فهرست مطالب

Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering - Volume:36 Issue: 4, 2018
  • Volume:36 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/10/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • Alireza Tajiki, Majid Abdouss Pages 1-9
    Graphene Oxide (GO) nano sheets was synthesized from graphite by Hummers method. The nature and morphology of the GO were characterized using FT-IR, UV-Vis, SEM and XRD analysis. Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove copper (ii) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt [Cu(tsPc)-4.4Na] from its aqueous solutions using GO as an adsorbent. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time, initial dye concentration, ionic strength, and temperature on the adsorption performance. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models have been applied and the Freundlich model was found to be fit with the equilibrium isotherm data. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The adsorption kinetics matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The experiments showed that GO is very good adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for [Cu(tsPc)-4.4Na] dye and the main reason for this good affinity of dye onto GO can be π-π stacking interactions between the polycyclic aromatic structure of (CuTSPc) and unsaturated bonds on the surface of graphene oxide.
    Keywords: Waste water treatment, Graphene oxide, Copper Phthalocyanine, Adsorption
  • Liu Bingguo, Peng Jinhui, Zhang Iibo, C. Srinivasa Kannan, Hu Jin Ming, Guo Shenghui Pages 11-19
    The parameters to prepare U3O8 by calcination from ammonium uranyl carbonate were optimized by using response surface methodology. A quadratic equation model for the value of total uranium and U4 of triuranium octaoxide was built and the effects of main factors and their corresponding relationships were obtained. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that the value of total uranium and U4 of triuranium octaoxide was significantly affected by the calcination temperature and calcination time in this study range. The optimized calcination conditions were determined as follows: the calcination temperature961.6 K, the calcination time 27.9 min, and the mass of material 37.86 g, respectively. Under these conditions, the value of total uranium and U4 of triuranium octaoxide was 84.29% and 28.14%. The validity of the model was confirmed experimentally and the results were satisfactory.
    Keywords: Ammonium uranyl carbonate, Response Surface Methodology, Calcination, U3O8, Total uranium
  • Maryam Esfandyari, Majid Heravi, Hossein Oskooie, Lida Fotouhi, Mahmood Tajbakhsh, Fatemeh Bamoharram Pages 21-29
    Omeprazole, (6-methoxy-2-((4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methylsulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole is a well-established prescribed drug, exhibits proton pump inhibitor activity. In this work, a novel, facile, economical and selective oxidation approach using H3PW12O40 as Keggin type heteropolyacids along with H2O2 in the last step of the conventional synthesis of this compound as well as its derivatives under environmental-benign conditions, is reported. This protocol can bewell adopted for pilot plant scale giving a high pure pharmacopeia grade material. Our synthetic route involves the use of various heteropolyacids as heterogeneous catalysts. Due to the obtained results, it was concluded that Keggin type heteropolyacid , is an effective catalyst for this purpose. The optimized condition for the last step of this synthesis was applied to the synthesis of lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole.
    Keywords: Heteropolyacids, HPAs, Omeprazole, Sulfoxide, Oxidation, Hydrogen peroxide, Catalysis
  • Malek Taher Maghsoodlou, Reza Heydari, Farzaneh Mohamadpour, Mojtaba Lashkari Pages 31-38
    In this work, a simple and economical procedure for the synthesis of spiro-4H-pyranderivatives has been found through the three-component, one-pot condensation of isatin/acenaphthequinone, malononitrile and different reagents including 1, 3-dicrbonyl compounds, naphthol and 4-hydroxycumarin under thermal and solvent-free conditions in the presence ofFe2O3 as an efficient catalyst. The major advantages of this methodology are mild reaction conditions, eco-friendly, environmentally benign, non-toxic and inexpensive catalyst, experimentally simplicity, good yields and short reaction times.
