فهرست مطالب

علوم اجتماعی - سال چهاردهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • سال چهاردهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • علمی - پژوهشی
  • مهدی کرمانی، محمد مظلوم خراسانی، حسین بهروان، محسن نوغانی دخت بهمنی صفحات 1-32

    زنان سرپرست خانوار فقیر یکی از گروه های آسیب‏پذیر جامعه هستند. این زنان علاوه بر نقش‏های متداول برای زنان در خانواده، متولی نقش‏های مربوط به سرپرستی خانوار نیز هستند. از این رو، تلاش برای توان مندسازی آن ها از اولویت ویژه‏ای برخوردار است. در این بین، برخورداری از آمادگی ذهنی و روانی پیش شرطی اساسی برای شکوفایی قابلیت‏های فردی در دیگر عرصه های زندگی است. بر این اساس، تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی و توان مندی روانی در زنان سرپرست خانوار در قالب پژوهشی پیمایشی متشکل از 324 زن شاغل در مراکز کارآفرینی و مهارت‏آموزی کوثر شهرداری تهران، صورت پذیرفته‏است. برای اخذ نمونه، ابتدا مراکزی به صورت تصادفی از لیست مراکز موجود انتخاب و سپس کارکنان هر مرکز تمام شماری شده اند. این روند تا تحقق حجم نمونه تعیین شده ادامه یافته است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات نیز پرسش‏نامه محقق ساخته بوده است. داده های حاصل با روش‏های آماری تحلیل هم بستگی و تحلیل هم بستگی کانونی تجزیه وتحلیل شده‏اند. یافته های تحقیق در مجموع موید هم بستگی متوسط بین مولفه های مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی و توان مندی روانی بوده‏ است. در عین حال، هم بستگی‏ بین «توانایی تصمیم‏گیری» و «اعتماد به نفس» با مولفه های مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی قوی‏تر از سایر مولفه های توان مندی روانی بوده‏ است. در بین متغیرهای زمینه‏ای نیز در اغلب موارد سن اثر منفی و مدت سرپرستی، درآمد و تحصیلات دارای اثر مثبت بر مولفه های توان مندی روانی بوده‏اند. همچنین، تحلیل هم بستگی کانونی، نشان‏دهنده‏ نقش تبیین‏کنندگی سرمایه اجتماعی بر توان مندی روانی است.

    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، توا ن مندی روان، سلامت روان، زنان سرپرست خانوار
  • حسین میرزایی، مجتبی میرزایی، مهناز کاتبی صفحات 33-61
    کارآفرینی به عنوان یکی از حلقه های تاثیر گذار در امر توسعه، روشی مورد توجه جهت حل معضل بیکاری در بسیاری از جوامع است. هدف این مقاله، بررسی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر پتانسیل کارآفرینی دانشجویان می باشد. جامعه آماری، کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه تبریز (15720) در سال تحصیلی 92-1391 هستند که 321 نفر با روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای تصادفی انتخاب و داده ها جمع آوری و برای تحلیل داده ها از ضریب هم بستگی پیرسون و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه استفاده شده است. براساس نتایج میانگین نمره پتانسیل کارآفرینی دانشجویان (28/70) متوسط رو به بالا بوده و در بین ابعاد متغیر پتانسیل کارآفرینی بعد توفیق طلبی (30/77) بالاترین نمره را داشته است. همچنین، مشخص شد که با مثبت ترشدن ارزیابی و نگرش دانشجویان به خوداشتغالی، کار و تحرک اجتماعی، نمره پتانسیل کارآفرینی آن ها بهبود یافته است. از طرفی، شیوه تربیتی دموکراتیک باعث تقویت کارآفرینی دانشجویان شده است. در تحلیل های رگرسیونی نیز مشخص شد پتانسیل کارآفرینی نمونه، از متغیر نگرش به خود اشتغالی (34/0) بیشتر متاثر است و بعد از آن متغیرهای شیوه تربیتی والدین (26/0)، ارزیابی از تحرک اجتماعی (20/0) و نگرش به کار (13/0) به ترتیب بیشترین نقش را در تبیین متغیر وابسته دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: کارآفرینی، شیوه تربیتی، تحرک اجتماعی، نگرش به کار، نگرش به خود اشتغالی
  • علی یوسفی، فاطمه قاسمی ادکان صفحات 63-80
    شخصیت مجموعه ای از احساسات، تمایلات و الگوهای رفتاری معین است که چگونگی درک و پاسخ افراد به حوادث و رویدادها را مشخص می کند. رویکرد و رفتار رانندگی نیز تحت تاثیر شخصیت راننده قرار دارد و برخی از ویژگی های شخصیتی، رانندگان را به سمت رفتارهای پرخطر رانندگی سوق می دهند. مدعای نوشتار حاضر این است که تحریک جویی با دو ویژگی شدت هیجان و تنوع طلبی، رفتار پرخطر رانندگی را با سه مشخصه خطا، لغزش و تخلف، تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. نتایج تحقیق پیمایشی بر روی رفتار رانندگی 160 نفر از رانندگان (خودرو سواران) 18سال و بالاتر ساکن شهر مشهد در سال 1390 که به روش نمونه گیری چندمرحله ای برگزیده و مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفته اند، نشان داد که اگرچه به طور کلی میزان تحریک جویی آزمودنی ها در حد متوسط و رفتارهای پرخطر رانندگی آن ها در حد پایین است، بین دو مجموعه متغیر تحریک جویی و رفتارهای پرخطر رانندگی هم بستگی نسبتا بالا (53/0=ρ) وجود دارد و در ایجاد این هم بستگی، از مجموعه تحریک جویی، متغیر شدت هیجان و از مجموعه رفتار پرخطر، متغیر خطای رانندگی بیشترین سهم را بر عهده دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحریک جویی، رفتار پرخطر رانندگی، خطا، لغزش، تخلف، شدت هیجان، تنوع طلبی
  • علی مرادی، حمیدرضا جلیلیان صفحات 81-112
    هدف این مطالعه بررسی رابطه بین یادگیری سازمانی و رضایت شغلی کارکنان با استفاده از مدل معادلات ساختاری (در دستگاه های دولتی کرمانشاه) ادارات دولتی شهر کرمانشاه است. روش مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی از نوع پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری در این مطالعه کلیه ادارات دولتی شهر کرمانشاه است که از بین همه آن ها تعداد هشت اداره کل انتخاب و با استفاده از جدول نمونه گیری لین تعداد 377 نفر برای مطالعه با استفاده از روش تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها، پرسش نامه بوده که روایی آن با استفاده از روایی سازه ای و به طور خاص با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی برآورد شد و برای سنجش پایایی ابزار پژوهش از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. داده های گردآوری شده با استفاده از نرم افزارهای آماری SPSS و Amos تحلیل شدند و آزمون هایی چون ماتریس هم بستگی، تحلیل واریانس برای فرضیه های پژوهش و رگرسیون و معادلات ساختاری برای آزمون مدل استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی فرضیه های پژوهش نشان می دهد که بین یادگیری سازمانی و رضایت مندی شغلی رابطه مثبت و معناداری (495/0=r) وجود دارد و این نتیجه قابل تعمیم به کل جامعه آماری است. نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون نشان می دهد که بین میزان یادگیری سازمانی و رضایت شغلی هم بستگی بالایی وجود دارد، به طوری که مقدار T برای این متغیر برابر (79/9 T=) است. میزان ضریب تعیین برابر با 24/0 = به دست آمد. نتایج مدل ساختاری نشان می دهد که داده های گردآوری شده تا حد زیادی از مدل اندازه گیری و ساختاری حمایت می کنند. از طرفی شاخص های مربوط به برازش مدل نشان می دهند که مدل اندازه گیری این پژوهش از وضعیت قابل قبولی برخوردار است و بیشتر بارهای عاملی دارای تفاوت معناداری با صفر هستند. برآوردهای استاندارد برای ضرایب تاثیر و همچنین بارهای عاملی نشان می دهد که اثر مستقیم متغیر یادگیری سازمانی بر رضایت مندی کارکنان معنادار است.
