فهرست مطالب

هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 72 (زمستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 72 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/11/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • حسن بلخاری قهی* صفحات 5-14
    در این مقاله که بخشی از یک تحقیق بلند در باب زیبایی شناسی در متون اسلامی (اعم از قرآن، روایات و حکمت اسلامی) و نیز تبیین اصطلاح Kalon در فلسفه یونانی است، به بررسی مفهوم زیبا (حسن) و معانی آن در قرآن کریم پرداخته شده است.
    مفهوم زیبایی که در رساله هیپیاس بزرگ افلاطون، بسیار دشوار می نمایاند و اصولا این رساله با جمله «زیبا دشوار است» آغاز می شود، سرگذشت بسیار بلندی از فیثاغورث تا هیدگر دارد. در اندیشه اسلامی نیز این اصطلاح به ظاهر بین و روشن و البته متضلع و چندوجهی، در دو حوزه قرآن و روایات و نیز حکمت و اندیشه اسلامی مورد بحث و بررسی قرار گرفته است.
    این مقاله با محوریت قرآن به تبیین مفهوم زیبایی و زیبایی شناسی در این کتاب آسمانی (که مصدر و منشا جعل و وضع معانی در تمدن اسلامی است) پرداخته و سعی نموده است به دو سوال بنیادی پاسخ دهد: قرآن زیبایی را امری معقول می داند یا محسوس؟ آن را کیفیتی در ادراک می داند یا اجتماع عناصری کمی در اعیان؟
    روش تحقیق مقاله تحلیلی تفسیری بوده و مهمترین دغدغه آن پاسخ به سوالات فوق است؛ سوالاتی که در متن تحقیق بر پایه آیاتی از قرآن پاسخ هایی روشن و بین یافته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: قرآن، زیبایی، زیبایی شناسی، توازن، تناسب
  • حمیده جعفری، پرویز ضیاشهابی *، امیر اشرف آریان پور، مالک حسینی صفحات 15-22
    شیلر نقد قوه ی حکم کانت را آغازی برای پژوهش های فلسفی خویش درباب هنر و زیبایی قرار می دهد. در این میان، آنچه بیش از همه او را به تامل واداشت، غلبه بر «دوگانه انگاری» کانتی در خصوص «ضرورت و آزادی» و «حس و عقل» بود. او این «دوگانه انگاری» را بخشی از معضلات و مشکلاتی می داند که گریبان انسان مدرن را گرفته است. روشنگری و مدرنیته را سبب ساز این مشکلات می داند. این تحقیق با رویکردی توصیفی تحلیلی به مواجهه شیلر با آراء زیبا شناسانه کانت می پردازد و نشان می دهد که چگونه می توان از دل ضرورت به آزادی رسید و چگونه می توان تقابل میان جزء و کل، وظیفه و میل، طبیعت و انسان را از میان برداشت. در این راستا شیلر تلاش کرد کار ناتمام کانت را در پیوند عقل نظری و عملی، به نتیجه برساند، و بر «دوگانه انگاری» اندیشه های وی فائق آید. در این پژوهش خواهیم دید که شیلر به واسطه مفهوم بازی از تقابل ماده صورت / حس عقل فراتر می رود و به «دوگانه انگاری» وحدت می بخشد . شیلر از هنر به مثابهجایگاه تحقق بازی برای وحدت بخشیدن به این دو عنصر و در نتیجه وحدت بخشیدن به انسان بهره می گیرد . وحدتی که خود چیزی نیست جزء بازی
    کلیدواژگان: روشنگری، دوگانه انگاری، حس و عقل، کانت، شیلر
  • اصغر کفشچیان مقدم *، کریم الله خانی صفحات 23-32
    آنچه نگاره های ایران رادرکنار دیگر ویژگی هایش متمایز از نقاشی های هم عصر خود و حتی پس از آن معرفی می نماید، نوع نگرش هنرمند در شرح موضوعاتی با بنمایه های تخیلی،افسانه ای، تغزلی و تاریخی و تعامل زیباشناختی میان متن و فرم وبسط مفهومی اثر است که با طرح سوال اصلی پژوهش یعنی؛ چگونگی وجوه زیباشناختی فرم متن نوشتاری و چیدمان وترکیب آن درکادر و عناصر بصری اثر، به مطالعه آن می پردازد.
    در مقاله حاضر، ضمن بررسی عناصر بصری و ساختار زیبایی شناختی نگاره ها، تلاش شده تا با مطالعه چگونگی تعامل مولفه های بصری فرم ها و متون ،تاثیر زیباشناختی، محتوایی و معنایی نوشته ها در کنار نقش ساختاری و تعاملی آنها، موردپژوهش و ارزیابی قرار گیرد که به نظر می رسد، هنرمند از این تعامل به عنوان کیفیت بصری در نگاره ها بهره برده است و بر این اساس محقق گردید که نگرش محققین و هنرمندانی که نگاره های ایران را صرفا تصویر سازی متون و مرتبط با متن می نگرند، فرض درستی نیست و نگاره هایی که هنرمند در کمپوزیسیون آنها متن را با دقت خاصی گزینش نموده است میان متن وفرم نوشتاری رابطه معناداری وجود داشته و از تعامل بصری ویژه ایی برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، ترکیب بندی، فرم و متن، زیباشناختی، نقاشی ایرانی
  • زهره مختاری*، مهرنوش شفیعی سرارودی، یوسف امینی صفحات 33-42
    فصل بزرگی از اطلاعات در خصوص لعاب مینایی که یکی از جذاب ترین تدابیر تزیینی درگذشته و حال است، از طریق اطلاعاتی است که پیشینیان به صورت مکتوب به میراث گذاشته اند. جواهرنامه نظامی ازجمله میراث های ارزشمندی است که نزدیک ترین منبع ازنظر تاریخی به سال تولید سفال مینایی است. در مقاله چهارم این کتاب ترکیبات ارزنده ای با عنوان «صفت انواع رنگ ها که بر قواریر و انواع اوانی قاشی و اصفهانی و شامی و چینی و غیر آن به کاردارند» ارائه شده است. سوالی که در این پژوهش مطرح است، این است که آیا می توان براساس ترکیبات ارائه شده در جواهرنامه نظامی به بازتولید این شیوه از تزیین پرداخت؟ این پژوهش مبتنی است بر شناخت ترکیبات، مواد ارائه شده و آزمون تجربی این اطلاعات مکتوب تا بتوان در صحت یا عدم صحت ارائه آن اظهارنظرکرده و درجهت احیای این نوع از تزیین لعاب به اطلاعات ارزنده ای دست یابیم. با توجه به حجم بالای نمونه ها در این کتاب، صرفا شش نوع از ترکیبات مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. این پژوهش کاربردی بوده و به روش تجربی ترکیبات ارائه شده را مورد آزمایش قرارداده است. نتایج نشانگر آن است ترکیبات منتخب از کتاب جواهر نامه، رنگ های قرمز، سیاه، زرد، نقره ای و رنگ مجهول را با تکنیک رولعابی و پخت سوم در حالت اکسیداسیون می توان حاصل کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: مینا، رولعابی، لعاب مینایی، جواهرنامه نظامی
  • عباس ایزدی*، محمد خزایی، حسنعلی پورمند صفحات 43-52
    قزلباش ها از مهم ترین عوامل قدرت در دوره صفوی بوده اند که نزدیک به یک قرن، مهم ترین مناصب نظامی و سیاسی ایران را دراختیار داشتند. آن ها نقش اصلی را در به قدرت رسیدن صفویان ایفا کردند. هم زمان با قدرت قزلباش ها، تصویرسازی شاهنامه طهماسبی به دستور شاه اسماعیل اول (905-930/1499-1523) آغاز شد و در زمان سلطنت شاه طهماسب اول (930-984/1523-1576) پایان پذیرفت و قزلباشان که مشخصه اصلی آن ها، کلاه های موسوم به قزلباش بود، در این نگاره ها تجسم یافتند.
    پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی و تاریخی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای، به این سوال پاسخ داده است که نگارگر تاچه میزان توانسته جایگاه و اهمیت قزلباش ها را در این دوره درخلال نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی تصویر کند. این نوشتار با هدف آشنایی با جایگاه و دلایل اهمیت قزلباش ها در اوایل عصر صفوی انجام پذیرفته است. انتظار می رود موقعیت منحصربه فرد قزلباش ها در عرصه سیاسی، دلیل اصلی بازنمایی گسترده آن ها در نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی بوده باشد.
    نتایج این پژوهش ضمن تایید فرضیه فوق، نشان می دهد که عنوان قزلباش، به جنبه ای فراقبیله ای اشاره دارد؛ به طوری که در دوره صفوی، ایران را با نام کشور قزلباش می شناخته اند. مناصب قزلباش ها هم که در نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی درقالب مناصب درباری، نظامی و هنری مشاهده می شود، در بسیاری از موارد، این جنبه از قابلیت آن ها را نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: صفویان، قزلباش ها، نگارگری، مکتب تبریز صفوی، شاهنامه طهماسبی
  • سید محمد طاهری قمی * صفحات 53-62
    از جمله ویژگی های مکتب تبریز صفوی، ایجاد فضای نمایشی برخاسته از احساس نگارگر، متاثر از متن اصلی است. از نمونه های بارز این امر، تصاویر نقش شده در شاهنامه شاه طهماسبی و نسخ مصور ارزشمند دیگری از شاهنامه در این دوره است. پژوهش حاضر، به طرح پرسش: «ساختار روایت تصویری و به کارگیری عناصر تجسمی در فضاسازی خان اول رستم، در آثار دو هنرمند شاخص مکتب تبریز صفوی، میرمصور و سلطان محمد، دارای چه وجوه اشتراک و افتراقی است؟» پرداخته است. هدف از این جستار، کشف تمهیدات نمایشی در جهت ترجمان حالات توصیف شده در متن به تصویر، در دو نگاره با موضوع «نبرد رخش و شیر»، از میرمصور و سلطان محمد نقاش است. این پژوهش، از نوع نظری بوده و به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با رویکرد تطبیقی به گردآوری داده ها به روش کتابخانه ای پرداخته است. نگارنده به مطالعه و بررسی پیشینه های مطالعاتی در رابطه با ویژگی های بیان نمایشی در نگارگری ایرانی و نیز سیاق هنری سلطان محمد و میرمصور پرداخته است. نتیجه حاصل آنکه میزان بهره گیری دو نگارگر از مولفه های زیباشناختی خاستگاه های سبکی پیشین خود به شکلی مشابه صورت پذیرفته است. اما سلطان محمد در بیان عاطفی داستان، رویکردی نمایشی تر داشته و میرمصور به توصیفات اصلی متن، وفادارتر بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه فردوسی، میرمصور، سلطان محمد، نمایش، روایت
  • معصومه عباچی، اصغر فهیمی فر *، محمود طاووسی صفحات 63-74
    یکی از کهن ترین شاهنامه های مصور ایران، که برای بسیاری از پژوهشگران ناشناخته است، شاهنامه ی « کاما» یا «دستور» است که به نظر می رسد متعلق به اوایل قرن هفتم ه.ق باشد. این نسخه ی مصور دارای جنبه های ساختاری بسیار اصیلی است که تاکنون بدان و تاثیرات زیبایی شناختی آن بر سایر نسخ ادوار بعد پرداخته نشده است. هدف اصلی این جستار تحلیل هندسه ی مبنایی و بررسی تاثیرات زیبایی شناختی این شاهنامه بر شاهنامه های مکتب شیراز اینجوست.
    سوال اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که شاهنامه ی مذکور به لحاظ عناصر تصویری و هندسه ی مبنایی چه تاثیراتی بر نگاره های اصیل مکتب اینجو گذارد؟ روش این تحقیق توصیفی و تحلیلی- تطبیقی، مبتنی بر اولین مرحله از رویکرد اروین پانوفسکی، که توصیفی پیشا شمایل نگارانه است، با تکیه بر منابع کتابخانه ای و اینترنت می باشد.