    Keywords: Fe2O3 (ferric oxide), Spiro-4H-pyran derivatives, Solvent-free condition, One-pot reaction
  • Ali Nemati Kharat, Bahareh Tamaddoni Jahromi, Ehsan Mohammadifar, Jaleh Zareyi Pages 39-43
    Platinum-based anticancer drugs are chemotherapeutic agents to treat cancer. Carboplatin (cis diammine cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum (II)) is a second generation drug that has less toxic than cisplatin, allowing for high dosages. In the first stage, 1,3-Cyclobutane dicarboxylic acid, a key intermediate for the preparation of carboplatin, have been synthesized in good yields using different methodology to achieve high purity then carboplatin was synthesized from the reaction of the prepared ligand with cisplatin. Purity of prepared carboplatin was confirmed by High-Performance Liquid Chro­matography (HPLC). Platinum(II) complex carboplatin,have been characterized with 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and infrared spectroscopy.
    Keywords: 1, 3- cyclobutane dicarboxylic acid, Platinum complexes, Carboplatin, Anticancer
  • Hussein M. Al-Maydama, Mohamed S. Al Kahali, Adlia A. Abduljabbar, Abdulbasset M. Aaad Pages 45-57
    The photocatalytic degradation of the commercial reactive Black5 (RB5), Blue19 (RB19), Green19 (RG19), Red120 (RR120), and Yellow81 (RY81) in aqueous solution and sunlight were examined in the presence of Fe2O3 and the mixture Fe2O3/H2O2 as catalysts. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation followed first-order kinetics with faster degradation in case of the mixture Fe2O3/H2O2 than that in Fe2O3 catalyst. The photocatalytic degradation percentages with the exposure time intervals obtained for each dye were extrapolated to determine the time at the complete degradation (100% degradation). The thermal decomposition behavior of these dyes was investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TG, DTG, and DTA), at 10 °C/min heating rate and under nitrogen. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used for the five reactive dyes in order to evaluate the kinetic parameters for each step in the sequential decomposition TGA curves. The initial molecular structure destruction of these five reactive dyes occurred at their second steps. The kinetic parameters of this structural destruction step at multiple heating rates (10, 15, 20 and 30 °C/min) were only worked out for three selected dyes (RB5, RB19, and RR120) using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and compared with that of Kissinger's equation. Based on the data obtained by the Coats-Redfern method, the thermodynamic parameters (∆G*, ∆H* and ∆S*) for these second steps were determined. Finally, the kinetic data extracted from the TGA curves were also used as appropriate to predicate the lifetime of the five dyes at 25, 50, 100 and 200 °C.
    Keywords: Reactive dyes, Photocatalytic, Sunlight, TGA, Single heating rate, Multiple heating rates, Thermal stability, Degradation kinetics, Lifetime prediction
  • Reza Jahanmardi, Behnam Eslami, Hamed Tamaddon Pages 59-67
    The present work was aimed to examine the effects of incorporation of each of two different types of nanoclay, i.e. Cloisite Na and Cloisite 30B, into PVA foam on cellular morphology and water absorption capacity. Foam samples containing 0.0-10.0 wt% of each of the two types of nanoclay alone were prepared using mechanical foaming. Accordingly, PVA/organoclay/water suspensions were prepared first. Then other agents, i.e. catalyst, surfactant and crosslinking agent were added, respectively, to each of the prepared suspensions rendering primary froths, which were converted to final foam samples at room temperature during a period of 24 h. State of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix and cellular morphology of the prepared foam samples were examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), respectively. Also, dry foam density and water absorption of the foam samples were measured gravimetrically. XRD patterns revealed the existence of intercalated and exfoliated structures in the PVA/Cloisite 30B and the PVA/Cloisite Na foam samples, respectively. FESEM images demonstrated open-cell morphology for all the samples but the extent of cell wall rupture was more significant in the case of PVA/nanoclay foam samples. In addition, water absorption capacity of the PVA foam was shown to be decreased by the incorporation of either of the two types of nanoclay, which was explained in terms of the lower total pore volume in the PVA/nanoclay foam samples than in the neat PVA foam sample. Finally, the obtained results were explained in terms of the effects of the nanoparticles on the elevation of the rate of the drainage in the crosslinking PVA solution before the stabilization of the cellular structure.
