابر عوامل گوناگون بود. داستان فرود، در این میان، صحنه مناسبی است که جنبه های مختلف شخصیتی را ارائه می کند. در این داستان، انواع کشمکش های درونی، اجتماعی، ذهنی، گفتاری و جسمانی مشهود است. بسیاری از حوادث آن نتیجه کشمکش روانی و عاطفی و مکانیسم های دفاعی است. مشاهده مکانیسم های دفاعی از جمله مکانیسم اعتراض ناهشیار طوس، مکانیسم دلیل تراشی، پرخاشگری و انزواطلبی کیخسرو و گیو، مکانیسم جبران طوس و جریره و واکنش معکوس تژاو این داستان را درخور توجه می سازد. بررسی و ریشه یابی این واکنش ها می تواند، با نشان دادن ژرف ساختی عمیق از داستان، امکان برداشت های روانکاوانه را فراهم آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: فردوسی، شاهنامه، داستان فرود، کشمکش، مکانیسم دفاعی
  • محمد اجاقی، محمد خاقانی اصفهانی، محمد رحیمی خویگانی صفحات 17-28
    جناس یکی از مهم ترین انواع بدیع لفظی است که اختلاف معنا و اشتراک لفظ، دو رکن یا دو شرط تحقق نوع تام آن است. ولی تا کنون بنا به دلایل مختلفی به آن اندازه که درباره همسانی لفظی دو واژه متجانس بحث شده، به ناهمسانی شان در معنا وقعی نهاده نشده است تا همچنان مشخص نباشد در میان انواع معنا (حقیقی، مجازی، منقول و...) کدام معنا مراد است و مقصود از اختلاف معنا چیست و به چه میزان باید باشد. در این پژوهش، که با روشی توصیفی تحلیلی نگاشته شده است، تلاش می شود تا با کمک از میراث بلاغی فارسی و عربی، هم خاستگاه جناس تام با توجه به دیدگاه زبان شناسان و لغویان گذشته و پژوهشگران معاصر بررسی و هم مشخص شود که در این گونه ازجناس چه نوع معنایی مقصود است. مهم ترین یافته های این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که می توان اختلاف و تفاوت در همه انواع معنا را برای شکل گیری جناس تام در نظر داشت، البته با ذکر این شرط که ارزش زیباشناختی و ادبی هر یک با معیاری دقیق روشن شده باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: علم بدیع، جناس تام، معناشناسی، مشترک لفظی، اختلاف معنا
  • سید ناصر جابری اردکانی، حسین سلیمی صفحات 29-46
    مولانا، در کاربرد آیات در مثنوی خود، نوآوری های مهمی دارد که تا کنون درباره آن پژوهش برجسته ای انجام نشده است. قرآن خود معجزه بلاغت است و زمینه ای برای آفرینش واژگان و ترکیباتی بدیع و هنری در مثنوی قرار گرفته است. بر این اساس، در این پژوهش، خلاقیت مولانا در کاربرد آیات بررسی شده است. روش مطالعه، تطبیقی-تحلیلی و مبتنی بر بررسی تمامی شواهد، تطبیق آیات و ابیات مثنوی و تبیین تفاوت روش مولانا و در عین حال چگونگی برخورداری او از آبشخور قرآن است. این تطبیق نشان می دهد که مولانا در کاربرد آیات از «استعاره مکنیه» بیش از دیگر آرایه ها بهره برده است. علت این فراوانی، باور او به آگاهی هستی و بی سببی افعال خداوند و نیز رویکرد خاص او به معجزات است. همین نگرش در پدید آمدن پارادکس های مثنوی که بخشی از هنر بی مانند این کتاب است تاثیر داشته است. افزون بر این، مولانا در ترکیب واژگان قرآنی با کلمات فارسی نیز نوآورانه عمل کرده و ترکیبات استعاری و تشبیهی بدیع و ساختارشکنانه ای پدید آورده است. ترکیب «استعاره تاویلی» و «تشبیه تاویلی» از این قبیل است. در ترکیبات ساختارشکن، الگوهای رایج نحو زبان فارسی شکسته شده است و بسیاری از جملات و ترکیبات قرآنی در نقش اسم مفرد به کار رفته اند. بسیاری از ترکیب های نو و بدیع مثنوی نیز بر اساس «بینش تاویل گرا» شکل گرفته است و از این نظر می توان پیوندی معنادار میان بلاغت و تاویل جست وجو کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: قرآن، مثنوی، بلاغت، استعاره، تشبیه، پارادکس
  • فاطمه کاکاوند قلعه نویی، عفت نجار نوبری صفحات 47-56