    تحقیقات این پژوهش اشکار می سازد نگارگر شاهنامه ی کاما از نسبت رادیکال 2 که نسبتی است متعلق به دوران کهن -پیش از نسبت طلایی که مصریان باستان به کار می بردند_ حداکثر بهره برداری را نموده است. این نسبت در شاهنامه های اینجو تداوم می یابد. نتایج حاصل از تطبیق نگاره های دو مکتب سلجوقی و اینجو آشکار می سازد که به جز هندسه ی مبنایی، بسیاری از عناصر تصویری شاهنامه های اینجو نظیر رنگ های ناب، فضاسازی کتیبه وار و فشردگی عناصر بصری در کادر افقی و طراحی پویا، از نگاره های شاهنامه ی کاما، تاثیرات بسیاری پذیرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه کهن جهان، شاهنامه های اینجو، رادیکال دو، زیبایی شناسی
  • محمدباقر کبیرصابر *، یوسف زینال زاده صفحات 75-86
    مقاله حاضر در رویکردی میان رشته ای، به مناسبات بین هنر عکاسی و هنر معماری پرداخته و طی بحثی مستدل، نقش عکاسی معماری به عنوان ابزاری در تهیه و تدوین اطلاعات بصری از محیط های معماری را تحلیل و تبیین نموده است. عکاسی معماری در واقع نوعی روایت معماری بر پایه تصویر می باشد که تاکنون منشا خدمات بی بدیلی برای هنر معماری بوده است. اعکس های معماری که محصول فرآیندهای عکاسی معمارانه هستند، آثاری برآمده از اراده عکاس در مواجهه با معماری می باشند؛ یعنی امری که ریشه در سرشت عکاسی معماری دارد و در آن، موجودیت عکس، تابع رابطه بین دو ساختار هنری منفک، یعنی «ساختار معماری» و «ساختار تصویر» است. لذا ادراک هنرمند عکاس از رابطه بین «نظام معماری» و «نظام عکاسی» و نیز نحوه ایجاد این رابطه، از معیارهای موفقیت یک عکس معماری محسوب می شود. از دیگر موضوعات مورد بحث در این مقاله، بحث درباره گونه بندی محتوائی عکس های معماری در دو گونه «عکس معماری مستند» و «عکس معماری هنری» و تحلیل جایگاه هر یک از آنها در تشکیل روایت-های معماری می باشد. پژوهش، به روش توصیفی تحلیلی به انجام رسیده است و مساله اصلی آن، تبیین چیستی و چگونگی ترابط «قالب و محتوای عکاسانه» با «قالب و محتوای معمارانه» در عکس های معماری می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: عکاسی معماری، عکس معماری، عکس معماری مستند، عکس معماری هنری
  • خدیجه شریف کاظمی*، فخرالدین محمدیان، سید رسول موسوی حاجی صفحات 87-100
    آثار هنری ایران،از جنبه های گوناگون همواره مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار گرفته است. سفالینه های منقوش از دیرباز به عنوان نمادی از هنر ماندگار انسان، مطرح بوده است. از گذشته تا به حال به کارگیری هنرهای تزیینی به ویژه نقوش هندسی در تزیینات معماری، سفالگری و... امری رایج بوده است. نقوش سفالینه ها که بسیاری از آنها با نقش مایه های هندسی پرداخته شده اند، همواره بیانگر دیدگاه ها، مفاهیم نمادین و ارتباطات فرهنگی جوامع در ادوار مختلف بوده است. در هنر متعالی اسلامی هندسه جایگاه والایی دارد چراکه اشکال آن می توانست بصورت غیرمستقیم تجلی گاه مفاهیم اسلامی باشد. در واقع این عامل سبب ایجادپیوندی عمیق میان عرصه های مختلف هنری ازجمله هنر سفالگری و علم هندسه شد.
    پژوهش پیش رو در نظر دارد با مطالعه، بررسی و تحلیل عناصر بصری نقش مایه های هندسی سفالینه های دوران میانی اسلامی، به چگونگی ساختار هندسی این نقوش دست یابد. این پژوهش با استفاده از مطالعه داده های بصری نمونه نقوش موجود در سفالینه های مجموعه های هنری و همچنین یافته اندوزی منابع کتابخانه ای صورت پذیرفته است. نتایج مطالعات حاکی از آن است که نقوش هندسی به کار رفته بر روی سفالینه های این مجموعه ها، نشانگر استفاده از تنوع و دقت در نظم هندسی و نمادپردازی در آنها بوده و طرح این نقوش نیز، با علوم ریاضی و مثلثات قابل ارزیابی است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقوش، هندسی، ظروف سفالی، نمادپردازی، دوران میانه اسلامی
  • زهرا بزرگ زاده، سید نجم الدین امیرشاه کرمی * صفحات 101-114
    ارتباطات ترغیبی حوزه موضوعی این مقاله است که با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به بررسی تبلیغ تعاملی محیطی و مخاطب آن می پردازد. این شیوه ارتباطی، گونه ای نوین از رفتار تعاملی انسان است که شکل گیری آن ریشه در زندگی اجتماعی او دارد. انسان با روی آوردن به زندگی اجتماعی بروز نیازهای گوناگونی را تجربه کرد، از جمله نیاز به برقراری ارتباط جمعی که روزبه روز گسترش یافت تا جائیکه با اختراع چاپ و به دنبال آن رواج رسانه های چاپی، موجبات تکامل ارتباط جمعی را فراهم ساخت. با به عرصه آمدن رادیو و تلویزیون و ظهور ماهواره و اینترنت گونه های جدید ارتباطی به صورت فراگیر شکل گرفت و صنعت تبلیغات از جایگاه مهمی برخوردار شد. گسترش استفاده از رایانه، شاخه ای جدید در ارتباطات را موجب شد که «طراحی تعامل» نامیده شد و پیش زمینه شکل گیری تبلیغات تعاملی را فراهم کرد. عنصر اصلی در این نوع تبلیغات، شرکت مخاطب در فرآیند پیام رسانی است. میزان تاثیرگذاری، بستگی زیادی به برقراری ارتباط مخاطب با تبلیغ و انتخاب های او دارد؛ زیرا اوست که اطلاعات را گزینش می کند. تبلیغ تعاملی باعث افزایش اثرگذاری بر مخاطب و مشارکت او می شود و درواقع ابزار مناسبی است برای تاثیر بر ذهن انسان عصر پسانوگرایی که به دلیل جریان پرشتاب تغییرات، هویتی چندگانه دارد. از این رو در این پژوهش به این شاخه نوین از تبلیغات می پردازیم.