    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری سازمانی، رضایت مندی شغلی، مدل معادلات ساختاری، یادگیری اجتماعی، کرمانشاه
  • غلامرضا جمشیدیها، سید رحیم تیموری صفحات 113-155
    دولت توسعه گرا، سنخ خاصی از دولت است که در جامعه استقلال ریشه دار دارد. تحول چنین دولتی عمدتا مرتبط با چند رویداد تاریخ ساز؛ یعنی ظهور دولت های توسعه-گرای کلاسیک در فاصله 1914-1870 در آلمان و ژاپن، رویش هسته مرکزی دولت توسعه گرای شرق آسیا پس از جنگ جهانی دوم و در نهایت، انتقال مدل دولت توسعه گرا به سایر کشورهای در حال توسعه در خاورمیانه، آفریقا و آمریکای لاتین، از دهه 90 به بعد مرتبط با بسترهایی چون تغییر محیط اقتصاد جهانی و پایان جنگ سرد (البته در ایران هم‏زمان با پایان جنگ تحمیلی و بازساخت اقتصادی) است. با چنین زمینه ای، در این پژوهش روند خلاصه ای از نقش دولت در توسعه ایران، به لحاظ تاریخی در سال های دوره پهلوی و به طور خاص، سال های بعد از جنگ تحمیلی ارائه شد و در نهایت، ویژگی های طبقه بندی شده دولت توسعه گرا در ایران آزمایش شد. یافته های این پژوهش تاکید دارد، روند تغییر محیط اقتصادی-اجتماعی جهانی، دامنه جغرافیایی و تنوع کارکردی بیشتری به دولت توسعه گرا بخشیده و سنخ های جدید و متفاوتی از دولت های توسعه گرا را از میان مناطق جغرافیایی متفاوت از شرق آسیا به جرگه این دولت ها افزوده است. مطابق یافته ها، اگرچه ایران فاقد اصلی ترین ویژگی های دولت های توسعه گرای جدید است؛ اما به مانند سایر هم قطاران خود در یک بستر تاریخی مشخص شکل گرفته و تکوین یافته است و در خصلت بنیادین دولت های توسعه گرا؛ یعنی توسعه دولت محور با آن ها اشتراک دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: دولت، توسعه، دولت توسعه گرا- ناتوسعه گرا، ویژگی ها، سنخ آرمانی، دولت توسعه گرای جدید
  • جواد افشارکهن، ملیحه رضایی کرماجانی صفحات 157-188
    مقاله حاضر برآمده از یک پژوهش علمی است که با هدف بررسی هویت اجتماعی جوانان در ابعاد خانوادگی، گروهی، دینی و قومی و تاثیر آن بر سبک زندگی آن ها انجام شد. در این مقاله ابتدا مروری بر دیدگاه های نظری و منابع تجربی انجام می شود و سپس چهارچوب مفهومی مناسبی تنظیم می شود و در قالب آن فرضیه های اصلی مطرح و مورد آزمون قرار خواهند گرفت. مبنای نظری پژوهش، تلفیقی از تئوری های پیربوردیو، ماکس وبر و آنتونی گیدنز است. پرسش اصلی این مقاله آن است که آیا رابطه معناداری میان ابعاد مختلف هویت اجتماعی با یک دیگر و نیز رابطه آن ها با سبک زندگی وجود دارد؟ جامعه آماری پژوهش جوانان شهر همدان و حجم نمونه مورد بررسی نیز 384 نفر می باشدکه به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمحله ای انتخاب شده اند. تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی و ابزار اندازه گیری آن پرسش نامه بوده، سپس توسط آمار استنباطی، تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه و آزمون تعقیبی شفه به بررسی رابطه بین متغیرها و آزمون فرضیه های پرداخته شده است. یافته ها موید این نکته هستند که جهت و شدت رابطه هویت اجتماعی با ابعاد مختلف مفهوم سبک زندگی؛ یعنی فعالیت ها (تفریحی، گروهی و دینی)، علاقه مندی ها (مذهبی، ورزشی و فرهنگی) و نگرش های مدرن متفاوت است. بنابراین، می توان گفت جوانان براساس هویت اجتماعی شان سبک زندگی متفاوتی دارند. نتایج همچنین نشان می دهند هویت مذهبی نقش مهم و تعیین کننده ای در میزان فعالیت های دینی و علاقه مندی های مذهبی جوانان دارد. در مقابل هویت گروهی نقش برجسته و تعیین کننده ای در میزان فعالیت های گروهی، تفریحی و علاقه مندی های ورزشی جوانان و همچنین میزان نگرش های مدرن در آن ها دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت اجتماعی، سبک زندگی، جوانان، نگرش های مدرن، هویت گروهی
  • علی اکبر تاج مزینانی، اسعد خانی صفحات 189-220
    مقاله حاضر نحوه تجربه کردن گذارهای شغلی و خانوادگی در بین دو نسل سنی (متولدین 63 و 33) در شهرستان دهگلان را با هم مقایسه کرده و همچنین، نقش قابلیت های فردی و عوامل ساختاری در گذارهای دو نسل را بررسی می کند. مبنای طرح فرضیه های این پژوهش، نظریه های پسامدرنیته در باب جوانی، فردگرایی ساخت یافته و نظریه کاهش عدم قطعیت ها بوده است. روش پژوهش حاضر، پیمایش بوده و برای جمع آوری داده ها با طراحی پرسش نامه ای با 317 نفر مصاحبه شد. یافته ها حاکی از آن است که نسل امروزه جوانان، گذارها را همانند نسل گذشته و به صورت وقایع استاندارد، محدودشده و قابل انتظار صورت نمی دهند؛ بلکه گذارها، متنوع تر، طولانی تر و غیر قابل پیش بینی شده اند. همچنین، نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که 7/55 درصد تغییرات گذار شغلی متولدین 63 با پنج متغیر جنسیت، حمایت خانواده، رسانه ها، مذهب و تحصیلات و 8/58 درصد از تغییرات گذار به ازدواج این نسل با پنج متغیر جنسیت، تحصیلات، رسانه ها، سن و پایگاه اجتماعی- اقتصادی، تبیین می شوند. این در حالی است که 16 درصد از تغییرات گذار شغلی متولدین 33 با تنها عامل حمایت خانواده و 1/48 درصد از تغییرات گذار به ازدواج آن ها با چهار عامل جنسیت، مذهب، آداب ورسوم و سن، پیش بینی می شوند. نتایج این پژوهش دلالت بر آن دارد که نسل جدید از یک طرف خواهان عملیاتی کردن عاملیت ناب و از طرفی در بند محدودیت های ساختی هستند، به همین دلیل مسیرهای پیشروی خود را پر از آشفتگی می بینند