    تحلیل با رویکرد «بینامتنی» ارتباط یک متن با سایر متون پیشین یا معاصر آن متن را بررسی می کند. بینامتنیت از ابداعات «ژولیا کریستوا» بود که بعدها با تحقیقات «ژرار ژنت» بسط و گسترش یافت و زیرشاخه های متعددی پیدا کرد. در این مقاله سعی شده است با استفاده از نظریه بینامتنیت، یک نمونه از اشعاری که پروین در سرودن آن به اشعار شاعران پیشین همچون مولوی نظر داشته است، بررسی و با تبیین نکات تعلیمی آن بر اساس نظریه بینامتنیت، اشتراکات و افتراقات این سروده ها بیان شود. هدف این مقاله آشکار ساختن رویکرد بینامتنی برای برجسته کردن آموزه های تعلیمی در دیوان پروین اعتصامی است که شکلی نوین و جذاب به آموزه های کهن بخشیده است. با توجه به نوین بودن نظریه بینامتنیت در ایران تاکنون تحقیقی بر اساس روابط بینامتنی در مورد آموزه های تعلیمی دیوان پروین اعتصامی صورت نگرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: بینامتنیت، آموزه های تعلیمی، پروین اعتصامی، مولوی
  • صدیقه (پوران) علیپور صفحات 57-64
    نشانه شناسی دانشی است در زمینه مطالعه نشانه ها و چگونگی کاربرد آنها در متن که با عنوان دکترین نشانه ها از آن یاد می شود. زبان شناسان، در طول تاریخ مطالعات نشانه شناختی، پدیده نشانه را از دیدگاه های گوناگون مطالعه کرده اند. یکی از این دیدگاه ها که در جست وجوی شیوه ای برای تبیین کارکرد رابطه ای نشانه و تجلی معنایی آن در بافت متن است، نشانه شناسی بر پایه تقابل های دوتایی است که به منتقد فرصت می دهد تا چگونگی تولید معنای متن را با این رابطه در نظام های نشانه ای بررسی کند. این شیوه کانون توجه گاستون باشلار بوده است. وی بر نظریه پردازان ساختارگرایی مانند سوسور، کالر، گرماس و غیره تاثیر عمیقی گذاشت. بر اساس این روش، می توان به نوعی طبقه بندی دلالت های متنی دست پیدا کرد که رابطه تقابلی آنها صور و تخیلات حاکم بر ساختار نشانه ای متن را مکشوف می کند. البته برای تحلیل معنای این ساختارهای نشانه ای، باید از ثابت ها و متغیرهای معنایی استفاده کرد. یکی از داستان های کهن فارسی، که در شاهنامه فردوسی به خوبی می درخشد، داستان بیژن و منیژه است که قابلیت های زیادی برای تحلیل دارد. در این مقاله سعی می شود تا با توجه به زبان نشانه ای به کارگرفته شده در متن و روابط تقابلی موجود در نظام اجزای آن، این داستان تحلیل شود؛ لذا ابتدا کل داستان بر طبق یک ساختار کلان نشانه ای، به دو قطب تجزیه می شود، سپس ضمن تقسیم داستان به چند فصل (سکانس)، قطب های فرعی استخراج و بر اساس ثابت ها و متغیرهای نشانه ای موجود در آنها، روابط تقابل های دوتایی از منظر «تناقض، دیالکتیک و پیوندی» تعیین و دلالت های معنایی حاصل از آن تاویل می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ثابت ها و متغیرها، داستان بیژن و منیژه، دلالت های معنایی، رابطه های تقابلی، نشانه شناسی
  • یوسف کرمی چمه *، سید مرتضی هاشمی باباحیدری، غلامحسین شریفی ولدانی صفحات 65-78
    یکی از ارکان مهم شعر که از دیرباز توجه شعرشناسان را جلب کرده قافیه است؛ به گونه ای که در برخی کتاب های عروض و قافیه، شعر با وجود قافیه از سایر قالب های کلامی متمایز می شود. قافیه قابلیت های زیباشناسانه بسیاری دارد و به شاعران در بیان مفهوم و معنی و ایجاد موسیقی کلام کمک فراوانی می کند. در پژوهش حاضر، با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، کارکرد قافیه در مهم ترین دفتر شعر سیدحسن حسینی، حسین اسرافیلی و محمدرضا عبدالملکیان بررسی و تحلیل شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که شاعران با تمهیدات مختلف از قابلیت های قافیه بهره برده اند. پژوهش در سه دفتر مشهور و آغازین شعر دفاع مقدس «هم صدا با حلق اسماعیل»، «ریشه در ابر» و «تولد در میدان»، نشان دهنده آشنایی کم و بیش شاعران با ویژگی ها و انواع امکانات قافیه آرایی برای ایجاد موسیقی، القای معانی، هماهنگی در شعر و مقاصد دیگر است.