    کلیدواژگان: تبلیغات، مشارکت جو، تبلیغات تعاملی، ارتباطات ترغیبی
  • مهدی ابرازه *، علی زاده محمدی، نادر شایگانفر صفحات 115-124
    هدف از انجام این تحقیق پی بردن به رابطه میان برخی از متغیرهای بنیادین در آموزش هنر نظیر ویژگی های شخصیت، خلاقیت و خودشکوفایی با در نظر گرفتن تفاوت های جنسیتی در میان دانشجویان هنر بوده است. دانشجویان رشته طراحی صنعتی هر چهار سال تحصیلی از میان دانشجویان دانشگاه هنر بصورت غیر تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای مورد استفاده در تحقیق عبارنتد از: ابزار سنجش خلاقیت آزمون تفکر خلاق تورنس (TTCT)؛ آزمون پنج عاملی ویژگی های شخصیت (NEO-FFI)؛ ابزار خودشکوفایی استعداد (MAP) میباشند. جهت تحلیل همبستگی در SPSS از ابزار پیرسون استفاده شد. تحقیق حاضر در پی یافتن پاسخ این پرسش است که چه رابطهای میان ویژگی های شخصیتی و خلاقیت با خودشکوفایی در دانشجویان رشته طراحی صنعتی وجود دارد و همچنین چه تفاوتی میان دانشجویان پسر و دختر وجود دارد. یافته های تحقیق نشان میدهد که میان دانشجویان پسر و دختر تفاوتهای اندکی وجود دارد بدینصورت که تنها تفاوت میان دانشجویان پسر و دختر بین ویژگی های شخصیت با خلاقیت در عامل روان آزردهخویی است. همچنین تنها تفاوت میان دو گروه بین شاخص خلاقیت و خودشکوفایی در وظیفه شناسی است. در نهایت، میان خلاقیت با خودشکوفایی میان دانشجویان دختر و پسر تفاوت وجود ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر، طراحی صنعتی، ویژگیهای شخصیتی، خلاقیت، خودشکوفایی، تفاوت جنسیتی
  • یاسمن خداداده*، شیما جهانی صفحات 125-132
    با پیچیده تر شدن مسائل طراحی و نیازهای جدید کارفرما، لزوم استفاده از فنآوری های نو درزمینه ارائه ایده نیز به وجود میآید. یکی از فنآوری های جدیدی که اخیرا مورداستفاده طراحان قرار میگیرد، هولوگرافی است که طراحان را درزمینه ارائه سه بعدی ایده هایشان یاری میکند. این تحقیق با هدف معرفی فنآوری هولوگرافی، به عنوان یکی از پدیده های مرتبط با واقعیت مجازی، بررسی تجربیات طراحان در رویارویی با هولوگرام های سه بعدی و نظرات کاربران در خصوص این فنآوری جدید انجام گردیده است. به این منظور، ابتدا در خصوص فنآوری هولوگرافی و بعد چاپ سه بعدی تحقیق شد و بعد این دو فنآوری با هم مقایسه شدند. سپس جهت دستیابی به نظرات کاربران، 27 نفر از طراحان و معماران در مواجه با یک نمود عینی از فنآوری هولوگرافی که به وسیله برنامه های مجازی موجود در موبایل تهیه شده بود و یک نمونه اولیه ایجادشده به روش چاپ سه بعدی قرار داده شدند. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که اگرچه این فنآوری جدید برای طراحان بسیار جذاب است ولی تعداد بیشتری هنوز تمایل به استفاده از چاپ سه بعدی دارند. همچنین عواملی چون هزینه زیاد این فنآوری و میل درونی انسان به مقاومت در برابر تغییر نیز عواملی تاثیرگذار بر نتایج میباشند. البته با گذر زمان، قطعا این فنآوری کم هزینه تر و فراگیرتر خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: هولوگرافیک، هولوگرام، چاپ های سه بعدی، واقعیت مجازی
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  • Hassan Bolkhariqahi * Pages 5-14
    This article is part of a long research on the concept of beauty and aesthetics in Islamic thought and Greek philosophy. In this research, two words in the Greek language, Kalon, and in the Arabic language, Al-hosn, have been analyzed.
    Plato in Great Hippias begins his treatise with a Greek famous proverb: "Beauty is difficult". But in this treatise and other his writings (for example: Phaedrus, Fylbus, Republica) provides a definition of beauty: the beauty of the sensible and the intelligible world. In his point of view, the sensible beauty has some elements such as fitness, balance and harmony.
    But the great disciple of Plato, Aristotle in the definition of beauty tries to make relationship between Good and pleasure: "Pleasure also must be a good; for all living creatures naturally desire it. Hence it follows that both agreeable and beautiful things must be good; for the former produce pleasure, while among beautiful things some are pleasant and others are desirable in themselves". Aristotle also relies on the elements of sensible beauty in Metaphysics: "The chief forms of beauty are order, symmetry and definiteness, which the mathematical sciences demonstrate in a special degree. And since these (e.g. order and definiteness) are obviously causes of many things, evidently these sciences must treat this sort of causative principle also (i.e. the beautiful) as in some sense a cause. But we shall speak more plainly elsewhere about these matters".
    Great Muslim thinkers such as Ave Cinna, Abu Nasr Farabi, al-Ikhwan al-Safa, Al-Ghazali (Imam Mohhammad) also have the same Greek philosopher's view.
    But in the Quran and Islamic traditions, the emphasis is much greater on intelligible beauty. God emphasizes the beauty of good works such as seasonable life, interpretation, sermon, and …., in over one hundred and fifty verses. And in the other verses, Quran says about sensible beauty like beauty of women and harmony in creations of universe. But the keyword of beauty in Quran is Geometry or Al-Qadr. The word of Al-Qadr has been related with beauty in some verses:"Indeed, We have created all things according to a measure" (Al-Ghamar -The Moon. Nom.49)
    "Who perfected everything He created. He originated the creation of the human from clay" (Al-Sajdeh -The Prostration. Nom.7)
    On human body and his beauty:"Indeed, We created the human with the fairest stature" (Al-Tin -The Fig. nom.4)
    And the expression of harmony in creation of the universe:" We have spread out the earth and set upon it firm mountains. Everything We have caused to grow therein is justly weighe" ( AL-HIJR (AL-HIJR) -19)
    "Indeed, We have created all things according to a measure." (AL-QAMAR (THE MOON-49)
    So in Quran, beauty has two meaning: sensible beauty and intelligible beauty. The elements of sensible beauty are harmony, geometry, fitness and balance, and intelligible beauty is everything of good work like Prayer ,Charity and …. .
    Methods of this research is interpretive analysis method.