    کلیدواژگان: گذار به بزرگ سالی، عاملیت، عوامل ساختاری، گذارهای شغلی و خانوادگی
  • قدیر یوسف پور اوندری، غلامرضا ملک زاده، حمید عرفانیان خانزاده صفحات 221-261
    یکی از وظایف مدیران و رهبران در هر سازمانی این است که با حفظ و ارتقای سطح خود کارآمدی و اعتمادبه نفس کارکنان، حیات سازمانی خود را استمرار بخشند. این مهم زمانی امکان پذیر خواهد بود که آن ها از عوامل اثرگذار و نیز عوامل تضعیف کننده آن مطلع باشند. یکی از مهم ترین این عوامل، رهبری اخلاقی است که مورد توجه اندیشمندان عرصه مدیریت و سازمان قرارگرفته است. در سازمان های آموزشی از جمله دانشگاه ها، رهبری اخلاقی و توجه به معنویت تاثیرات بسیاری بر نگرش و ادراک اعضای سازمان و ایجاد و حفظ اعتمادبه نفس و خودکارآمدی کارکنان دارد. هدف مطالعه حاضر نیز بررسی نقش واسط معنویت سازمانی در رابطه بین رهبری اخلاقی و خودکارآمدی کارکنان دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد است. روش پژوهش ماهیتی پیمایشی- کاربردی دارد و جهت جمع آوری داده ها از پرس شنامه استفاده شد و فرضیه ها با بهره گیری از روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد، بزرگ ترین ضریب هم بستگی مربوط به رابطه بین خودکارآمدی و معنویت سازمانی (594/0) و کوچک ترین ضریب مربوط به رابطه رهبری اخلاقی و معنویت سازمانی (546/0) است. همچنین، قوی ترین ضریب اثر مربوط به ضریب اثر رهبری اخلاقی و معنویت سازمانی (67/0) و ضعیف ترین ضریب به ضریب اثر رهبری اخلاقی بر خودکارآمدی (31/0) مربوط می شود که البته معنادار است. با توجه به تایید اثر رهبری اخلاق مدار بر معنویت سازمانی و همچنین، اثر معنویت سازمانی بر خودکارآمدی می توان گفت معنویت سازمانی رابطه بین رهبری اخلاق مدار و خودکارآمدی (اثر غیرمستقیم 355/0) را میانجی گری می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری، رهبری اخلاقی، معنویت، خودکارآمدی، دانشگاه
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  • Mahdi Kermani, Mohammad Mazloum Khorasani, Hossein Behravan, Mohsen Noghani Dokht Bahmani Pages 1-32

    IntroductionThe poor women households are one of the most vulnerable groups in any society. Given the fact that in addition to the roles played by women in the family, they are responsible for the role of household care, the efforts to empower them have a special priority. In many theories about or studies on the empowerment of vulnerable groups, attention to psychological components of empowerment is visible. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and social capital. Accordingly, the main question of the research can be as follows: What is the relationship between psychological ability and its components with social capital and its components?
    Theoretical FrameworkThis research has been linked to two main theoretical areas, including social capital theory and empowerment theory. The most important theoretical ideas about social capital can be seen in the work of Robert Putnam (1994), Francis Fukuyama (1995), James Colman and Peter Bourdieu (Tajbakhsh, 2005). A significant part of the psychological empowerment literature has grown in the field of organization theory. In this context, one of the prevailing views is Spreitzer's (1995) work. In this study, psychological empowerment has been redefined with a combination of indicators including mental health, self-esteem, self-confidence, responsibility, and motivation for progress. Regarding social capital and considering what has been suggested in various sources, including the World Bank (2011), the indicators are social participation, group membership, interpersonal trust, institutional trust, generalized trust, family and kinship relationships, neighborhood and friendship relationships, and finally lack of isolation.
    MethodologyIn this study, a survey method has been used. In addition, in exploratory studies, documentary, observation, and interviewing techniques have been used. The statistical sample of this study was 324 female headed households working in skill and employment centers affiliated to the female empowerment staff of Tehran's municipality. The data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. To confirm the validity of the questionnaire, while using the authoritative books and resources in its design, the original design was reviewed based on the suggestions of a number of professors and experts. Also, Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlation were used to control and confirm the reliability of the questionnaire. The results showed that the indicators were valid.
