فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:16 Issue: 35, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/11/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Zahra Nikmanesh *, Hadi Ansari Pages 3-10
    Objectives
    The birth and presence of an exceptional child in a family can be considered as an undesirable challenging event. This event may be associated with stress, frustration, sadness, and despair. This study aimed to examine the relationship of religious coping styles with general health and psychological well-being among mothers of mentally disabled children.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in the mothers (n=68) whose mentally disabled children were enrolled in spacial schools in Zabol in the academic year 2012-2013. A study population was selected and homogenized through applying a convenience sampling method. Aflakseir and Coleman Religious Coping Scale, Keyes and Magyar Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire, and Goldberg and Hillier General Health Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analyses were performed by applying a Pearson correlation coefficient and a stepwise regression analysis.
    Results
    This study revealed that negative feelings towards God and passive religious coping were related to subscales of general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. The stepwise regression analysis demonstrated the most significant role of negative feelings towards God in predicting general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. Moreover, none of the subscales of religious coping were able to predict the mothers’ psychological well-being.
    Discussion
    The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.
    Keywords: Psychological, Religion, Health, Mentally disabled, Mothers
  • Mohammad Khandan, Shahram Vosoughi, Mohsen Poursadeghiyan, Farahnaz Azizi, Elaheh Ahounbar, Alireza Koohpaei * Pages 11-16
    Objectives
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a global problem which evolves at different workplaces such as industries, administrative, and agriculture sectors. In various studies, such disorders were assessed through multiple methods. It is necessary to evaluate different tools to use them in diverse communities. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the new ergonomic evaluating method of Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment (NERPA) method in Iran.
    Methods
    The employees (n=455) of operational units of four companies (drug producers, printing and publishing houses, dairy, and drinks producers) were assessed in 2014. It was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study. One of the researchers developed a questionnaire that was applied to collect demographic data. The NERPA, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) methods were utilized to analyze posture risk factors. Spearman correlation and Kappa agreement were used to analyze the collected data through SPSS V22.
    Results
    Findings indicated that printing company had the best and pharmaceutical industries had the worst state regarding RULA’s results. The risk levels between NERPA and REBA were not statistically significant (P>0.05), however, that was significant with RULA’s outcome. Also, the results of NERPA and other two methods were correlated significantly (P
    Discussion
    Data of the present study suggest that NERPA method was a valid tool compared to RULA. The NERPA method could be used to evaluate standing tasks among industrial workers. However, the concurrent validity of NERPA method compared with results of REBA, as a widely used method, were not verified.
    Keywords: Posture, Musculoskeletal diseases, NERPA, Validity, RULA, REBA
  • Rajab Samadi, Emran Mohammad Razaghi Kashani, Maryam Kami, Omid Rezaei * Pages 17-24
    Objectives
    Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) show poor cognitive performance during neuropsychological tests. Literature is scarce regarding veterans suffering with chronic PTSD. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive deficiencies of veterans with chronic PTSD with those of healthy participants.
    Methods
    A total of 51 hospitalized veterans and 45 healthy individuals were selected using a purposeful sampling method. Both groups performed a simple Stroop Test and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5).
    Results
    The results of independent samples t-test showed a significant difference in cognitive impairment between the veterans with PTSD and healthy subjects, and the veterans had lower performances on most aspects of the tests than that of the control group.
    Discussion
    According to our results, veterans with chronic PTSD showed lower cognitive performance than that of healthy individuals. This suggests that examination of the cognitive functioning of patients with PTSD can be useful in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PTSD.
    Keywords: PTSD, Disabled veteran, Executive functions, Attention
  • Malahat Amani *, Roghaye Asady Gandomani, Abbas Nesayan Pages 25-34
    Objectives
    Behavior rating scales have been developed to increase ecological validity in the measurement of executive functions. As the teachers have a lot of contact with the students in the school environment, behavioral rating scale teacher’s form can provide useful information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the behavioral rating inventory of executive functions teacher’s form among primary school students of Iran.
    Methods
    The statistical population consisted of primary school students of Jajarm city who were studying in the academic year 2016-2017. Students (n=360) were selected through sampling two-stage clusters. The behavioral rating inventory of executive functions (BRIEF) teacher’s form for students was completed by their teachers, and the Wechsler’s coding subscale was completed by the students.