    Keywords: Quran, aesthetic, Beauty, geometry, Harmony
  • Hamideh Jafari, Parviz Ziashahabi *, Amir Ashraf Aryanpour, Malek Hosseini Pages 15-22
    Schiller quotes Kant's Transportation of Judgment as a starting point of his philosophical research on art and aesthetic. He criticized Kant’s work while studying them. In the meantime, what most persuaded him to reflect and motivated him to advance his theories was overcoming Kant’s "dualism" of "necessity and freedom" and "sense and reason". He believes this "dualism" forms a part of the difficulties and problems facing modern man. He reckons that the Enlightenment and Modernity have caused these problems, because according to modernity and enlightenment, the power and the human impulses have stood against each other. Thus, modern man has lost his inner forces of harmony and unity and has been alienated from nature and himself. Schiller was not convinced by Kant's description of aesthetic experience to overcome the abyss between nature and man, and believed that Kant’s opinion has not eliminated the problem, but contributed to this separation. Hence, by critical assessment of the Kant’s ideas, Schiller tried to show how freedom can be achieved out of necessity, how the lost integrity of man can be restored and how the opposition between part and whole, duty and desire, and nature and man can be eliminated. Schiller believed that Kant's ideas were dualistic. It was his habit of mind to look for a "third degree", a degree which can serve as a mediator between two opposing categories. A clear example of this third degree is the validity of the incentive for game which is used to reconcile the two mutual motivations of "material" and "form". According to Schiller's aesthetic ideas, the most important and fundamental sense is "game motivation", because his perception and conception of art is art as a serious game where man can fully realize and find himself. Although "game" which Schiller applies is his own particular achievement and different from what was intended by Kant, Schiller gets his concept of "game" by reviewing Kant’s aesthetic rules and his free game of cognitive faculties (Cooper, 1995, p. 382). The coordination of cognitive faculties was important for Kant. Beautiful yet, in his view, is a ……….. which maintains a "general" balance between imagination and understanding. Kant utilizes the term "game" to refer to this indeterminate Oriented balance: the coordination and free functioning of the imagination is related to the power of knowledge (Sheperd, 2006, p. 69). But what Schiller means is that the ultimate form of the game of speculation is about beauty, where the man truly plays, where he neither satisfies his material needs nor ascertains any purpose, but rather where the harmony and solidarity, two opposite aspects of human nature, are realized. Since Schiller is one of the first followers of Kant who welcomed his views, modified them, and tried to bring Kant's unfinished work in linking theoretical and practical reasons to fruition, and to overcome the "dualism" of his thoughts, this study specifically explains the relationship between Schiller's ideas and Kant’s aesthetic ideas and the way Schiller criticized Kant’s.
    Keywords: Enlightenment, dualism, sense, reason, Kant, Schiller
  • Asghar Kafshchian Moghadam*, Karim Alahkhani Pages 23-32
    The principal aspect of the Iranian paintings which makes them different from their contemporaneous works and also distinctive from its posterior ones would be the Artist's intention in creating aesthetic interactions between text and form as well as developing comprehensive theme of the same works. In fact the artist has done a great deal to use imaginary, fictional, lyric and historical events in the arrangement of his artistic composition to qualify his work (textual forms) from aesthetic points of view. The present research tries to study the answer to the most important question which asks about the quality of aesthetic aspects of form & text , their arrangement and composition in a framework whilst insists on interactions between text form display and aesthetic aspect of the same work. As a matter of fact, if the mentioned topic is to be studied through another outlook, it could be also studied if the presence of text in these paintings have been intentionally manipulated to attract the spectator's attention and concentration simultaneously to the image (text and form) to develop aesthetic scope of the same work, or the artist's effort to construct an imaginary balance of the work and the spectator's imagination capabilities have been viewed in the same artistic work? But, it seems that the artist has utilized this interaction as a visual quality in his work. So, in the present article it is tried to verify visual and aesthetic elements of the works while studying the visual factors of text and form to find aesthetic layers if the same work. By taking the above mentioned assumption into considerations, the aesthetic, context and comprehensive effects of texts have been assessed and studied. These studies besides the other structural and interactive roles of text and form in the selected works were instructed to hypothetical results. Therefore, it was understood that the view of specialists and artists who observe the Iranian paintings as the only textural imaging related to the text is not true! Furthermore, the analytical study of text and form and their qualitative and quantitative relations in creating a work with national characteristics had been the other aims of this research. So, in line with the present study two types of paintings were verified and assessed from the aesthetic and qualitative points of view. it seems that those paintings in which their artists have selected and arranged the text as a special composition are of particular visual interaction and comprehensive relation and if they are compared with the other works which their artist have used the text as the only textural elements among the image, the said provision could be sensed better. Thus, if these interactions in the Iranian paintings are analyzed and assessed through some assumptions that the whole artistic work is composed of color, text and form with their interactive relations, then you can find out the significance of the present research about the quality of interactive relations between text and form factors in the Iranian paintings.
    Keywords: Painting, Configuration, Form, Text, Aesthetics, Iranian Painting
  • Zohreh Mokhtari *, Mehrnosh Shafie, Yosef Amini Pages 33-42
    Wide and massive group of pottery productions that its number is over thousands are represented with starting Islamic civilization. Pottery industry in Islamic civilization manifests itself in high level of innovation in pattern and technique that sometime in the technical point of view was very complex. One of most magnificent type of pottery that it is in historical domain from end of the Saljoughi, Kharazm Shahi and early Ilkhani, is Mina’i wares. Motifs in this type of pottery have drawn using multi colored Mina that in some cases they are panached with Gilding gold work and highlighting, underlying stonepaste and with over glaze technique. The variety of colors and iridescence of Mina’i glaze had made this glaze one of the most attractive decorative arrangement in the past and present. Studying on Mina’i potteries including hidden their techniques that a larg number of them are protected in domestic and foreign museums, always are attracted the attention of researchers; but yet because of lack of resources they are not well known. A large chapter of our information about Mina’i glaze is through the information that our predecessors have inherited in writing for ours. Javaher nameh of Nezami is including valuable heritage that historically is closest source to the time of production and popularity of Mina’i ceramics. This book that has been written by Jowhari Neyshabouri and has been edited by Iraj Afshar, is one of oldest book in Persian language about issue related to jewelry and stones, metals, alloys and types of Mina that has been written in four article.
    In the fourth article of this book, titled “Mina and Talavihat” 26 sample of valuable compounds have presented in sector of “the variety of colors using on Glassware and ewer types Qashy, Isfahani, Shamy and chinese and otherwise. In fact the question that arise in this research is that is it possible to reproduce this style of the decoration based on the composition presented in Javaher nameh of Nezami? In addition to brief introduction of Mina’i pottery and Javaher nameh of Nizami, Basis of this research is recognition of presented composition and material and empirical and practical tests this writing information in order to comment about Authenticity of its presentation and to achieve critical information to reproduce this type of glaze decoration. Due to the high volume of sample in this book, only six kind of presented compositions were tested. Samples are selected by descriptive method and based on color variation and access to the material used. This research is practical and presented compositions were tested in experimental method. Results indicate that selected compositions of Javaher nameh can obtained red, black, tow type of yellow, silver and one unknown color through the technique of over glaze and third firing in the oxidation state. It should be note that one unknown color that due to unreadability of its color in Javaher Nameh face with a blank, during the experiments became dark red that it can be the correct alternative for that in this context.
    Keywords: Mina, Over Glaze, Minai Glaze, Javaher Name Nezami
  • Abbas Eezadi * Pages 43-52
    The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp (1524–76), also known as theShahnama-yi Shahi, is arguably the most luxuriously illustrated copy of Firdausi’s epic ever produced in the history of Persian painting.Its pages, with outstanding measurements for an illustrated book (approximately 48 x 32 cm), are made of fine paper enriched with large gold-sprinkled borders and lavish illuminations. Accompanying the 759 folios of text, written in superb nasta’liq script, are 258 paintings of exquisite quality and artistic originality.