    FindingsBased on the findings, there were significant correlations between the demographic characteristics of individuals and the main variables. The strongest correlation was observed between the income and the components of social capital. Education and age are in the next positions, respectively. The correlation between the age and components of social capital has generally been reversed. Also, significant differences in the means of the citizenship awareness, public awareness, feelings of exclusion and isolation, generalized trust, interpersonal trust, neighborhood relationships and family and kinship relationships were observed in single, married, widowed, and divorced groups. Regarding the assumptions about the relationship between social capital components and psychological empowerment components, the results showed that mental health, self-esteem, self-confidence, decision-making ability and responsibility have significantly correlated with all components of social capital. At the same time, motivation for progress has not had a meaningful relationship with neighborhood relationships and friendship relationships. But there are significant correlations between other components of social capital with this variable. Canonical correlation analysis has been used to investigate the general relationship between psychological empowerment and social capital. The findings of the canonical analysis show that the set of independent variables (i.e., social capital) has more power in explaining the variance of the dependent variables set (i.e., psychological empowerment) as compared to its opposite.
    ConclusionThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and its components, and psychological empowerment and its components. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in the extraction of three pairs of roots or canonical functions, which were statistically significant by putting the components of psychological empowerment in the dependent set and placing the components of social capital in the independent set. The correlation between the canonical variable corresponding to each set in the first, second, and third pairs were 0.630, 0.355, and 0.325, respectively. Considering the results of canonical correlation analysis, especially the study of the redundancy values, the main hypothesis of the research, (i.e., the impact of social capital on psychological empowerment) can be verified. These results were consistent with findings of other studies such as Keyvanara, Tavakoli, Samouei and Tavkoli (2012), Shoja, Nabavi, Kassani and Bagheri Yazdi (2012), Razavizadeh, Noghani and Yousefi (2012) and Welsh and Berry (2009).

    Keywords: Social capital, Social trust, Psychological empowerment, Mental health, Canonical correlation
  • Hossien Mirzaei, Mojtaba Mirzaie, Mahnaz Katebi Pages 33-61
    IntroductionEntrepreneurship as one of the most influential circles in development is a method for solving the problem of unemployment in many societies. Entrepreneurs provides opportunities through the proper recognition of these opportunities and using static capital. Through organizing and managing resources, they can operate their ideas and thus help to market activeness. In Iran, in the last century, efforts have been made to develop economic and industrial development, but success has not been so impressive. In the context of the economic growth of society and the issue of unemployment, the unemployment of college graduates is a fundamental issue in our society, and thus conducting relevant research and identifying this critical issue is crucial. One of the most important hypotheses about university graduate's unemployment is the weakness of the entrepreneurial mood and the lack of academic applied training in this context. Accordingly, in this research, we will try to, first, assess the entrepreneurial potential among university students, secondly, identify some factors related to the entrepreneurial potential of the sample, and finally provide the necessary strategies to increase the entrepreneurial potential of the studied society according to empirical results.
    Theoretical FrameworkThe term entrepreneurship comes from the French word entreprendre and means commitment. In the Webster University Dictionary, an entrepreneur is someone who organizes, manages, and accepts the dangers of an economic activity. Entrepreneurship has been considered for its importance by various disciplines, as the idea of entrepreneurship was first introduced in economic schools, then, in psychology and sociology schools. Today, the term entrepreneur is presented for various activities and in different perspectives. But theoretical and experimental development of this concept is due to the efforts of thinkers such as Schumpeter (1943), McClelland (1963), and Drucker (1986). In this research, various factors have been used to explain sociological factors influencing entrepreneurship. This research has four hypotheses: 1.There is a meaningful relationship between parents’ parenting and entrepreneurial potential. 2. There is a direct relationship between positive attitude towards self-employment and entrepreneurship potential. 3. Positive assessment of social mobility increases entrepreneurial potential of people 4. Positive attitude toward work and business improves entrepreneurship potential.
    MethodologyThis study is a survey study in terms of content and control conditions. It is cross sectional in terms of time, and applied in terms of goal and is micro in terms of range, mainly because its units are students. Statistical population consists of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Tabriz University in 2013. Total number of undergraduate and graduate students at Tabriz University in 2013 was 15,720. To estimate the sample size, Cochran formula was used, which was estimated to be 321. A random stratified sampling method was used to select the samples. In this study, to determine the measuring tool, formal validity was applied. After initial test and modification, the questionnaire was distributed among management and social science researchers and scholars to standardize questions in order to reach face validity of questionnaire. Alpha Cronbach method was used to assess the reliability of the data collection tool.
    ResultsBased on the average results, the student's entrepreneurial potential score (70.28) was moderate and among the dimensions of the entrepreneurship potential variable, success request (77.30) had the highest score. Also, Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant and direct correlation between entrepreneurial potential and independent variables of research, namely parenting education methods, attitude towards self-employment, assessment of social mobility and attitude to work. In other words, it became clear that with a more positive evaluation of student's attitudes towards self-employment, work and social mobility, their entrepreneurial potential score have been improved. On the other hand, democratic education has strengthened student's entrepreneurship. In regression analysis, it was found that the potential of entrepreneurial sample was more influenced by the attitude toward self-employment (0.34), and that, parent's educational method (0.26), evaluation of social mobility (0.20) and attitude toward work (0.13) have the most significant role in explaining variation of the dependent variable.
    ConclusionIn this research, the theoretical framework of the research was set by referring to most theoretical perspectives and empirical sources and by using the results obtained from their review. To analyze the social factors affecting entrepreneurial potential, hypothesis research was presented and tested. The results of the research hypothesis showed that the investigated social factors were effective in enhancing the entrepreneurial potential of the students and increasing it. In this regard, we can consider positive changes for the potential of entrepreneurship among students through reinforcing each investigated variable, too. These results confirmed the views of McClelland (1963), Parsons (1998), Joseph McGuire (1962) and other scholars of the field, who emphasized on the effect of these factors on people's entrepreneurship. In terms of empirical research, the results of the present study are consistent with the results of Alborzie (2011) and Zahiri (2006).
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial potential, Self-employed, Upbringing style, Social mobility, Attitude to work
  • Ali Yousofi, Fatemeh Ghasemi Adkan Pages 63-80
    IntroductionA driver's personality traits have a significant influence on his driving behavior. In Tillman and Hobbes (1994, cited in Jonah, 1997) words, people drive as the same way they live. Sensation seeking is a personality trait whose role in risky driving behavior has been of interest. Zuckerman (1994, cited in Jonah, 1997) defines sensation seeking as varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences and the willingness to take risks for the sake of such experiences. The high rate of driving violations in Mashhad requires a nuanced study of the factors leading to risky driving behavior in this city. The present study, through emphasizing and accentuating sensation seeking, aims to analyze risky driving behavior in Mashhad and reveal their interdependence.