    Keywords: Nanocomposite, Foam, Cellular morphology, Poly(vinyl alcohol
  • Ghasem Bakhtiari, Mansour Bazmi, Majid Abdouss, Sayed Javid Royaee Pages 69-79
    Today, sulfur removal from fuels has improved by new adsorbents such as zeolites that needs extensive studies. This study investigates the feasibility of sulfur compounds adsorption on improved nano zeolite existing in organic fuels and desorption of them from nano-adsorbent.Some properties of improved nano zeolite were analyzed to receive better sulfur compounds adsorption. Zeolite surface structure was analyzed by TEM (tunneling electron microscopy). Batch experiments were chosen for adsorption/desorption study of sulfur compounds and adsorption and desorption conditions were optimized by BBD methodology. The influence of variables in the process, consists of adsorbent metal percent (0.05-10 wt%), adsorbent calcination temperature (200-500 °C) and adsorption process temperature (30-120 °C) in adsorption stage and gas flow rate (1.5-3.5 mL/Min), regeneration temperature (150-300 °C) and desorption time (30-90 Min) which were investigated using experimental design procedure.
    Keywords: RSM, Nano zeolite, Adsorption, regeneration
  • Maryam Yousefpour Pages 81-90
    In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions of independent variables (adsorption time and ion solution concentration) for the removal of Zinc (II) and Ag ions from the aqueous solutions using analcime and modified analcime zeolites (Fe-ANA and Ni-ANA) as efficient and low cost adsorbent. The operation conditions were contact time of 1-13 h and ion concentration of 25-250 ppm at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, the response (the adsorption capacity of zinc (II) and Ag ions) was fitted by a quadratic polynomial regression model and linear model analysis in five-level-two-factor CCD using Design Expert software. The optimal conditions (high removal efficiency) for zinc (II) and Ag adsorption were achieved. The analysis of variance demonstrated that ion concentration effect was found to be significant in the adsorption process. Moreover, actual and predicted response plot of ion adsorption in zeolites were investigated.
    Keywords: Zeolite, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Response Surface Methodology, Analcime
  • Samira Poorsadeghi, Mohamadzaman Kassaee, Hanieh Fakhri, Maryam Mirabedini Pages 91-99
    The present study describes a novel procedure for As (V) removal from water using pure Al nanoparticles (AlNps) prepared by arc discharge technique. Some spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) corroborated the structure of the prepared nanoparticles. From TEM image, the average size of nanoparticles was nearly calculated 15 nm. To confirm the removal of arsenic, Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used. The effects of some parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, As (V) initial concentration, pH, and ionic strength were investigated. In optimum conditions, for a solution with the initial concentration of 30 mg/L of arsenic (V), the maximum removal (92%) took place after 3h at pH of 3. The adsorption followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm which suggested monolayer adsorption. Adsorption capacity was calculated 55.5 mg/g through Langmuir isotherm which confirmed AlNps present an outstanding ability to remove As (V) not only due to a high surface area and small particle size but also because of their great inherent action.
    Keywords: Arsenic, Al nanoparticles, Arc discharge, Adsorption, Langmuir isotherm
  • Sriramula Vidya Sagar Babu, Katreddi Hussain Reddy Pages 101-109
    Five rare earth complexeslanthanum(III),praseodymium(III),neodymium(III), samarium(III) and europium(III) have been synthesized from Schiff base ligand (N,N-bis (2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene) acetylhydrazone). The complexes were characterized based on elemental analysis, molar conductance, ultraviolet, infrared, mass, thermogravimetric and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Infrared spectra suggest ligand act as a neutral tridentate ligand. The Schiff base ligand coordinating through the naphtholic oxygen without proton displacement, azomethine nitrogen atom and hydrazone carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligand to the lanthanide ion. The conductivity and thermal decomposition studies indicate the presence of two coordinated nitrate ion acts as bidentate fashion. Powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the neodymium complex has an orthorhombic system with different unit cell parameters. Europium, samarium, neodymium and praseodymium complexes exhibit the characteristic luminescence. Further, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the metal complexes exhibited greater activity as compared with the ligand.