    This project was realized at the royal atelier in Tabriz, the first capital of the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), and involved two generations of the most renowned artists of the time. Among them were Sultan Muhammad, Mir Musavvir, and Aqa Mirak, who succeeded each other as directors of the project through the years. Scholars still disagree about the actual dates of execution of the manuscript. It was begun around the early 1520s, probably under Shah Isma’il (r. 1501–24), the founder of the dynasty, and carried out for at least another twenty years under Shah Tahmasp, the manuscript’s dedicatee and principal sponsor.
    The artistic importance of this manuscript cannot be overestimated. It is considered one of the highest achievements in the arts of the book for its superb calligraphy, painting, and illumination. From a pictorial point of view, it also marks the synthesis of the two most important phases of the Persian tradition—the Turkman style, which developed in Tabriz and Shiraz, and the Timurid style, associated with Herat.
    Qizilbashes are among the sources of power in Safavid era that nearly a century held the most important posts of martial and political. They performed main role in governing of Safavids and shah Ismaeil could find to his political and religious goals with their aids. At the same time with Qizilbashes power, illustration of shah Tahmasp shahnama began with patronage of shah Ismaeil I (905-930 A.H/ 1499-1523 A.D) and finished in time of Shah Tahmasp I’ reign (930-984 A.H/ 1523-1576 A.D) and the Qizilbashes were illustrated in the paintings with their specific Qizilbash hat.
    This researh with a descriptive-analytical and historical approach and with data collection in the basis of library, answers to the question that what is the achievement of painter in illustrating of Qizilbashes place and their importance in this era through of the shahnama of Shah Tahmasp paintings. It supposes the uniqe place of Qizilbashes in field of pilitical is the main reason of their representation in paintings of the shahnama of shah Tahmasp.
    results of this research with confirmation of this supposition, show Qizilbash title, apart from a tribal title, indicates to a transpersonal aspect and even in Safavid time Iran has been identified with the name of Qizilbash country and presentment of a Qizilbash in the paintings of the shahnama of Shah Tahmasp indicates to a transpersonal and transtribal aspect in a lot of cases. The illustrated posts of the Qizilbashes in the paintings (courtier, martial and artistic) show this aspect of their capacity in a lot of cases.
    Keywords: Safavids, Qizilbashes, Miniature, Tabriz School of Safavid, Tahmasp shahnama
  • Sayed Mohammad Taheri Qomi * Pages 53-62
    In addition to utilizing some ancient and aesthetic traditions, the imaginative world of the genuine Iranian painting possesses a rich background of literary works, fables, mythology and wisdom stories. Various samples which have been described in the historical manuscripts belonging to various eras, such as Mani’s Arjang, different versions of Shahnama, Khamseh-y-Nezami, and the poetry books of other poets like Hafiz and Sadi are the existing proofs to this matter. The aforementioned traditions were each of a different quality during their time. Among these qualities, which are especially observed in the Safavid Tabriz School, are the creating of a dramatic atmosphere inspired by internal emotions of the artist who was himself inspired by the text of such books. Of the great examples of such features are the paintings in the magnificent book of Shahnama of Shah Tahmasb and another valuable picture copy of this masterpiece in that period which was created during the 10th century in the workshop of Safavid’s royal library. Perhaps, one of the most attractive, the most imaginative and most enlightening scenes of Shahnama is the seven-stage story of Rostam on his way to the Alborz Mountain which symbolically represents various stages of life. On the other hand, the development of visual arts and painting in Iran after the Islam has been made possible in Safavid Tabriz school on the basis of the valuable achievements of the Shiraz, Herat and Turkmen’s painting schools. From among the famous masterpieces of this period some Shahnama versions can be noted that were generally ordered by the kings and were drawn in the royal workshops of the Safavid courts. In addition to the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasb, another version of Shahnama also was developed, which, for some reasons, remained unfinished. However, the paintings which were left, possess the unique characteristics of Turkmen, Safavid and Tabriz schools’ painting. Among these illustrations is the one attributed to Sultan Mohammad called “The Battle of Rakhsh and the Lion ", which is related to the first stage of seven quests of Rostam’s story. Because of rich and fantastic use of color, and romantic and naturalistic portrayal of the scenes and depicting Rostam in his sleep and Rakhsh’s fight with the lion and also the dynamic composition and atmosphere, this painting is of overriding significance. On the other hand, there is another painting by Mir Mosaver, a well-known Tabriz School’s artist, which has some similarities with the above mentioned painting and also differs from it in some aspects.
    The present study aims at investigating the usage of these dramatic elements to relate an extraordinary story of text in the form of visual arts and the drama contained in such works. Two paintings, with similar topics, (the Battle of Rakhsh and the Lion) by two well-known artists i.e. Mir Mosaver and Battle of Rakhsh and the Lion have been carefully studied and the amount of stylistic background usage by the two artists and their styles to narrate the story have been evaluated.
    Keywords: Ferdowsi's Shah-Nameh, Mir Mosaver, Sultan Mohammad, Drama, Narration
  • Masoumeh Abachi, Mahmoud Tavousi, Asqar Fahimifar * Pages 63-74
    One of the most ancient Iranian manuscripts, which unknown for many researchers, is Shahnameh "comma" or "Dastur that seem to belong to the early seventh century AH. This illustrated MSS with very genuine structural aspects, which its aesthetic has potential impact on the other MSS of the following periods, have not been addressed. Many researchers, such as Adamuva and Gyvzalyan believe the oldest illustrated MSS of Shahnameh belongs to the mid-eighth century of the Hijra (Adamuva, Gyvzaliyan, 2007: 27). Shahnameh "comma" and visual elements of this manuscript to challenge the views of the researchers on some pictorial characteristics, which is believed to be Mongolian elements before the discovery of this Shahnameh in India; eg, Sheila Canbay believed that breaking the frame of picture with legs of horses and riders is the elements of Mongol in the year of 730 AH/ 1330 AD in Tabriz 1 or Bagdad School. She also stressed the move and horse riding in tight spaces and compact horizontal frame are of features and elements of Mongol.
    The main aim of this paper is to analyze the geometry of the foundation and the aesthetic impact of Shahnameh of "comma" on the Shahnamehs of Shiraz School in the Injo period. The other aims of this study are to investigate the motifs of the Shahnameh "Comma" in order to determine its originality, and check the continuity or discontinuity some important motifs of this Shahnameh on the Shiraz School in Injo age.