    Theoretical FrameworkElander, West, and French (1993, cited in Özkan & Lajunen, 2005) consider driving as a behavior which is chosen by drivers as a pattern for their driving, such as the speed, degree of focus, and keeping a safe distance between cars. Such behaviors include two types of positive and negative behaviors. In driving, negative behaviors are referred to as aggressive or negative driving. Sensation seeking, or individual’s willingness for novel experiences and sensations, is a major personality trait influencing dangerous driving behavior.
    The main hypothesis of the research, based on Zuckerman's (1994) definition of sensation seeking, which consists of the two aspects of thrill-seeking and variety-seeking, and also the definition of risky driving behavior provided by Reason, Manstead, Stradling, Baxter, and Campbell (1990), which consists of error and driving violation, is as follows: While a driver’s sensation seeking is in itself a function of both thrill-seeking and variety-seeking in driving and risky driving behavior is a function of errors and driving violation, the two functions are interdependent and changes in one necessitates changes in the other.
    MethodThe data used for this study is based on a survey conducted in 2010 in Mashhad on 160 drivers who were at least18 years old, and were chosen using multistage sampling prior to the interview. The scale used for measuring risky driving behavior is based on the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire, which includes the three factors of lapse, errors and violations. To measure sensation seeking in the present study, the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking was used. This scale includes two factors of thrill-seeking and variety-seeking.
    To test the main hypothesis of the research (i.e., the relationship between sensation seeking and risky driving behavior), canonical correlation analysis was used. This technique is used to measure the association among two sets of variables (i.e., functions). In the present study, sensation seeking is a function of excitement-seeking (X1) and variety-seeking (X2) and risky driving behavior is a function of straying and loss of orientation (Y1), error (Y2), and violation (Y3), and the objective is to reveal the association between the two functions. Canonical correlation analysis makes identification of linear combinations of these sets of variables that have the highest possible correlation.
    FindingsThe results of the canonical correlation analysis revealed a covariation of roughly 0.53 between the canonical variables of sensation seeking and risky driving behavior. The square root of this coefficient (0.28) denotes a covariation between these two sets of variables (linear combination). Accordingly, canonical variable of sensation seeking predicts 28 percent of the variation in the canonical variable of risky driving behavior.
    As for the weight of the canonical variables, which reveals the share of each main variable in the canonical correlation, the findings showed that among the functions of risky driving behavior, the biggest weight (-0.71) belongs to the error variable and in the function of sensation seeking, the biggest weight belongs to the intensity of driving excitement (- 0.63).
    In this analysis, canonical weights reveal the share of each main variable in formation of their respective canonical variable. Therefore, the findings of the research revealed that in forming the canonical variable of risky driving behavior, the biggest weight belongs to violations (-0.89) and in the forming canonical variable of sensation seeking, the biggest weight belongs to the drivers’ excitement-seeking (-0.92).
    Discussion and ConclusionPersonality is a combination of feelings, thoughts, and specific behavioral patterns which determine the way people perceive events and incidents and reply to them. While driving, a driver's personality affects his driving approach and behavior. Sensation seeking is among the personality traits influencing risky driving behavior. The three aspects of risky driving behavior that are lapse, errors, and violations are influenced by sensation seeking, which itself is comprised of excitement-seeking and novelty-seeking.
    An analysis of the relationship among sensation seeking and risky driving behavior in Mashhad revealed that firstly, subjects’ overall sensation seeking is in the middle range (49.6) and their risky driving behavior is in the lower range (21.9). Secondly, a high (ρ = 0.53) and statistically significant correlation exists between the two sets of variables pertaining to sensation seeking and risky driving behavior. In the formation of this correlation, the variable of intensity of excitement in sensation seeking and that of driving error in risky behavior have the major shares. Thirdly, in the main (canonical) variable of sensation seeking, intensity of excitement has a higher share than variety-seeking and in the main variable of risky driving behavior, the biggest share belongs to variable of violation, followed by error, and lapse, respectively.
    Keywords: Sensation seeking, Risky driving behavior, Error, Lapse, Violation, Intensity of excitement, Variety-seeking
  • Ali Moradi, Hamidreza Jalilian Pages 81-112
    IntroductionOne of the issues discussed by social science researchers is organizational life and, in particular, job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction is the common theme of all organizations, and therefore analyzing and recognizing it is the main concern of all thinkers of the humanities. One of the factors that can affect job satisfaction is organizational learning. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between organizational learning and job satisfaction of employees with an emphasis on Kermanshah government departments.
    In this study, Parsons’ (1977) theoretical view is used. He believes that organizations need to solve their four tasks for survival and progress over time: 1. Achievement of goal; 2. Adaptation; 3. Integrity; 4. Preservation of the pattern. Parsons considers the organization as a social system based on a larger social system, that is, society, and on this basis, the concept of job satisfaction (Parsons, 1965, p. 30) is set forth.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    Feldman (1987) thinks that the process of socialization in organizations has three stages:1. The first stage is the stage before entering the organization or the preliminary stage. The person has a series of general information about the organization.
    2. The second stage is the stage of confrontation or adaptation. A person faces the reality of the organization and knows the roles of himself and others.
    3. The third stage is the stage of metamorphosis or role management. The individual either adapts himself to the organizational culture or leaves the expected organization. At this stage, the person knows his or her own job restrictions and those of the others, and he is to perform as part of the role he plays (Saatchi, 2008, p. 277).
    Senge (1992) considers the five principles or disciplines of individual skills, mental models, common goals, team learning, and systemic thinking are essential in organizational learning.
    MethodologyIn this research, 377 people were surveyed by Kermanshah public administration staffs whose total number was 14777 people. They were studied by stratified random sampling and Linn table sampling method. Factor analysis was used to estimate the validity of the two concepts of job satisfaction and organizational learning. Five-dimensional organizational learning (personal skill, mental model, common goal, team learning, and system learning) was measured.
    Results & DiscussionThe results show that the mean job satisfaction of employees is 40.23, which is lower than the expected mean (45) and indicates a low level of employee satisfaction. There is a significant and positive relationship between organizational learning and job satisfaction (r = 0. 495), and this is a generalizable result for the entire statistical population. The results of the functional model of the organizational learning variable show that the non-significant Chi-Square of the CMIN is 263.77 and the significance level of 0.0000 does not show a good result. The second RMSEA is 0.053 which is close to zero and confirms the fitness of the model. The value of the RMR index or root mean square of the residuals is 0.046, which is close to zero and confirms the fitness of the model. The CMIN/DF was used for assessing the model, the value of which is 1.84, and that one in turn represents a recovery condition for the model. The comparative fitting index of CFI is 0.933, which shows good results. For PCFI adaptive fit index, values of 0.50 and above are acceptable. The results show the values of this index is 0.702.