    کلیدواژگان: قافیه، موسیقی شعر، کارکردهای هنری قافیه، همصدا با حلق اسماعیل، ریشه در ابر و تولد در میدان
  • سید امیر جهادی *، حمیدرضا خوارزمی صفحات 79-90
    کتابت و دبیری در شمار مشاغل شریف و ارزشمند دیوانی است و از دیرباز نقشی مهم و محوری در دواوین سلطنت و خلافت و به موازات آن به گونه ای غیر رسمی در اجتماع ایفا کرده است. کاتبان و منشیان برای این فن شریف، قواعد و الزاماتی پایه نهاده، آثاری را در این خصوص تالیف و تصنیف نمودند که از یک سو راهگشای کاتبان مبتدی باشد و از دیگر سو راهنمای قاطبه جامعه در جهت تسهیل و رواساختن امورشان. از ادوار مهم از نظر کمیت آثار، در زمینه انشا و کتابت، دوره صفوی است که بسیاری از نسخ باقی مانده از این دوران به کسوت تصحیح و طبع آراسته نشده اند. از همین زمره می توان کتاب نورس چمن را نام برد که در عهد شاه عباس دوم صفوی تصنیف شده است. نویسنده اثر در پنج باب، افزون بر بیان بنیادهای نظری انشا، به نقل نمونه های عملی اهتمام کرده و کوشیده است در ساختاری منظم و دقیق، گونه های متنوع مکاتیب را برای مخاطبان تبیین کند. از زاویه ساختاری و متن شناختی، این اثر ادامه دهنده سنت کتابت عصر تیموری است، جز آنکه برخی گونه ها در این متن تا حدی جدید به نظر می رسند. سبک نورس چمن از نوع فنی مایل به مصنوع است و نویسنده در بیشتر مواضع به هنرنمایی های لفظی توجه بسیار نشان داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نورس چمن، عصر صفوی، ترسل و انشا، نسخه خطی
  • محبوبه همتیان* صفحات 91-102
    بلاغیون و منتقدان ادبی پیش از عبدالقاهرجرجانی درباره اصطلاح «بلاغت» کلیاتی را بیان کرده اند، اما در هیچ یک از آثارشان به طور روشن و دقیق درباره حد و مرز بلاغت کلام یا متکلم بلیغ سخن نگفته اند. تنها در کتاب های بلاغی پس از جرجانی کوشش شده است معیارهایی برای کلام بلیغ مشخص شود. در این تالیفات که بیشتر رویکردی سلبی به شرایط فصیح و بلیغ بودن کلمه و کلام دارند، کلمه و کلامی فصیح دانسته شده است که از عیوب خاصی مبرا باشد؛ اما درباره متکلم بلیغ بجز یک سخن مبهم و کلی مطلبی نیامده است. در این پژوهش سعی شده است براساس دیدگاه های صاحب نظران بلاغت، از آغاز تا امروز، آنچه به طور پراکنده و غیرمنسجم درباره متکلم بلیغ آمده است بررسی و نقد شود و سرانجام دیدگاه منسجمی به دست آید و ضمن بیان شرایطی برای بلیغ بودن متکلم، تعریفی برای آن ارائه شود. برمبنای دیدگاه های نقل شده در این پژوهش و با تامل در تعاریف بلاغت، متکلمی بلیغ است که ضمن توانابودن بر ساخت کلامی فصیح، ویژگی های کلام، ویژگی های اقسام مخاطب و شرایط بافت موقعیتی را بداند و بشناسد و کلام خویش را مطابق با اقتضای حال آنها تنظیم کند.
    کلیدواژگان: بلاغت، متکلم، کلام، مخاطب، بافت موقعیتی، اقتضای حال
|
  • Fakhri Zarei, Seyed Kazem Muosavi, Gholam Hossein Madadi Pages 1-16
    Defensive actions and reactions versus psychological pressures have been always a common theme in psychology and literature. In the meanwhile, story/fiction functions a good role for a better understanding of these actions and reactions. In Shahname, because of the numerous characters and a variety of incidents, host of tensions, behaviors, and defensive reactions could be identified. A study of these reactions can reveal underlying structures of the story, and hence, help to achieve a psychoanalytic understanding.