    The main question of the paper is, what are the effect of visual elements and hidden geometry of Shahnameh "comma", on the original, and pure image of the Injo School? So, this article answers the following secondary questions: 1. Is it antiquated and exquisite Shahnameh belongs to the Seljuk period? What resources has affected on this manuscript? 2. What are the Iconic motifs of the Shahnameh comma is there, but dont continue in the Persian paintings of Injo period at the Shiraz?
    This research is descriptive and comparative analytical method, based on the first phase of Erwin Panofsky's approach, which is pre-iconographical description, relying on library resources and the Internet. The aim of the first stage of the method of Panofsky is, in fact, survey the motifs and stylistic characteristics and structure of the painting in the Shahnama "Comma" and identify the motifs of which have been experiencing a metamorphosis and transformation in the Injo age at the Shiraz.
    The study shows that the painter of the Shahnameh of "comma" has used to the ratio of radical 2, which belong to ancient world, before the ancient Egypt, for depicturing the frame of painting, and hidden structure in the picture. This ratio continues in the Injo shāhnāmehs.
    The results of the comparison between the painting of Seljuk and Injo schools reveals that except geometry basis and the ratio of radical 2 in the picture of the Injo shāhnāmehs, many visual elements such as pure and bright color, Compression of the composition and image elements in box-like atmosphere, took much impression of the Shahnameh "comma".
    Keywords: the ancient Shahnameh of world, radical 2, Injo Shahnamehs, aesthetic
  • Mohammadbagher Kabirsaber *, Yousef Zeinalzadeh Pages 75-86
    The present paper has investigated the relationship between the art of photography and architecture with an interdisciplinary approach, and has explained the role of architectural photography as an efficient tool in providing visual information from architectural environments. Architectural photography that is a kind of image-based architectural narrative has been the source of unique services for the art of architecture so far. On the other hand, the architectural photos that are the result of architectural photography procedures are the artworks that are the outcome of artist photographer's wills faced with the architectural artifacts.
    Architectural photography that is a kind of image-based architectural narrative has been the source of unique services for the art of architecture so far.the architectural photos that are the result of architectural photography procedures are the artworks that are the outcome of artist photographer's wills faced with the architectural artifacts.
    This issue is rooted in the nature of architectural photography in which the existence of the photo depends on the relationship between two separate artistic structures namely "Architectural Structure" and "Image Structure". So, the perception of the artist photographer from the relationship between "Photography System" and "Architecture System" and also the method of creating this relationship, is considered as one of the criteria for the success of an architectural photo. Another subject being discussed in this paper is the discussion about content classification of architectural photos in two types including "Documentary Architectural Photo" and "Artistic Architectural Photo", and analyzing the role of each in formation of architectural narratives. Documentary Architectural Photo is prepared to display the reality of architectural work and without any intention in the image message, while, artistic architectural photo is a combination of the reality of architectural work with moods, spirits, and talents of the artist photographer. The necessity of doing the research arises from the general scientific vacuum existing in understanding the meaning nature in architectural photography. Basically, proposing any interdisciplinary discourse between "Photography" and "Architecture" will be considered as opening a new way for better understanding the essence of architectural photography. However, since the invention of photography to the present, the architectural environments have always been appealing subjects for photographers, and photography also has been the indicator and presenter of material and semantic existence of architecture. Therefore, reflecting on the architectural photos of any period can be beneficial in clarification and explanation of the evolving nature of architecture during that period. Based on the abovementioned cases, the research issue is to investigate the relationship between "Architectural Form and Content" and "Photographic Form and Content" in "Architectural Photo", and the research questions are: A) What is the architectural photography and with what components can be distinguished from other photography majors? B) How does the interaction between "Content and Material Quality of Architectural Work" and "Content and Material Quality of Photo" occur? C) How the meaning in architectural photography is clarified, and what components determine its quality? The research method is descriptive-analytical and has been done based on logical deduction from data description and interpretation.
    Keywords: Architectural photography, Architectural photo, Documentary Architectural Photo, Artistic Architectural Photo
  • Khadijeh Sharifkazemi *, Fakhredin Mohamadian, Seyyed Rasool Mosavi Haji Pages 87-100
    Works of art, from various aspects, has always been of interest to researchers. Painted pottery, the art has long been a symbol of the survival of humanity, has been raised. Functional objects decorated with various ornaments, has a special place. From the past to the present, the use of geometric patterns, especially in architectural decoration, decorative arts, pottery, etc. are common. Pottery designs, many of which have been dealt with geometric designs always reflect the views, symbolic and cultural ties have been at different times. The sublime art of geometry is a great place, because it could indirectly forms, revealing Islamic concepts. In fact, these factors led to a profound link between the various fields of art including pottery and geometry. Leading research intends to investigate the role of geometric analysis and visual elements of medieval pottery, to the geometry of the designs achieve. This study uses data from the study of visual motifs typical of pottery art collections and library resources of Indonesia, has been done. The results show that, Geometric designs on pottery used in this collection represent the diversity and accuracy in the order of their geometric and symbolization it also designs and plans, to be assessed Mathematical Science and Trigonometrie. Geometric shapes and lines used in these designs are symmetrical and repetitive geometric patterns, particularly visual composition and also using a specific color coordination are significant. Leading research intends to investigate the role of geometric analysis and visual elements of medieval pottery, to the geometry of the designs achieve. This study uses data from the study of visual motifs typical of pottery art collections and library resources of Indonesia, has been done. The results show that, Geometric designs on pottery used in this collection represent the diversity and accuracy in the order of their geometric and symbolization it also designs and plans, to be assessed Mathematical Science and Trigonometrie. Geometric shapes and lines used in these designs are symmetrical and repetitive geometric patterns, particularly visual composition and also using a specific color coordination are significant Leading research intends to investigate the role of geometric analysis and visual elements of medieval pottery, to the geometry of the designs achieve. This study uses data from the study of visual motifs typical of pottery art collections and library resources of Indonesia, has been done. The results show that, Geometric designs on pottery used in this collection represent the diversity and accuracy in the order of their geometric and symbolization it also designs and plans, to be assessed Mathematical Science and Trigonometrie. Geometric shapes and lines used in these designs are symmetrical and repetitive geometric patterns, particularly visual composition and also using a specific color coordination are significant Leading research intends to investigate the role of geometric analysis and visual elements of medieval pottery,visual composition and also using a specific color coordination are significantvisual elements of medieval pottery,visual composition and also using a specific color coordination are significant
  • Zahra Bozorgzadeh, Seyed Najmedin Amirshahkarami * Pages 101-114