    SuggestionsBased on the findings of this study, job satisfaction is directly affected by organizational learning. In other words, increase of organizational learning of employees lead to their job satisfaction changes. The correlation coefficient for this variable is 0.45, which indicates a strong, direct and significant relationship between the two variables. This result can be explained in the form of a social learning perspective. In the theory of social learning, it is assumed that people that are new in an organization are free of inter-organizational processes that become organizational entities through the influence of the organizational world. Such a person learns in the organization to attract parts of the behavior that will make him unique. Based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory, one of the most fundamental tools for modeling a new behavior is to personally view behavior and adapt with it. Generally, having dedicated and loyal committed employees is the most important factor in the success of any organization. The main priority for any company should be to attract and retain committed and competent employees. Failure to realize this means losing productivity, a lack of growth and a loss of business. Success in a competitive world belongs to companies that consider committed and loyal employees as their greatest capital. Many scholars have argued that human resources are the only competitive advantage that organizations need, and they should turn this potential force into action by taking appropriate actions and directing them to the organization. Lack of human resources can never achieve their goals. In other words, human resources play a key role in maintaining market competition.
    Keywords: Organizational learning, Job satisfaction, Staff, Structural Equation Modeling
  • Gholamreza Jamshidiha, Seyed Rahim Teymoori Pages 113-155
    IntroductionSince the late 1970s, a number of social scientists have paid attention to centralized state powers in capitalist societies and state autonomy theories (Giddens, 1985; Mann, 1986; Skocpol, 1979). Developmental states have evolved around some specific historical events during the 1870s, including two historical trends, namely, The Prussian Empire Conquest over Napoleon III, and the beginning of Meiji Reforms in Japan (Kazemi,2015). Through the elimination of development obstacles, Bismarck and Meiji states (i.e., classic developmental states), as two typical examples of this developmental model, established the related infrastructues and context of national development known as “revolution from above” in Moore parlace (Moore, 1993).
    The aftermath of World War II, formation of Eastern Block, and finally, beginning of the Cold War, all together, transferred the geographical field of developmental states to the East Asia (Kazemi, 2015) which in its turn created central core of developmental state in this region. The transfer of developmental states model to the other developing countries in the middle east, Africa and latin America, is the concrete evidence for the emergence of some new developmental states embedded in the situations like changing the environment of global economy, vanishing the cold war, and feeling a pressure toward democratization.
    Theoretical FrameworkOne can trace the ideas related to the developmental states in some scholars’ works who have the reputation in classic economic history (e.g., List, 1841; Gerschenkron, 1962; Marx, 1979) and, especially, in institutional economy and sociology (e.g., Johnson, 1982; Evans, 1995,2010; Leftwich, 2000; Cohli, 2004; Routley, 2012; Amsden, 1992; Wade, 1990; Cohli, 2004; Wong, 2004; Block, 2007). The elaboration and outlining of the notions of aforementioned scholars is a suitable analytical tool putting the light on the new developmental states in some manners as follow:• Crossing of East Asian stereotypical image as the unique experience of developmental states
    • Considering the variable environment of the global economy as an international structural status
    • Transferability of developmental states, i.e., the diffusion of these states to the other regions of the developing world
    • The social origins of developmental states
    From the 1990s afterwards, the global socio-economic trend has transformed the developmental states through their historical evolution and expanded their geographical domain and functional diversification. Hence, discussing the new developmental states like Iran, Brazil, and Turkey is a prevailing debate nowadays.
    MethodologyThe developmental state as a notion has been based on two critical sociological theories, i.e. the Weberian political theory (Weber, 1991), and the Neo‐Marxists’ emphasis on the relative autonomy of the capitalist state (Marx, 1979). Thus, this notion has been formed as the most contested development approach, and under the perspective of institutionalism and new dependency schools of thinking. The analysis of developmental states as a specific theory-based work drawing from this idea that a state is as an autonomus institutional body (state-oriented theory), is aimed to provide a transparent and consolidated understanding of causal settings observed in the history of states.
    As state-oriented theorists (e.g., Skocpol, 1979) argue, historical-comparative research is the most appropriate method since it combines research strategies, namely, nominal comparison (i.e., an explanation of causes of a unique sequel by eliminating any potencial circumstance) and narrative comparison or tracking process (i.e., perceiving the occurrence process or tracing the causal sequence of a chain of events) (Taleban, 2009).
    Among the several characteristics that the new developmental states have [for more details see: (Johnson, 1982);( Leftwich, 2000); ( Chang, 2010); (Evans, 1995); (Chang, 2010); (Routley, 2012);(Johnson, 1982, 1987);(Wade, 1990); (Beeson, 2004); (Routley, 2012); (Haggard, S., Kang, D. & Moon, C. , 1997); (Leftwich, 2000); (Tilly, 1975) ; (Waldner, 1999); (cohli, 2004); (Mkandawire, 2007);(Evans, 2010); (Sandbrook, R., Edelman, M., Heller, P. , 2007)], there are seven features that make a good context for comparing the post-war developmental states in Iran, and are as following:• Developmental elites,
    • Developmental nationalism,
    • Developmentalist militias,
    • Developmentalist beurucracy,
    • The semi-autonomous state apparatus,
    • The weak civil society,
    • and the state capacity of economic resource controls
    FindingsThe reason for studying Iran as a new developmental state in the Middle East and in comparison with other countries is the need for understanding it’s state-oriented development process and historical modernization. The Iranian modernization trend since Qajar era (i.e., the mid-nineteenth century) had an authoritarian essence, and Qajar state played a main role in embarking that trend. In addition, Iranian elits have received developmental role of states in contemporary Iran. Furthermore, the critical role of states in Iran during the Pahlavi (1925-1941), top-down modernization, specially during the economic reform-restructuring trend in post-war Iran after the 1990s, are the manifestation of developmentalism on the basis of state agency.
    Although some Iranian scholars (e.g., Nabavi, 2011) have categorized Pahlavi I, and II states (1304-1357) as developmental states, and some others have compared Iranian post-war states as developmental states with some similarities with East Asian countries (Delforouz, 2014), this study’s emphasis is on the main features of developmental states, including developmentalist elites, developmentalist beurucracy, and control of economic resources via state, which are the absent circles in contemporary Iran development process.