    Social tension and the unconscious protest of Toos
    Every story proceeds based on the principles of the society in which it takes place. These principles, sometimes, works as an obstacle for individuals, hence, they revolt against them; that is what has been called as social tension. This tension has not been observed in Mir Sadeghi's classification. In ancient Iran, obeying commands of the king was an ethical value which had taken a legal form in that society. Toos, in disobedience from Keykhosrow's command, chooses the path of Clat. This act is one of the social tensions which has been put under the category of unconscious protest.
    Mental tension and the mechanism of rationalization in Geeve
    Bahram is resolute to find the lash. But Geeve is scared that he might get killed, hence, promises him some glorious lashes. Their conversation with one another and Bahram's act to bring the lash show two contrary thoughts. Geeve wants to show that Bahram's absence in the battle field is an ordinary thing, therefore, unconsciously resorts to a rationalization mechanism.
    Emotional tension a mechanism of rationalization and projection
    In the section related to the defeat of Toos, readers can, through an analysis of Geeve's speeches, identify his internal and emotional tension. Although he is angry with Foroud and his act, has some affections for Keykhosrow's brother. Hence, cools himself down by rationalization. The other way is to blame other people for the event, which is called as projection. Although he knows that Toos's act was not proper, blames Foroud's acts for the war and by this projection makes his war against Foroud a legitimate one.
    Piran and the defense mechanism of displacement
    The suggestion of Piran to Bahram to come to Tooran, too, shows his internal tension. Piran feels guilty of Siavash's death and Bahram is associative of Siavash for him. With this displacement of internal emotions, he directs himself and alleviates his internal chaos.
    Afrasiab and the defense mechanism of displacement
    Keykhosrow's failures in childhood had two consequences: aggression and seclusion. Aggression is represented in his command to attack Tooran and his seclusion is shown at the end of his reign and his resort to mountains.
    Contrast and doubt in Foroud
    A contrast of two purposes is seen in Foroud: on the on hand, the fact of Iran's army arrival could be a good chance to take revenge for his father's blood by the help of this army and on the other hand, he commands to close the door of the castle and gathering of things. This contrast in behaviors originates from his internal contrast. His doubt, also, can be seen in how Foroud faces Toos. Internal tensions take place when the character is put in a doubt stance. This can be an internal entanglement which the detangling can only be after the tension has taken place.
    Toos and the mechanism of compensation
    After hearing of Bahram's speeches about chivalries of Foroud, Toos feels a tension within, and an inferiority one, which is the basis of his all abnormal behaviors. He attacks Foroud's castle based on his inferiority complex, which is in effect a compensation mechanism.
    Tjhaw and the defense mechanism of reaction making
    Tjhaw feels an internal tension after he hears Spinooy. His sorrow at the time of Spinooy's release shows his emotional tension as well as his love for him. In this section, he builds a ''reaction making'' defense mechanism and has a behavior, which is contrary to his real feeling.
    Jarire and mechanism of displacement and compensation
    Many behaviors are the result of failures and oppressed desires. Since he cannot resist Iranian army, Jarireh burns the castle and his treasures. This act originates from his internal tension. His suicide not only makes any significant detriment to the allure of the story but also could be figured as a compensation defense reaction.
    Foroud and the mechanism of reverse reaction
    Ladies of the harem threw themselves down from the castle because of Foroud's commands. He builds this reaction, which is known as ''reverse reaction'' defense mechanism, because of his intense love for his ladies as well as his inability to protect them.
    Speech tension
    Controversies and speeches of the characters in which there is tension and culminates in a climax is called speech act. This tension sometimes causes physical tension, such as speech tension of Fariborz and Bijan. Sometimes it does not lead to physical tension, like that of Toos and Bahram.
    Physical Tension
    Because Shahname is an epic, most of its tensions are physical ones.