    Keywords: Ln complexes, Powder X-ray diffraction, Fluorescence, Biological activities
  • Mahir Timur, Cahit DemetgÜl Pages 111-122
    New silica supported Schiff base ligands were prepared by the condensation reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol with silica-gel derivatives, which modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and N-(2-aminoethyl) -3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Metal ion uptake capacities of these compounds were studied towards of selected transition metal (Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II)) cations in an aqueous medium. In addition, Cu(II) complexes of these ligands were prepared by using heterogeneous reaction conditions. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, DR-UV-vis., CP/MAS 13C-NMR, AAS, XRD and TGA techniques. Moreover, the morphological and chemical properties of these compounds were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). The catalytic performances of the Cu(II) complexes were investigated on H2O2 decomposition. These complexes displayed good catalytic activities towards the decomposition of H2O2 as heterogeneous catalysts.
    Keywords: Schiff base, Metal-ion uptake, Heterogeneous catalysts, 4, 6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR), Silica gel
  • Abolghasem Jouyban, Fleming Martinez, William E. Acree Jr Pages 123-128
    The aim of this communication was to expand the results of numerical analyses performed by Sun et al. on their experimental solubility of fenofibrate in aqueous mixtures of ethanol and acetone at 298.15 K, in terms of the evaluation of the preferential solvation of this compound by the organic solvents and water in the saturated mixtures based on the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integrals (IKBI). According to the results, this drug is preferentially solvated by water in water-rich mixtures but preferentially solvated by the cosolvents in mixtures with intermediate composition and also in cosolvent-rich mixtures. Preferential solvation by water in water-rich mixtures may be due to hydrophobic hydration around non-polar moieties of this drug. Moreover, it is conjecturable that in regions with preferential solvation by the cosolvents the drug is acting as Lewis acid with the cosolvent molecules because they are more basic than water.
    Keywords: Fenofibrate_Cosolvent + water mixtures_Jouyban-Acree model_Preferential solvation_IKBI
  • Simone Scelfo, Raffaele Pirone, Nunzio Russo Pages 129-136
    The present work concerns with an investigation on the solubility of cis,cis-muconic acid dissolution in different polar solvents by characterizing and modeling the dissolution as a function of temperature. Water, ethanol, 2-propanol and acetic acid have been investigated as solvents in the range temperatures from a 298.15 to 348.15 K. Owing to the absence of cis,cis-muconic acid solubility data, the molar fraction and temperature were correlated using the modified Apelblat equation model, which is applied for the mathematic fitting of experimental data.A total relative average deviation of 3.54% was obtained for the experimental results and the solubility data obtained with the model, thus attesting the adequacy for this study. The use of modified Apelblat equation also allowed to determine the molar enthalpy and molar entropy of dissolution. The dissolution of cis,cis-muconic acid in water, ethanol, 2-propanol and acetic acid, over temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 348.15 K, has been shown to be exothermic.
    Keywords: Cis, Cis-Muconic Acid, Solubility, Modified apelblat equation, Dissolution enthalpy, Dissolution entropy
  • Nazan Comlekcioglu, Ashabil Aygan, Mehtap Kutlu, Yusuf Z. Kocabas Pages 137-144
    Natural dyes gained increasing attention due to environmental considerations. Many of the dye plants have also medicinal values. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 25 plants as dyes and their dyed wool yarns against microorganisms. Prokaryotes were found to be more sensitive to dye extracts than eukaryotic microorganisms and dyestuff from Punica granatum, Berberis vulgaris, Agrimonia eupatoria, Rhus coriaria were effective against all bacteria. Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Enterococcus faecalis were sensitive to almost all dye extracts even at low concentrations. The dyed wool material tested with microorganisms, and maximum inhibition rates were obtained against S. lutea and MRSA of wool samples dyed with P. granatum and R. coriaria, respectively, while there was a drastic decrease in E. faecalis growth with the A. cepa and R. petiolaris.