    The absence of above features describe why even with the overwhelming presence of the given trends like Pahlavi’s state-building that has been emerged from dependent formation during the 19th century in Iran, state-building continuity in post-revelutionary Iran, the presence of developmental militia groups, and economic pragmatism of a state owning all the natural resources, yet, a new developmental state has not been flourished, instead we face with the unique formation of beurucracy and authoritarianism that were made during the 20th century in Iran.
    Discussion and ConclusionBrazil, Malaysia, Turkey, and Iran are new developmental states models refer to developmental states transferability, international structural context, and historical-global trends. Although, the main features of new developmental states are absent in Iran, international structural context behind these ideal types are more or less the same. Since the 1990s, international trends and contexts like, globalization, the end of Cold War, and East Asian financial crisis have provided necessary conditions for Develomental state Model for transfering to the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. Thus, the global socio-economic environment changes along with the pressure to the democratization have introduced “Global South” including Iran, Turkey, South Africa and Brazil and others as the new cases of developmental states. On the other hand, the demise of the Eastern Block and entering the Post-Cold War era as a determinative variable have created post-socialist DS in China. Just like former generation of DSes, new developmental states are affected by international determinators and their geographical, social, and historical trends.
    Keywords: State, Developmental state, Features, Transferability, New Developmental State
  • Javad Afsharkohan, Maliheh Rezaie Kermajani Pages 157-188
    IntroductionAsking questions about human instinct and nature and his/her relationship with others has been the very essence of human beings’ thoughts throughout their psychological, intellectual, and civilizational life. In other words, humans have always been passionate about their feelings of personal distinction, personal continuity, and personal independence (Tajik, 2005). On the other hand, lifestyle is also among the concepts in social sciences, which has been in the spotlight during the recent decades, especially, following the works of Pierre Bourdieu and his followers. This concept may be used to gain a better understanding of daily life conditions in large cities. Therefore, considering recent changes in the Iranian society, one could use concepts such as lifestyle and social identity to perceive certain frameworks which reveal the similarities and differences among individuals. The main question of this research is as follows:• Is there a significant correlation among the dimensions of social identity? Is there a significant correlation between the dimensions of social identity and lifestyle?
    Theoretical FrameworkThe theoretical basis of this research is a combination of the theories of Bourdieu, Max Weber, and Anthony Giddens. In today’s world, the culture of consumption provides consumers with a wide range of choices and each choice is an indication of some values, interests, attitudes and tastes which may be peculiar to a certain social group. Hence, lifestyle is connected to social identity. The hypotheses of this study are as follows:• The lifestyle of youths in Hamedan in terms of their activities varies based on their identity (i.e., religious identity, ethnic identity, family identity, and group identity).
    • The lifestyle of youths in terms of their interests varies based on their identity.
    • The lifestyle of youths in terms of their attitudes varies based on their identity.
    MethodThe current research was a survey study which was conducted through a questionnaire. The sample population consisted of all the youths between 15 and 29 years of age in Hamedan, Iran. Based on the 2005 national population census, the total number of youths in Hamedan was 164152. Overall, 383 individuals were selected through Cochran’s sample size formula. Sampling was done through multi-stage stratified sampling method. Accordingly, Hamedan was divided into 50 neighborhoods according to the model provided by the Statistical Centre of Iran. Then, random clusters were chosen from each neighborhood and the subjects were selected from the clusters. In order to measure the variables and collect the necessary data and information, two self-structured questionnaires were used. The items of the questionnaires were designed based on the theoretical framework, background of the study, and definitions of the variables and concepts used in the hypotheses.
    After designing the items and structuring the questionnaires using the comments of several researchers and university professors, as well as adding and deleting some items, the face validity of the questionnaires were confirmed. Subsequently, factor analysis was conducted on the collected data. Hence, the construct validity of the questionnaire has also been investigated and confirmed in this study.
    FindingsIt may be argued that youths have different lifestyles based on their social identity. The results also indicate that religious identity has a decisive role in the degree of religious activities and interests of youths. On the other hand, group identity has a critical impact on their degree of group and sport activities as well as the sports interests of youths in Hamedan. Group identity also influences the extent to which youths possess modern attitudes to life. The lifestyle of young individuals in terms of activities varies based on their identity (i.e., family identity, group identity, ethnic identity, and religious identity). Also, the degree of modern attitudes in group identity was significantly higher than religious, family, and ethnic identities. However, the degree of modern attitudes did not vary among family, religious, and ethnic identities.
    Discussion and ConclusionsReligious identity has a decisive role in the degree of religious activities and interests of youths in Hamedan, Iran. In addition, group identity has a critical impact on their degree of group and sport activities as well as the sports interests of youths in Hamedan. Group identity also influences the extent to which youths possess modern attitudes. This finding may be explained through social pressure theories which result from group membership. Another explanation for this finding may be that the young subjects included in the sample strongly need social confirmation in order to enter the world outside their family. Therefore, it may be stated that young individuals, as social groups involved in a competition for controlling specific social fields, use the economic and cultural capitals which they have accumulated in order to reach their desirable symbolic order, so as to control the afore-mentioned fields. On the other hand, it has to be admitted that in a real-life situation, the concept of youth which refers to a distinguished social group is defined and determined by explicit (legal) and implicit (cultural) norms. Consequently, social conditions such as economic, educational, and media-related decisions may influence this procedure. Therefore, future studies in this area have to adopt a more general viewpoint to investigate and analyze the common problems related to the young population of the society.
    Keywords: Social identity, Lifestyle, Youths, Modern attitudes, Group identity
  • Ali Akbar Taj Mazinani, Asaad Khani Pages 189-220
    IntroductionDifferent views agree that there cannot be any specific point for entry into adulthood, and usually young people pass through main stages that refer to change in different periods of life. For example, sociologists refer to outstanding transitions such as the employment, family, marriage and housing. Of course, this aspect of the concept of transition refers to the change of role, and one can look at the transition from another angle, and it is the inference of the intergenerational value changes of this term. This means that the transition, in addition to the movement from youth to adult, is defined as a process for opening cultural creation. But these transitions show that the independence of the youth and, as a result, reaching their adult age, are influenced by agency, constructivist forces, and current attitudes in each age. So, in this article, the experience of family and professional transition of young people between two generations is compared and also the role of individual capabilities and structural factors in the transition of two generations have been studied.