  • Mohammad Ojaqi, Mohammad Khaqani Isfahani, Mohammad Rahimi Khoigani Pages 17-28
    The pun is one of the most important types of rhetorical figures. Two pillars or two conditions for the realization of an absolute pun include both the same spelling and sound and different meanings. Although the verbal similarity of two homonymic words has been discussed so far, the semantic dissonance of the two words has not yet been taken into account for various reasons. Therefore, it is not yet lucid which of the different meanings of a word is of interest and what the meaning difference is. In the current study, the descriptive-analytical method was used to both investigate the origin of absolute pun according to the views of past linguists and lecturers and contemporary scholars and determine what kind of meaning is intended in this type of pun in line with the rhetorical heritage of Persian and Arabic. An absolute pun is made by two words which are the same in type, grammatical number, ordering, and morphology of phonemes and includes several modes: both words are simple and morphologically similar (Momathel i.e., similar) or not similar (Mostawfi i.e., absolute), one or both words are compound words (Marfovv: darned by, Molaffaq: combined). The meaning difference is controversial only in the first two types and is clear in two other types, which are not the subject of this study. The processes of homonym and polysemy lead to verbal similarities and semantic differences amongst words. Ancient and contemporary linguists believe there are a variety of causes for polysemy, but past linguists unlike nowadays’ logicians, fundamentalists, and semanticists do not distinguish such causes and consider all polysemies as homonyms. The attitude of past linguists has been found in absolute puns, so the type of meaning difference has been remained ambiguous. The origin and scope of absolute puns can be revealed through investigating the ideas of rhetoric scholars, evidence in oratory books, and aesthetic evaluation of types of meaning. Rhetoric scholars’ ideas and evidence in oratory books demonstrate there are two ideas on the origin and scope of absolute puns: polysemies and homonyms, regardless of the effect of types of meaning on the exquisiteness of absolute puns. The assessment of the effect of types of meaning on the exquisiteness of absolute pun according to the intensity of meaning differences introduce the following ordering: verbal transformation, reinstating, deletion, forwarding meaning, metaphor, changing usage, primary and secondary meaning, and sub-layers of meaning. The results of the present study depicted that the absolute pun in the past was influenced by the perspective of linguists, so nowadays it can be influenced too. In other words, its origin and scope can comprise polysemies and homonyms. Considering this issue, the assessment of absolute pun examples is necessary. Therefore, the intensity of meaning differences can be chosen as a good standard for categorizations. Eventually, the pun can be a two-dimensional (i.e. literal- semantic) figure of speech.
    Keywords: Science of rhetoric, Absolute Pun, Semantics, Homonym, Polysemy
  • Seyed Naser Jaberi Ardakani Jaberi Ardakani, Hosain Salimi Pages 29-46
    While many studies have been done on the influence of Quran on Mathnavi, almost no research has been done on the creative usage of Quran verses in Mathnavi. Quran itself is a miracle of rhetoric, and an opportunity for creating exquisite and artistic terms and expressions has predisposed in Mathnavi. Based on this, Rumi’s creativity in using Quran verses is investigated in this research. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to specify the forms of creative usage of Quran verses in Mathnavi. The questions of this study are: What types of literary devices has Rumi used? What are the reasons behind his rhetorical innovations? What impact does this rhetorical style have on the understanding of Quran verses in Persian language? Which literary device has a higher frequency? And what is the influence of Quran on the selection of devices? The hypothesis of the research is that Rumi has been innovative and creative in using verses, and he has not limited it to quotation and mere mentioning. Therefore, all the lines that were influenced by Quran are investigated. Besides, the valuable handbook, Quran and Mathnavi is used in this research. The methodology of the study is comparative-analytical; based on deriving innovative samples, a brief reference to the original verses, comparing lines with verses, and explaining the difference between Rumi’s usage and the opportunities in the context of verses for creative inventions. This comparison indicates that Rumi has used implicit metaphor more than other literary devices. The reason behind that is his belief in the awareness of existence and the uncaused acts of God in addition to his particular approach to miracles. This same attitude has its effects on the emerging of the paradoxes in Mathnavi which is a part of the unparalleled artistic aspect of this book. Moreover, Rumi has been innovative in combining Quranic terms with Persian words and has created exquisite and deconstructive metaphorical expressions and similes. “Interpretive metaphor” and “interpretive simile” are instances of such expressions. The common patterns of Persian syntax are broken in deconstructive expressions and many of the Quranic sentences and expressions are used as singular noun. Many of the new and exquisite expressions of Mathnavi are articulated based on the “interpretive insight,” and from this point of view a meaningful link between rhetoric and interpretation can be searched.
