فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 6, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/10/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maryam Nooruzian, Zahra Jafari *, Elaheh Shahmiri, Shaghayegh Omidvar, Azadeh Zendehbad, Naser Amini, Masoud Bagherian, Mahsa Radmehr, Ali Yoonessi Pages 435-442
    Introduction
    Tinnitus is one of the complex symptoms of hearing described as a phantom auditory sensation without any external stimulation. Due to the subjective nature of tinnitus, perception and discomfort of tinnitus vary among the patients. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gender, age and the degree of hearing loss on discomfort due to tinnitus.
    Methods
    Eighteen patients with tinnitus, aged 21-72 years, (9 males and 9 females) were recruited. Tinnitus discomfort was investigated by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire. Psychoacoustic assessments of tinnitus and auditory threshold assessments were evaluated using a 2-channel clinical audiometer.
    Results
    The results showed no significant correlation between THI scores with loudness matching (P=0.187), mean of auditory threshold (P=0.304), gender (P=0.93) and age (P=0.200). Also, no significant correlation was found between maximal level of hearing loss and pitch matching (P=0.208).
    Conclusion
    The study findings suggests that tinnitus is not correlated with age, gender and hearing loss. Overall, tinnitus is a complicated clinical condition which its real impact and degree of discomfort are unclear. More investigation is needed to clarify the factors involving in tinnitus annoyance.
    Keywords: Tinnitus, Gender, Age, Hearing loss, Discomfort
  • Ali Ahmadalipour, Jafar Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour * Pages 443-452
    Introduction
    Enriched Environment (EE), a complex novel environment, has been demonstrated to improve synaptic plasticity in both injured and intact animals. The present study investigated the capacity of an early environmental intervention to normalize the impairment of passive avoidance memory and Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-vessel occlusion, 2VO) in rats.
    Methods
    After weaning, young Wistar rats (22 days old) were housed in EE or Standard Environment (SE) for 40 days. Transient (30-min) incomplete forebrain ischemia was induced 4 days before the passive avoidance memory test and LTP induction.
    Results
    The transient forebrain ischemia led to impairment of passive avoidance memory and LTP induction in the Perforant Path-Dentate Gyrus (PP-DG) synapses. Interestingly, housing and growing in EE prior to 2VO was found to significantly reverse 2VO-induced cognitive and LTP impairments.
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that early housing and growing in EE exhibits therapeutic potential to normalize cognitive and LTP abnormalities induced by 2VO ischemic model in rats.
    Keywords: Enriched environment, Brain ischemia, Long-term potentiation, Memory
  • Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma *, Avinash Bardia, Nusrath Fathima, Lakkireddy Chandrakala, Syed Rahamathulla, Nagarapu Raju, Gunda Srinivas, Avinash Raj, Annamaneni Sandhya, Vishnupriya Satti, Santosh Kumar Tiwari, Syed Ameer Basha Paspala, Aleem Ahmed Khan Pages 453-466
    Introduction
    The present study aimed to explore protective mechanisms of hypothermia against mild cold and heat stress on highly proliferative homogeneous human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs) derived from Subventricular Zone (SVZ) of human fetal brain.
    Methods
    CD133 enriched undifferentiated and differentiated human NPCs were exposed to heat stress at 42°C. Then, Western-blot quantification was performed using Hsp-70 (70 kilodalton heat shock proteins) recombinant protein. Finally, changes in pluripotency and Hsp-70 expression were measured using immunofluorescence staining and RT-qPCR (Quantitative reverse transcription PCR) analysis, respectively.
    Results
    Heat stress resulted in abnormal neurospheres development. The apoptosis rate was enhanced during long-term in vitro culture of neurospheres. Neurogenic differentiation reduced and showed aberrent phenotypes during heat stress. After hypothermia treatment significant improvement in neurospheres and neuronal cell morphology was observed.
    Conclusion
    Mild-hypothermia treatment induces attenuated heat shock response against heat stress resulting in induced HSP-70 expression that significantly improves structure and function of both undifferentiated human NPCs and differentiated neurons.
    Keywords: Hypothermia, Neurospheres development, Neuronal phenotype, HSP-70 expression
  • Masoumeh Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mohsen Dehghani, Mehrnoosh Ahmadi, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Ali Khatibi * Pages 467-478
    Introduction
    According to the pain research literature, attentional bias for pain is the mechanism responsible for the development and maintenance of fear of pain in patients with chronic pain. However, there is still some debate about the exact mechanism and the role of faster engagement versus difficulty in disengagement in the development of attentional bias.
    Methods
    To investigate attentional bias in patients with chronic pain, we used an eye-tracker with the pictures of pain-provoking activities and compared the results with an age- and gender-matched group of pain-free participants. In addition, other measures of pain-related cognition and pain severity ratings were included to assess their contribution to the attentional bias toward pain-related information.