    Keywords: Anatolia, Antimicrobial, Dyeing, Plants, Natural dyes, Wool yarn
  • Reza Razizadeh, Vahid Mohebbi, Masoud Aghajani Pages 145-153
    The super-saturation condition has to be provided to form gas hydrates. Consequently, the prediction of the guest molecule fraction in the aqueous phase is crucial in the study of the gas hydrate kinetics. In the present work, several experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor in order to determine the mole fraction of methane and ethane during gas hydrates formation (growth stage). The temperature ranged from 274.15 to 284.15 K. The experiment pressure ranges were 3100 to 7765 kPa and 950 to 2635 kPa for methane and ethane, respectively. The mole fraction is proportional to pressure while it is not affected by temperature to a great extent. Furthermore, the amount of guest dissolved in the liquid water was observed in the aqueous phase which was fairly constant during hydrates formation.
    Keywords: Gas hydrate, Methane, Ethane, Mole fraction, Growth stage
  • Shaheen Akhter, Muhammad Ashraf, Kashif Ali Pages 155-169
    In this paper, a comprehensive numerical study is presented for studying the MHD flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-Newtonian micropolar fluid through a porous medium between two stretchable porous disks. The system of governing equations is converted into coupled nonlinear ordinary ones through a similarity transformation, which is then solved using Quasi-linearization method. The effects of the magnetic field, the vortex viscosity, the microinertia density, the spin gradient viscosity, the stretching of the disks, the viscous dissipation, the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal viscosity, the radiation and the porosity of the medium on the flow, microrotation and temperature fields are discussed through tables and graphs.
    Keywords: MHD, Stretchable disks, Porous medium, Heat transfer, Quasi-linearization
  • Masoumeh Tajmiri, Mohammad Reza Ehsani Pages 171-182
    The petroleum industry requires the best materials to reverse the rock wettability to water-wet state which give significantly improved oil recovery.Nanoparticles are suggested as enhanced oil recovery potential agents to decrease viscosity and alter the wettability of reservoir towards more water-wet. This study provides new insights into CuO nanoparticles effects on wettability alteration of different core types (sandstone and carbonate) and increases oil recovery. The first objective of this research is to determine the potential of CuO nanoparticles to imbibe through spontaneous imbibition cell and raise the oil recovery experimentally. The second goal is to prove that CuO nanoparticles have the ability to alter wettability of sandstone and carbonate cores quantitatively. Laboratory tests were conducted in two experiments on four cylindrical core samples taken from Iranian heavy oil reservoir. In the first experiment, core samples were saturated by crude oil and in the second test, nanoparticles were flooded and then saturated by crude oil, immersed in distilled water and the amount of recovery was monitored during 30 days. Experimental results show that oil recoveries for sandstone cores change from 20.74, 4.3 and 3.5% of OOIP without nanoparticles to 31.77, 17.3 and 14.42% of OOIP with CuO nanoparticles, respectively. The oil recoveries for carbonate core vary from zero without nanoparticles to 6.92% of OOIP with nanoparticles, respectively. By investigation of relative permeability curve, the crossover-point is shifted to the right by adding CuO nanoparticles which means nanoparticles succeed in altering the wettability to more water- wet for sandstone and even carbonate cores.
    Keywords: Nano Particles, Carbonate reservoir, Wettability alteration, Relative permeability
  • Mahshid Roshani, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati, Seyed Jaber Safdari, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani, Kazem Mirjalili, Zahra Manafi Pages 183-194
    This study involves the isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain capable of bioleaching molybdenum ore. Bacterial growth was observed when rock sample was incubated in 9K at 70 ºC. The isolates were identified as extremely acidophilic, thermophilic and chemolithotroph archaebacteria. Following PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA of the isolated strain, the sequencing of this region and comparison with the Gen-Bank database identified the strains as Acidianus ambivalens and Sulfolobus solfataricus. An experimental design was carried out to optimize bioleaching of molybdenum by these bacteria. Factors of pulp density, initial pH, the concentration of Fe3 and the ratio of two bacteria are the variables and molybdenum and uranium recoveries were selected as responses. Bioleaching was carried out using molybdenum ore and pulp density of 4%, initial pH of 1.5, Fe3 concentration of 11.5 g/L and Sulfolobus solfataricus to Acidianus ambivalens ratio of 2.0 were selected as optimum conditions. Molybdenum and uranium recoveries were 43.2% and 79.1% respectively.
    Keywords: Bioleaching, Thermophilic bacteria, Molybdenum extraction, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Acidianus ambivalens