    Keywords: Quran, Mathnavi, rhetorical
  • Fatemeh Kakavand Qalenowyi, Effat Najjar Nowbari Pages 47-56
    The term "intertextuality" refers to the analysis of a text with other previous or contemporary literature. The term was first coined by Julia Kristova, and later expanded into various sub-disciplines by Gérard Genette. This paper is an attempt to intertextually analyze a poem by Parvin Etesami who composed it with reference to some antecedent poets like Mowlavi; highlight its ethical teachings, and clarify their similarities and differences. Doing this, the article sheds a modern light on the ancient teachings. No such an attempt has thus far been conducted on intertextual analysis in Iran; yet there are such works as that of Bahman Namvar Motlaq and Farhad Sasani. Next to the presentation of theoretical hints on intertextual analysis, the article catches a glimpse into the life and work-style of Parvin Etesami; then the poem "drunk and sober" is given previous to the poem "drunk and inspector" by Rumi. The major lines of discussion are as follows:1. Protesting mistreatment by law enforcement
    2. Referring to the social hell
    3. Expressing ignorance by the law enforcement of the chaotic social conditions of his time
    4. Expressing corruption by the high levels of society
    5. The use of religion in favor of the ruling class
    6. Bribe taking from the poor community
    7. Expressing poverty in subordinate social classes
    8. Emphasizing on rationality and dynamic ideas
    9. The dilapidated and disorganized society
    10. The lack of meritocracy rulers
    From this it can be concluded that: intertextuality in modern literature is a way to discover the creativity and talent of writer and poet, which in literary criticism of the past was judged as the weakness of the writer and poet, in the view of intertextual reveals high capacities and literary abilities of the writer, and not only does not detract from the value of his work, but also explores creative ways to take advantage of a text from other texts. Checking intertextual relations in Parvin's poetry reflects the fact that intertextual criticism can be utilized to explain the ethical teachings. Comparison of Parvin and Rumi in the realm of intertextual criticism illuminates the fact that Rumi teaches Gnosticism, and Parvin explains the social and political teachings through her social and critical views.
    Keywords: intertextuality, ethical teachings, Parvin, Rumi
  • Sedighe (Pooran) Alipoor Pages 57-64
    Semiotic is taken of the word "semion" and it is a fieldof knowledge that studies signs and their applications on the text. We can name it "semiondoctorian". In the studies on the semiology, linguists present the different theories about "semion". One of the theories is semiology on the basis of a couple of contrasts that search method to analyze. This method is a good opportunity to study the state of the meaning production on the way a relation on the semion system.
    Gaston Bachelard (June 27, 1884 - October 16, 1962), French epistemologist and theorist of the imagination, who influenced key figures in the structuralism and literary criticism asserts that the truth can be discovered through discourse, representation, and delineation of words. From his point of view, substances and classical elements as constituents of material imagination are deeply dualistic. The dualism of images is stronger than a conflict of thoughts since to capture the whole spirit, the material element must arouse dualistic emotions in a human while creating somewhat of fixity and homogeneity in mind. According to Bachelard, this deals with relationships and requires somewhat of a division. Bachelard’s approach which often acts as a dualistic relationship is of the paramount importance in the context of imagination. These relationships such as life/death, light/darkness, Anima/Animus, water/ earth, wind/ fire, attempt/ comfort, etc. as pure signs are imaginable.
    Based on this approach, three factors play a significant role in the semiotic analysis of textual significations: 1. Determination of semiotic-contrary components, 2. Determination of fixed and variable semantic deep structures, 3. Analysis of the signification-based relationship of these structures on collective memory network which results in a different reading of literary works particularly dramatic texts including Shahnameh. Here, two questions are posed to complete our theoretical
    Discussions
    1. what does the collective memory of signs mean?
    Primarily signs make sense due to the reference they give to other elements in a string or system. Collective memory is a concept relevant to a collection of data to deliver or receive messages.
    2. On what basis are signification-based relationships defined?
    Generally, this narrative utilizes three dualistic relationships (contrary, dialectical, synthetic) and significant relationships exist between human and non-human, culture and non-culture, human and nature, and nature and industry. Accordingly, structural components of text, contrast relationships and collective memory in analyzing signs are of the utmost importance. The findings resulted from the criticism of the selected narrative are as follows:The prevailing significant relationship in this story is of contrary and the rest of relationships act in a dialectical way to create a linear network of text.
    Time and place, as the main basis for the emergence of signs, are effective in subjective and objective contexts.
    Audiovisual signs, pictorial signs, and object, each with its related position in the story space, encompass a wide range of cultural significations such as identity, power, wealth, hegemony and intelligence in contrast with lack of identity, powerlessness, unintelligence and so on. Major fixed core signs: Iran (with a sign of high power, politics, and culture) / Touran (with a sign of powerlessness, chaos, and lack of high culture).