    Results
    The results showed that the internal consistency of this inventory was 0.98 and for all subscales ranged 0.75 to 0.92. Also, subscales related to each other significantly. Regarding convergent validity, Wechsler’s coding subscale had a significant correlation with the subscales of executive functions. Also, results showed that two-factor model with eight subscales were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis.
    Discussion
    Given the satisfactory reliability and validity of BRIEF tool in the school environment and results of this study indicated the relationship of executive functions with academic problems; this tool could be used to examine students’ executive functions.
    Keywords: Executive functions, Standardization, Behavior, Questionnaire
  • Homa Rezaee, Djalil Younesi, Mojgan Farahbod, Maryam Ranjbar * Pages 35-44
    Objectives
    This study aimed to develop a modulated program of parenting skills and to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing autistic symptoms and increasing parental adjustment.
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental study utilized in two phases, a pretest- posttest design and a control group. First, a treatment program with both individual and group structure was constructed considering available treatments such as cognitive–behavior therapy, social stories, and play therapy catered to autistic children and the needs of their families. The program consisted of techniques such as acceptance, common cognitive errors challenge, control of thoughts, emotions and behavior, the principles of reward and punishment, and crisis management etc. The validity of the program was confirmed by four experts. Secondly, 26 volunteer qualified couples selected from the parents were referred to a rehabilitation center in Tehran, and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The pretest was performed for all participants. Then, the control group was kept away from the program during the 10 sessions of group, four sessions of individual, and two sessions of family therapy for each couple in the experiment group.
    Results
    Univariate analysis of Covariance showed that the program significantly improved marital adjustment in parents (F=22.018, P=0.001), and successfully reduced the symptoms of autistic disorder in social interaction (F=5.733, P=0.027) and relations (F=10.07, P=0.005). However, it did not significantly affect stereotyped behaviors (F=4.304, P=0.053) and development (F=0.448, P=0.511) of autistic children in the experimental group.
    Discussion
    The compiled parenting program is recommended to improve parental empowerment for the families of autistic children, because it is capable of reducing autistic symptoms in social interaction and relationships as well as improving marital adjustment in such families.
    Keywords: Modulated program, Parenting skills, Children, Autism, Autistic symptoms
  • Manijeh Zarei Mahmood Abadi, Fariba Yadegari *, Mehrzad Mehdizade, Enayatollah Bakhshi Pages 45-54
    Objectives
    Reliable and valid clinical tools to screen, diagnose, and describe eating functions and dysphagia in children are highly warranted. Today most specialists are aware of the role of assessment scales in the treatment of affected individuals. However, the problem is that the clinical tools used might be nonstandard, and worldwide, there is no integrated assessment performed to assess the aforementioned conditions. In a previous study, we translated and examined the schedule for oral-motor assessment for its content validity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the schedule for oral-motor assessment.
    Methods
    In this validation project, 23 children (6-48 month-old) who were referred to the imaging center were recruited. The assessment was based on the schedule for oral-motor assessment and was conducted by two speech-language pathologists for an inter-rater agreement evaluation. A retest was completed on 13 children up to 7 days. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), kappa coefficient, and percentage of agreement were analyzed by using SPSS software (version 17).
    Results
    We found a moderate Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC=0.48) and a relatively sensible kappa coefficient (K=0.50) for test-retest agreement. Two speech-language pathologists reached 91% agreement on normal-dysfunctional decisions of schedule for oral-motor assessment. Sections 2, 3, 4, and 6 of schedule for oral-motor assessment demonstrated an agreement of 100%, and Sections 1 and 5 demonstrated an agreement of 91%.
    Discussion
    Schedule for oral-motor assessment meets moderate levels of test-retest and inter-rater reliability criteria. Nonetheless, the percentage of decision consistency for inter-rater and test-retest examination turned out to be excellent.
    Keywords: Feeding behavior, Observation, Oral manifestation, Child
  • Omid Massah, Enayatollah Bakhshi *, Sara Shishehgar, Afsaneh Moradi Pages 55-60
    Objectives
    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a health problem among patients undergoing rehabilitation through methadone maintenance treatment in Iran, the most populous Persian Gulf country. The study aimed to examine gender differences among a group of methadone maintenance treatment patients with HCV problem.