    Results
    Calculating the frequency of the first fixations showed that both groups fixated initially on pain-provoking pictures compared to neutral one. Calculating the speed of fixations showed that control participants were faster in fixating on neutral stimuli, but patients with pain were faster in fixating on pain-provoking pictures, indicating a relative vigilance for the pain-related stimuli among them. These patients reported that the intensity of pain in the previous week was positively correlated with the speed of their fixation on the painful stimuli.
    Conclusion
    Although these results did not provide unequivocal support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, they are generally consistent with the results of studies using eye tracking technology. Furthermore, our findings put a question over characterization of attentional biases in patients with chronic pain by simply relating that to difficulty in disengaging from pain-related stimuli.
    Keywords: Attentional bias, Chronic pain, Eye movement, PHODA
  • Seyyed Abed Hosseini * Pages 479-492
    Introduction
    This paper proposes a reliable and efficient technique to recognize different epilepsy states, including healthy, interictal, and ictal states, using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals.
    Methods
    The proposed approach consists of pre-processing, feature extraction by higher order spectra, feature normalization, feature selection by genetic algorithm and ranking method, and classification by support vector machine with Gaussian and polynomial radial basis function kernels. The proposed approach is validated on a public benchmark dataset to compare it with previous studies.
    Results
    The results indicate that the combined use of above elements can effectively decipher the cognitive process of epilepsy and seizure recognition. There are several bispectrum and bicoherence peaks at every bi-frequency plane, which reveal the location of the quadratic phase coupling. The proposed approach can reach, in almost all of the experiments, up to 100% performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.
    Conclusion
    Comparing between the obtained results and previous approaches approves the effectiveness of the proposed approach for seizure and epilepsy recognition.
    Keywords: Epilepsy, Electroencephalogram, Higher order spectra, Seizure
  • Malihe Ghasemi, Kataneh Abrari *, Iran Goudarzi, Ali Rashidy-Pour Pages 493-502
    Introduction
    This study investigates the effects of cannabinoid agonist WIN55-212-2 on acquisition and consolidation phases of the fear memory extinction and also on anxiety and motor activity.
    Methods
    In this study, we used SPS & S model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder. One week after SPS, to establish a conditioned fear memory, rats received an electric foot shock within shock chamber. After 24 h, for extinction training, the rats were placed back to the chamber for 9 min, without receiving any shock. In 3 consecutive days and on days 17, 24 and 37, extinction tests were carried out and the freezing behavior was evaluated. Thirty minutes before the first three extinction tests, animals received IP injections of WIN or vehicle. Anxiety-like behavior examined with elevated plus-maze and motor activity with open field, 32 days after conditioning.
    Results
    Exaggerated and continued conditioned fear memory observed in SPS & S group compared with shock group. IP injection of a 0.25 mg/kg dose of WIN before extinction training led to reducing fear responses in animals.
    Conclusion
    IP injection of WIN increased acquisition or consolidation of fear memory extinction. SPS & S caused anxiety and this effect improved by the agonist (0.25 mg/kg).
    Keywords: Post-traumatic stress disorder, Cannabinoids, Win 55212-2, Extinction
  • Mohammad Abid *, Ashok Kumar Gosh, Najam Ali Khan Pages 503-512
    Introduction
    In our modern era, life style of human being changes and updates every day that may affect their health status. There is an incredible expectation that natural origin drugs lack undesirable effects not like synthetic drugs, though have the same potency and efficacy. No scientific data is available about the antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves. In this regard, the present study was designed to carry out comparative and combined study on antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves.
    Methods
    Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves were defatted with petroleum ether, and then extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent by soxhlation process. The hydroalcoholic extract of both drugs singly and in combination were evaluated for their anxiolytic effects on Wistar albino rats in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg using different anti-anxiety tests like Elevated Plus Maze, Staircase, Actophotometer, and Light and Dark tests.
    Results
    Both hydroalcoholic extracts possessed flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, etc. In the dose dependent manner, both the hydroalcoholic extracts produced good anxiolytic activity. The best result was obtained by a combination of them in higher dose.
    Conclusion
    Hydroalcoholic extracts of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves and their combination may act as a potent anxiolytic agents in rats. Amaranthus spinosus was found to be more effective than Delphinium denudatum.
    Keywords: Antianxiety activity, Delphinium denudatum, Amaranthus spinosus, Flavonoids, Alkaloids
  • Lorenzo Curt Ograve *, Salvatore Cannav Pages 513-515

    Recently, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience published an article by Lim et al. (2016) entitled Co-occurence of Pituitary Adenoma with Suprasellar and Olfactory Groove Meningiomas. They claimed it as the first case of co-occurence of these two malignancies. However, to our knowledge, this is not the first case reported in this regard. We reported the same case scenario in a 61-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic in 2007. In this commentary, we are going to discuss our reported case and present a brief review over co-occurence of intracranial meningioma with pituitary adenoma.

    Keywords: Pituitary adenoma, Suprasellar meningioma, Olfactory groove meningioma, Magnetic resonance imaging, Growth hormone, Somatostatin analog