    The major variable core signs are victory/ defeat and separation/alliance and the minor variables are mobility/immobility, motivation/mediation, forgiveness/ vengeance, lie/ disclosure of lie, reward/punishment, etc.
    Last, it’s worth noting that regarding the regular network of collective memory, the main contrary relationship in this story is the opposition between culture and non- culture.
    Keywords: Keywords: semiotics, constants, variables, relationship conflict, Semantic implications, Bijan, Manijeh story
  • Yousef Karami Cheme *, Seyed Morteza Hashemi Babaheidari, Gholamhosein Sharifi Valadani Pages 65-78
    Rhymes are the same letters or letters that appear at the end of the verses and sentences of the poem. Rhyming science is also a science that examines its rules and its characteristics. Rhymes that have long been the subject of poetry, many aesthetic abilities have a lot to help the poets in expressing the meaning and meaning of the music of the word. The most important roles of rhymes in the structure of poetry are:"The musical effect, the distinction that rhymes give to the specific words of each poem, the pleasure that rhyme provides from the fulfillment of expectations, spiritual beauty or diversity at the same unity, the regulation of thought and feeling, the strength of poetry, memory assistance and the speed of transmission Creating unity of form in poetry, separating and identifying petitions, helping to conjugate meanings, paying attention to the intrinsic beauty of words, fitting and mirroring, creating specific forms and preserving unity, developing images and meanings, and inducing the concept through the way of the words of words" (Shafi’ee Kadkani, 1384: 62).
    The Holy defense poetry is the product of the Iraq war against Iran and the resistance of the Iranian people. The holy defense poet would prefer the content to the meaning and meaning of the message and the message to speech and speech. Consequently, the linguistic and form elements of the poem are less relevant. Of course, this general decree does not apply to all poets and all elements of the language and form of poetry. One of the elements that is more or less considered in sacred defense poetry is the rhyme.
    There is no research on the rhyme in the Holy defense poetry, and especially its artistic functions. In this article, the rhyme function was investigated in three offices of Voice with hanging Ismaiel, the work of Hosseini, S.H. (published in 1363), Rooted in the cloud, the work of Abdolmalekian, M. R. (published in 1366) and Birth of the agreement, the work of Israfili, H. (published in 1364). The following results were obtained:- Poets have used rhyming capacities with a five-fold arrangement (the role of rhymes in poetry, the role of rhymes in poetry coherence, the role of rhymes in inducing meanings, rhyming in rhymes, and rhyme or artistic rhymes).
    - In Holy poetry, rhyming is often an elemental piece of music. Considering the continuality of this kind of poetry, rhyming plays an important role in inducing meaning in the structure of poetry.
    - Poets tend to have two, three, four, and five common rhymes, respectively. In the meantime, two-letter rhymes are more frequent due to the ease of finding the right rhyming word.
    - Mystery Rhyme has a high frequency in classical poetry.
    - Artistic rhymes are considered in poetry poetry, especially Seyed Hasan Hosseini.
    This indicates his familiarity with rhyme capacities. Expresses his study of classical literature and the background of these types of rhymes in the poetry of poets such as Saadi, Khaqani, Hafez and so on.
    - Among the poems discussed, attention is paid to the rhyme's features and capacities in traditional formats.
    - Among the books in question, along Voice with hanging Ismaiel, the rhyme element has been used more than the rest of the abilities of the element.
    This indicates that Hosseini has a large vocabulary. Hossein Israfili is in this category and Abdolmalekian is the third person in the list of three.
    Keywords: Rhyme, Poetry music, Rhyme artistic functions, Voice with hanging Ismaiel, Rooted in the cloud, Birth of the agreement
  • Seyed Amir Jahadi Hoseyni *, Hamidreza Kharazmi Pages 79-90
    The letters and collections of the remaining letters of various historical periods are considered to be important Persian prose types and are considered important and worthy in different aspects. These letters are the influences of writers and literary writers who have enjoyed a great reputation throughout the history of Persian literature.
    The most important periods in Persian history and literature are the Safavid era, where poetry and literacy spread among the middle classes of society. In this age, many poets and writers are the main characteristics of literature. Among the areas of writing in this era is the field of writing and science of writing. Secretary Mode is at this time a general public, and this is evident from the works written in this era.
    The Nowras-e Chaman is a member of the editorial group that contains the author's letters and is written in secretive and dispassionate manner.