    Methods
    Overall 150 patients (n=75 men, n=75 women) were enrolled from nine methadone clinics in Tehran. The study was conducted between July 2013 and June 2014. Participants of the two genders were compared in baseline characteristics, perceived stress, social support, coping strategies and mental health.
    Results
    Men were more likely to report being currently on parole than women (χ²(1)=9.23). Age of first illicit drug use was significantly higher among men than women (t(121)=2.43). Men were more likely to report drug injection in the last 12 months compared with women (χ²(1)=4.62). Men were more likely to report criminal charges (t(121)=2.21) and being in correctional facilities (χ²(1)=5.32) compared with women. Women reported higher levels of emotion-focused coping than men. Despite women reporting more social support [4.20(0.79)], they also reported higher levels of emotion-focused coping [2.66(0.55)] than men. Women were more likely to have a current mental health disorder (χ²(1)=8.15) than men.
    Discussion
    The study results demonstrated some gender differences in baseline characteristics and psychological problems. Such differences may have important impacts on methadone treatment outcomes. Further studies are suggested.
    Keywords: Drug_Hepatitis C virus_Harm reduction_Iran_Treatment
  • Majid Zarei, Fereshte Momeni *, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani Pages 61-68
    Objectives
    Cognitive flexibility, shame, and emotion regulation difficulties are considered potential mediating factors that may explain the relationship between neuroticism and depression severity. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of cognitive flexibility, shame and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between neuroticism and depression among university students.
    Methods
    A total of 271 students (102 males and 169 females) were selected by cluster random sampling from University of Tehran, Allameh Tabataba’i University, and Iran University of Science & Technology. Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI), Test of Self-Conscious Affect-2 (TOSCA-2), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to collect the data. Pearson correlation, multiple regression, and path analysis were applied for data analysis.
    Results
    It was found that neuroticism was significantly associated with depression and all three mediators (P
    Discussion
    These findings suggest that for student depression, emotion dysregulation might be important and future intervention works can examine the effects of targeting emotion dysregulation among university students with high levels of neuroticism and/or depression.
    Keywords: Psychopathology, Depression, Neuroticism
  • Shahrbanou Javidan *, Abbas Ali Hossein Khanzadeh, Abbas Abolghasemi Pages 69-76
    Objectives
    Considering the negative effect of self-handicapping on both mental and physical health and the positive effect of self-efficacy on success and efficacy of people, this research has been conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of meta-cognitive skills training on self-handicapping and self-efficacy of students.
    Methods
    This research is an experimental study with pre/post-test, and 28 student participants were allocated to experimental and control groups randomly (14 persons per group). Jones and Rhodewalt Self-Handicapping Scale, Sherer and Maddux Self-Efficacy Scale, and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test had been utilized for data collecting. The meta-cognitive training program was provided to the experimental group within two months in six sessions while students of the control group did not receive any training.
    Results
    Covariance analysis proposes that meta-cognitive training has a significant effect on decreasing self-handicapping in experimental group; however, there are no significant differences in the results of self-efficacy post-test in both experimental and control groups.
    Discussion
    Findings of the present study suggest that meta-cognitive skills training- as an effective training program- could be used for decreasing students’ self-handicapping. But with regards to the effectiveness of meta-cognitive skills training on self-efficacy, it is revealed that more variables are involved, and it needs further investigation.
    Keywords: Metacognition, Self-handicapping, Self-efficacy
  • Ebrahim Rahbar Karbasdehi *, Abbas Abolghasemi, Fatemeh Rahbar Karbasdehi Pages 77-82
    Objectives
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with -diverse communicative problems and Asperger’s syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare alexithymia and personality factors in students with and without ASD.
    Methods
    In this study 120 male students with and without ASD were included. All the students were from Rasht city, studying in the academic year 2016-2017. The students were asked to take up Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) and Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C). Statistical comparison within the variables were carried out by Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The probability value less than 0.05 considered to be significant.