    Theoretical frameworkThe postmodern flow brings about irrefutable changes in the style and patterns of consumption, and young people cannot believe in the previous axioms as before, and on the other hand, young people create a divergent style of life, which their decisions depend on. In this context we will make use of the theory of uncertainty decrease in order to determine the extent to which the agency plays a role in this process. Also, according to the constructed individualist theory, a series of constraints and factors affect individualism; that is, it attempts to consider the interconnection and linkage of change and continuity or agency and structure. Therefore, using a combination of postmodernity theories, the constructed individualism and the theory of the reduction of uncertainties, the questions are answered this research and the hypotheses have been tested.
    MethodThe method of this study was survey and our statistical population consisted of all those born in Dehgolan city in 1954 and 1984. To determine the sample size, which was 317 people in this study, the Cochran sampling formula was used; the sampling method in this study was a combination of proportional, single-step, simple randomized cluster sampling and snowball sampling. At first, by referring to the health center of Dehgolan city and county registration, the birth statistics of two generations in the whole city was determined to be 1795, then the urban and rural centers of Dehgolan city were put in 5 clusters of north, south, east, West and Center. From each of these clusters were selected to be interviewed.
    FindingsFindings show that the current generation of young people does not make transitions the same as the previous generations, as standard, limited and expected events, but the transitions are varied, longer, and unpredictable. Furthermore, the results of regression analysis showed that 55.7 percent of the changes in the job transition of the 63-year-old with the five variables of gender, family support, media, religion and education, and 58.8 percent of the changes in the transition to this generation with five variables of gender, education, media Age, and socioeconomic status are explained. However, 16% of the job transition changes are predicted with the only one factor family and 48.1% of the transition changes to marriage are predicted with four factors of gender, religion, customs and age.
    Discussion and ConclusionIn this paper, with the review of postmodernity theories, constructed individualism and the theory of reduction of uncertainties, we proposed different issues in the field of transitions. One of the most important questions of this research was the differences between the two generations regarding transition and that what factors affect the transition to marriage and career between the two generations. The results showed that in the past, the transitional process of young people was limited, it was expectable and standard, but today we see that the youth have not completely followed the traditional order. For this reason, on the one hand, they call for operationalization of a pure agency and, on the other hand, they are within the boundaries of structural constraints, which is why they see their progressive lines filled with turbulence.
    Keywords: transition to adulthood, agency, structural factors, occupational, family transitions, Dehgolan
  • Ghadir Yousofpour Avandari, Gholamreza Malekzadeh, Hamid Erfanian Khanzadeh Pages 221-261
    IntroductionGiven the prominence of self-confidence and self-efficacy in performing organizational activities, identifying and enforcing the factors affecting them with the aim of improving the self-confidence of employees in the organization is vital. There are different components that play a role in building self-efficacy in individuals. The most important of such elements are ethical leadership and spirituality in work place. Given the need to examine this problem in the context of educational organizations as a social phenomenon, in this research, the mediating role of spirituality in the relationship between the ethical leadership of the organization and the employee's self-efficacy of the staff of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad was studied as a case. Hence, this study attempts to answer this question: what is the role of spiritual organization in the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ self-efficacy?
    Theoretical FrameworkLeadership, as an issue that has attracted the attention of researchers and the general public for so long, is defined as the process of influencing and directing individuals to achieve organizational goals. Perhaps the reason for the interest in leadership issues is that it is very mysterious and it influences the lives of all people (Yukl, 2002). Many social science and organization experts believe that leadership is the most important factor in the continuity and sustainability of organizations and it has a fundamental role in the growth, development and advancement of organizations, and to rely on management and leadership issues and being successful in fulfilling its duties and responsibilities it requires three skills of knowledge, skill and moral responsibility.
    The research includes four major hypotheses which investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and employee self-efficacy, ethical leadership and organizational spirituality, organizational spirituality and self-efficacy, and the mediating role of organizational spirituality in the relationship between ethical leadership and self-efficacy.
    Research MethodologyIn terms of goal, this is an applied research because its expected findings can be employed to enhance the self-efficacy and spirituality of the employees of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Since survey research investigates the characteristics and features of individuals in the community and examines the present situations of the statistical society in terms of trait or variable, the present study is of survey type because besides describing the existing situation, it tests the hypotheses based on prediction and use of inferential statistics method to determine the effect of variables. The statistical population of this research is the staff of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 1000 people were selected using simple random sampling method.
    A questionnaire was used to collect the data. To analyze the data, various statistical methods such as Pearson correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used respectively for calculating zero-order correlation coefficients and for the study of fitting the structural equation model with the collected data.
    Research FindingsIn the fitted model, all the effects between variables - the effect of ethical leadership on self-efficacy, impact of ethical leadership on organizational spirituality and the effect of organizational spirituality on self-efficacy - were statistically significant. Accordingly, hypotheses one to three were confirmed. Also, in this model, the strongest coefficient of effect is related to the coefficient of ethical leadership and organizational spirituality (β = 0.67) and the weakest coefficient was the coefficient of ethical leadership effect on self-efficacy (β = 0.31) which is, of course, significant. Considering the confirmation of the effect of ethical leadership on organizational spirituality as well as the effect of organizational spirituality on self-efficacy, organizational spirituality mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and self-efficacy. Accordingly, the indirect effect of ethical leadership on self-efficacy is 0.355, which is estimated by multiplying the coefficients of ethical leadership direction on organizational spirituality and organizational spirituality on self-efficacy.
    Discussion and ConclusionIn this research, demonstration of the first hypothesis showed that there is a significant relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ self-efficacy. This result is in harmony with studies done by De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2008), Brown, Treviño and Harrison (2005), Walumbwa (2011), Soltani and Rezaei (2015).
    The result of second hypothesis shows that there is a significant relationship between creative leadership and organizational spirituality, and it can be said that using ethical leadership style can improve spirituality among the staff of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The results of this hypothesis are consistent with the research done by Mahdad, Asadi, and Golparvar (2015), Milliman, Czaplewski and Ferguson (2003), McGhee and Grant (2008), and Corner (2009).
    The third hypothesis proves that a significant relationship exists between spirituality and self-efficacy of employees, and the higher the level of spirituality in the workplace, the higher the self-efficacy of employees. This finding is also consistent with studies by Smith (2010), Adjobula (2007), and Golchin and Sanjari (2012).
    The fourth hypothesis shows that organizational spirituality mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and self-efficacy. In fact, ethical leadership can improve spirituality in the workplace by reinforcing spiritual beliefs in the workplace, such as enhancing the sense of meaningfulness of work, feeling solidarity with colleagues, and aligning with the values of the organization. Spirituality can also increase self-esteem and self-confidence in employees.
    Keywords: Leadership, Ethical leadership, Spirituality, Self-efficacy, University