    The writer of the work is an almost unknown Scribe known as "Muhammad the Messiah Ezari" and is required to work in the reign of Shah Abbas II Safavid. In the case of his life and works, as well as the events of his life, there was nothing in the historical and literary books, except what was mentioned in the exordium of the Nowras-e Chaman. Ezari then came to a minister named Avaz Beig. This is the same minister who chooses Mohammad Masih Ezari for a secretary's job.
    The purpose of exasperation is to publish the work of the author. By searching for manuscript directories and virtual resources, we find that there are two linear versions of the effect. The complete version of the book is in the library of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Another version is available at the Central Library of the University of Isfahan. The important point is that the name of the author comes from the copy of Isfahan, and in the version of the parliament, the name of the author of the work is not visible.
    Nowras-e Chaman has been classified in five phases and has been structured precisely and systematically.
    First chapter: What the secretaries should know about the customs of this science. This chapter focuses on the rhetorical rhetoric, beliefs and observance of it, namely, equality in theology, and in particular in the writing of letters.
    Second chapter: Understanding the types of letters to kings and ministers and scholars. This chapter is set in ten chapters, each of which consists of partial sections called "type".
    Third chapter: the nature of time and substance and the types of correspondence and contacts. This book contains a general manual and practical examples for all people who help them to write short texts on different subjects and with different audiences.
    Chapter Four: In the Time and Time Complaint and Condolences. Congratulations and examples of similar and relatively long and diverse oversights in various topics addressed to specific businesses are mentioned.
    Chapter Five: Commandments, Contradictions and Contracts and Decisions. Mohammad Masih Ezari is concerned about the precise division of the structures of Tarassol. Most of the books are official and governmental.
    The style of the prose is technically desirable and desirable to be artifact, and is somehow the same as the common style among the court scribes, and in particular the Teymurid prose. Arabic writing has a great influence on the book's prose. The author also has a successful approach to composing. Innovative industries such as paronomasia, rhyme and Braat Estehlal have had a great impact on prose. Verbiage is also one of the main features of the book's prose, and its uses are synonyms. New similes and similar addictions also have a high frequency.
    Keywords: Nowras, e Chaman, Safavid era, Correspondence, Composition, Manuscript
  • Mahboobeh Hemmatian * Pages 91-102
    Before Abdolghaher Jorjani, “rhetoric” term has been expressed in rhetorical books and literary criticism but the limits of eloquence or eloquent speaker have not been explained. In the works after Jorjani, they have considered a word or words eloquent that they have no particular imperfections; but they have not explained about the eloquent speaker except a vague and general statement. In this research, the presented subjects  from the point of view of the rhetorical scholars, from the beginning until now, that were incommensurably given about the eloquent speaker was studied, criticized and compared; finally in addition to state the conditions for speaker to be eloquent, a definition has been presented for it. By considering the views of early thinkers and the scholars before Jorjani, it shows that based on the given definitions for rhetoric, the speaker should have the following characteristics to be considered eloquent: - To be brave and to have peace of mind
    - To speak according to the condition requirement of the speaker
    - To consider the condition requirement of the audience
    - To select the right words
    - To avoid abstruseness and indulge in speech
    Based on what is said about the criteria of rhetoric and eloquence in rhetorical books after Jarjani by Meftah al-olum Sakaki and his commentators and followers to contemporaries is an eloquent word or  speech that is free from certain imperfections and the eloquent speaker must be able to create a speech by using such words that are free from imperfections. Considering the abovementioned criteria in the views of the first rhetorical thinkers and jorjani and according to the messengers’ criteria after Jorjani for rhetoric and eloquence it seems that the speaker who both has a personality-specific character and has a complete knowledge about speech, audience, and context and uses the following features in his own words is eloquent:- The bravery of the speaker and having peace of mind
    - Understanding the word or speech style
    - Recognizing the audience (recognition of the circumstances and characteristics of the types of audience)
    - Recognition of the situational context or current context (recognition of the characteristics of time, place, environment _ social, political, cultural)
    Therefore, based on the views of the scholars about the concept of rhetoric and considering the definitions of rhetoric, the speaker who knows the conditions of creating word is eloquent and he must create an eloquent speech that is correspondence to all requirements affecting the process of making speech; that is he must be aware of the features of speech, the characteristics of the types of audience and the conditions of the situational context and set his own word in accordance with their current requirements.
    Keywords: Rhetoric, Speaker, Speech, Audience, Situational Context, Condition requirement