    Results
    The MANOVA of results showed a significantly higher mean scores of alexithymia components and neuroticism in the students with ASD. However, the mean scores of agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness were significantly lower in the students with ASD (P
    Discussion
    The results garnered from this study implied that alexithymia and personality factors were significantly influenced by ASD. The findings of this research persuaded the pivotal implication of aforesaid facts on education and mental health of the students.
    Keywords: Affective symptoms, Personality, Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fereshteh Baezzat *, Mahmood Moradi, Mahshad Motaghedifard Pages 83-90
    Objectives
    In this research study, the effect of training phonological awareness skills on the improvement of auditory memory in students with spelling problems in third grade at primary schools in Sari City, Iran, was investigated.
    Methods
    The research method used in the study was quasi-experimental with pre-tests, post-tests, and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all the students from third grade at primary schools in Sari. The study sample was chosen based on purposive sampling and random sampling methods. First the teachers were asked to introduce students with spelling problems, out of whom 20 students were selected through three diagnostic tests: Wechsler intelligence test for children (2006), Baezzat writing disorder test (2010), and Cornoldi test of verbal memory (1995). These students were then randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group received phonological awareness skills training in 13 sessions but the control group did not receive any intervention.
    Results
    The data were analyzed by Mixed ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) with repeated measures. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the experimental and the control group’s scores (F=171.12, P=0.001), indicating that phonological awareness training improved the auditory memory of students with spelling problems. Follow up tests showed that the effect of phonological awareness training was sustained after three months’ duration.
    Discussion
    This study recommends that learning disorder experts and psychologists train phonological awareness skills in order to improve the auditory memory of students with spelling problems.
    Keywords: Phonological awareness, Spelling problems, Auditory memory
  • Tahereh Hendi, Sahel Hemmati Garakani *, Narges Adibsereshki, Robab Teymouri, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh Pages 91-102
    Objectives
    This study aimed to compare the behavioral problems and abilities of 7-12-year-old students with a physical/motor disability at mainstream and special schools.
    Methods
    The data in this comparative (cross sectional-analytic) study were collected using total population sampling, A sample of 247 students with a physical/motor disability including 153 students (67 females and 86 males) at special schools and 94 students (41 females and 53 males) at mainstream schools participated in this study. Data were collected using the Teacher and Parents versions of the child’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Each version includes five aspects, namely, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, peer relationship problems for measuring behavioral problems and the Prosocial Behaviors Questionnaire for estimating behavioral skills. Data analysis was performed using non-parametric Man-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
    Results
    Students with a physical/motor disability studying at mainstream schools significantly differed from those studying at special schools in terms of behavioral problems (P
    Discussion
    Our data demonstrate that behavioral problems of students with a physical/motor disability are fewer in mainstream schools indicating stronger behavior skills than their peers in special schools. In view of our data, we recommend the possibility of integrating the education of special needs students at regular schools.
    Keywords: Physical-motor disability, Mainstream, special schools, Behavioral problems, skills
  • Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi, Adis Kraskian Mujembari, Peyman Hassani Abharian *, Sara Pashang Pages 103-110
    Objectives
    Most of the women around the globe experience low back pain which often has a psychological overlay. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) can enhance psychological condition and subsequently improve mental health. Thereby the quality of life of individuals with chronic low back pain gets improved. The study rationale aimed to assess the effectiveness of ACT on quality of life, severity and duration of pain in women with chronic low back pain.
    Methods
    Twenty subjects (women aged between 23 to 34 years) with chronic low back pain from a rehabilitation clinic in Rasht city in the year 2016 were included in the study by convenience sampling method. They were then randomly divided into experimental and control groups (in each group, n=10). Data were collected by a three-part checklist containing demographic characters, World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire and McGill Pain Questionnaire. The rehabilitation interventions were based on ACT carried out for eight sessions of one hour each, twice a week. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software via Paired t-test and independent t-test method.
    Results
    There was a significant increase in all subscales of quality of life (P
    Discussion
    The effects of ACT rehabilitation technique on women with chronic low back pain were impressive, which augmented the quality of life. Hence this method can be used as a rehabilitation tool for women with chronic low back pain.
    Keywords: Low back pain, Chronic pain, Quality of life, Severity of pain, Duration of pain, Acceptance, commitment therapy