    The subject of this article is the exhortative communication and it studies the interactive outdoor advertising and its audience, through a descriptive-analytical method. Our standpoint toward today’s world is affected by the powerful presence of the media. What specifies the power of a medium is its method of communication with the audience. Since the audience in today’s post modern world is different than the audience in the past, the need for having a stronger medium to fully communicate with its audience is quite obvious. In fact, because of the extent of the media in today’s world, the medium that provides opportunities for new experiences is the more successful one. In this regard, public announcements by town criers, scroll readings, and afterwards the emergence of posters, newspapers and publication printings were each a pioneer of this type of communication in each era; until the emergence of radio & television and the formation of new methods of mass communication. The advent of satellites and internet has led to a dramatic evolution as well. In the twentieth century, the advertising industry has widely grown and gained an important place in marketing and selling products. With the development of technology and the advantage of having computers in various fields, a new branch of communication called Interactive Design became the center of attention and provided the basis for the formation of the interactive advertising. Interaction has different functions in various fields including advertisement, and the diversity of its methods creates attractiveness for the audience that takes him/ her to a bilateral relationship. In this bilateral relationship, the audience is addressed as an artist and creator, and his/ her actions become part of the piece itself. In this method of advertising, the main element is the audience participation in the messaging process. The effectiveness depends heavily on the audience engagement with the advertisement and his/ her choices in this direction; since it is him/ her who selects the information and goes through the mental process with it. What is important in the interactive advertising is the planning of the process of an interaction through designing interfaces of systems in various media. The growth of interactive advertising indicates the active role of the consumer in the efficiency of this type of advertisement. Interactive advertising increases the influence on the audience, his/ her satisfaction and participation. Also, the reciprocity of the audience and the exchange of information in this process lead to gain the audience trust further. When participating in communication with an interactive piece, the routine procedures include: response, control, contemplation, belongingness, and disengagement. To encourage the user to initiate physical activity, the interactive advertisement should have a primary motivator. These motivators have a very wide range in interactive digital works and they take the audience to a different virtual experience through attracting his/ her attention. Interactive advertising is a proper tool to influence the mind and taste of post-modern human who has a multi-aspect identity due to the rapid alterations. therefore this new branch of advertising discussed in this research.
    Keywords: Advertising, interactive, interactive advertising, exhortative communication
  • Mahdi Ebrazeh *, Ali Zadehmohammadi, Nader Shayganfar Pages 115-124
    The main concern of conducting this study is basic needs for awareness of relationships between some fundamental variables within Art education like personality traits, creativity, and self-actualization with regarding gender differences to enhance quality of educational efficiency through the process of relevant policy making and applying efficient methods. After searching many databases around the world, it was not found parallel researches to cover our concerns; as a result, this study is literally a brand new of its kind which has focused on correlations between fundamental variables to enhance our educational understanding. Total Industrial design students of all four academic years from Art University were selected on the basis of nonprobability sampling which include of 49 female students and 43 male students and in total 92 students. Questionnaires which were used in this study included: The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) selected as instrument for the measurement of Creativity: Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Elaboration; (NEO-FFI) selected as instrument for the measurement of five factors on personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness; the measure of actualization of potentials (MAP) was selected to measure Self-actualization: Openness, openness to self, openness to others, openness to others, Self-reference, Compatibility, Autonomy. These three measurements distributed at the end of second semester within classes among all students of four academic years in the field of Industrial design and dedicated 45 minutes to fulfill all questionnaires. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for the purpose of statistical analysis. The current study is seeking to find answer for this question what kind of relationships could be between personality traits with creativity; personality traits with self-actualization; creativity with self-actualization among students of Industrial design and the other also what kind of differences could be between male and female students. Findings show that there are few differences among male and female students therefore the only difference was found within Neuroticism scale in correlation of personality traits with creativity this while Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness could not make relationship with creativity but Openness could make relationship with creativity positively with intensity of strong correlation among both male and female students; the other findings show that Conscientiousness scale in the relationship between personality traits with Self-actualization is the only significant correlation with intensity of moderate among female students. Also, there was not found any differences among male and female students in correlation of Creativity with Self-actualization because both male and female students acquired the same scores very similar to each other but very little difference due to intensity of correlation which it is moderate among male students and strong among female students. After finding correlations between variables and detecting possible differences among male and female students, something that seems to be very important and vital for next studies attributed to adaptation of statistical outcomes with their visual architectural equivalents, probable stage model creativity, and ontological approaches for the better perception of relationship between quantitative and qualitative data.
    Keywords: Art, industrial design, personality traits, creativity, self-actualization, gender differences
  • Shima Jahani * Pages 125-132
    As the world moves toward complexity and new technologies appear, new demands are also created. In this process, design issues are also getting more complicated and there is a need for using new technologies for presenting the design ideas. One of these new technologies, is holographic image, which can help designers to present their ideas in 3d form. This paper is concern with introducing, investigating and studying holographic image and holographic print as a new technology. A hologram is a physical structure that diffracts light into an image. The term hologram can refer to both the encoded material and the resulting image. A holographic image can be seen by looking into an illuminated holographic print or by shining a laser through a hologram and projecting the image onto a screen. Three-dimensional hologram is a full-color image with high resolution but without space limitation. Users can see a real object, while interacting with the virtual image of the object. These images in human eye are seen hovering in perspective and with depth. This creates an experience extremely close to reality in the mind of people. Recently, this technology is used to create three-dimensional printing. These prints have the nature of a hologram and are able to convert two-dimensional images into illuminating three-dimensional objects. Making a model can be done in various ways, such as handmade models by help of different tools like laser cutters and also three-dimensional prints. Three-dimensional printing known as rapid prototyping is one the most popular, which is most accurate and quick. These models are printed in a layering process in which, most materials are harmful substances for environment and also for the user. Therefore, it is not sustainable. For this study a holographic print was compare with a three-dimensional print. Therefore, after conducting a literature review, 27 designers and architects were exposed to an object of holographic technology created by virtual applications available in mobile phone and a three-dimensional prototype by a 3d printing method. The subject was a car, which was produced by both technology. After introducing both models to the designers, questionnaires were given to them. The gathered data, were analyzed by Excel software. Results were showed that despite of all the positive properties of holographic technology, such as its attraction, fine details, color, etc., designers were still interested in using three-dimensional printing. This is due to the high cost of Holographic printing and the sense of touching. Designers mentioned that, the model seems more real to them, when they can get it in their hands and touch it, rather than seeing it in a virtual space, with many fine and precis details. It could also be related to the internal resistance to change, which is natural. Since three-dimensional holograms are very new, it takes time that people get used to them. Obviously, by passing the time, the cost of this technology, would reduce and it is getting more widespread.
    Keywords: Holographic, Hologram, Three-dimensional prints, Virtual reality