فهرست مطالب

بوم شناسی کشاورزی - سال نهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1396)
  • سال نهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • مقالات
  • مجید خانعلی*، بهزاد الهامی، هادی اسلامی، سلیمان حسین پور صفحات 892-909
    ارزیابی چرخه حیات، روشی است که اثرات زیست محیطی مرتبط با یک محصول در کل چرخه حیات آن ارزیابی می شود. در این مطالعه، شاخص های زیست محیطی در تولید ذرت هیبریدی با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به دلیل کوچک بودن حجم جامعه، سرشماری صورت گرفت و اطلاعات لازم از 30 مزرعه واقع در شهرستان های کرج و نظرآباد استان البرز از طریق پرسشنامه استخراج گردید. تعداد ده شاخص زیست محیطی شامل پتانسیل اختناق دریاچه ای، پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی، پتانسیل اسیدی شدن، نقصان لایه اوزون، تقلیل منابع آلی، اکسیداسیون فتوشیمیایی، مسمومیت انسانی، مسمومیت خاک، مسمومیت آب های آزاد و مسمومیت آب های سطحی انتخاب گردید. یک تن ذرت هیبریدی تولیدی و دروازه مزرعه به ترتیب به عنوان واحد عملکردی و مرز سامانه انتخاب شدند. بیشترین آسیب به محیط زیست در بخش شاخص مسمویت آب های آزاد صورت گرفت. در روش برداشت با پیکرهاسکر، شاخص های زیست محیطی از قبیل پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی، اختناق دریاچه ای، مسمومیت انسانی، پتانسیل اسیدی شدن، تقلیل منابع آلی و اکسیداسیون فتوشیمیایی نسبت به دو روش دیگر بیشتر بود. با تغییر روش برداشت در شاخص مسمومیت خاک و نقصان لایه اوزون تغییر محسوسی مشاهده نشد. به دلیل مصرف بالای سوخت دیزل و الکتریسیته در روش برداشت دستی، شاخص مسمومیت آب های آزاد و مسمومیت آب های سطحی نسبت به دو روش دیگر برداشت بیشتر شد. در مجموع، روش برداشت ذرت هیبریدی با کمباین در مقایسه با دو روش دیگر بار محیطی کمتری ایجاد کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: انتشارات مستقیم، انرژی مصرفی، سوخت دیزل، عملیات آبیاری، نرمال سازی
  • فریما دعایی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم*، رضا قربانی، احمد بالندری صفحات 910-921
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک بر عملکرد رویشی و میزان پلی فنول های برگ کاسنی پاکوتاه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 91-190، انجام گرفت .
    در این آزمایش فاکتورکودهای آلی و شیمیایی در چهار سطح (چهار تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری، چهار تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست،130 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و عدم مصرف کود (شاهد)) و فاکتورکود زیستی در دو سطح (کود زیستی بیوسولفور به همراه 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود گوگرد خالص و عدم مصرف آن (شاهد)) استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از وجود تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایش بر وزن تر و خشک زیست توده در چین اول و دوم و مجموع وزن خشک زیست توده در هر دو چین بود. بیشترین عملکرد وزن تر زیست توده در هر دو چین از تیمار تلفیقی کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی بیوسولفور حاصل شد. نتایج در چین اول و دوم و مجموع دو چین نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد خشک زیست توده از تیمار کمپوست حاصل شد. همچنین اثرات ساده و متقابل فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه، بر میزان پلی فنول های موجود در برگ گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pomilum Jacq.) در هر دو چین معنی دار بود. بیشترین میزان پلی فنول های برگ در تیمار ورمی کمپوست و کمترین میزان در تیمار تلفیقی کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی بیوسولفور در هر دو چین حاصل شد. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد در بین منابع کودی مختلف، کود آلی کمپوست هم در عملکرد رویشی و هم در مقدار پلی فنول گیاه اثر مثبتی داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: کود زیستی بیوسولفور، کمپوست، گیاه دارویی، ورمی کمپوست
  • سرور خرم دل*، رضا قربانی، هما عزیزی، محمد سیدی صفحات 922-934
    به منظور بررسی اثر روش های مدیریت علف های هرز بر اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد کمی و کیفی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.)، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 92-1391 در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با نه تیمار و سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل شخم در شب، بستر کاذب، سه گیاه پوششی ماشک گل خوشه ای(Vicia villosa L.)، خلر (Lathyrus sp.) و شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)، بقایای گیاهی سیر (Allium sativum L.)، آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) و جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) و شاهد (بدون کنترل علف های هرز) بودند. عملیات خاک ورزی تیمار شخم در شب با استفاده از نور ماه انجام شد. برای تیمار بستر کاذب، پس از تهیه بستر کاشت و آبیاری، علف های هرز با شخم سطحی در نیمه اول اسفند ماه حذف شدند. در نیمه دوم اسفند ماه گیاهان پوششی به خاک برگردانیده شدند. پس از عملیات آماده سازی زمین، 5/2 تن در هکتار بقایای گیاهی به خاک افزوده شد. گیاهان پوششی به صورت متراکم در نیمه اول آبان ماه کاشته و سپس کلیه کرت ها آبیاری شدند و سپس کاشت زیره سبز انجام شد. صفات اندازه گیری شده شامل ارتفاع، اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و دانه، محتوی و عملکرد اسانس زیره سبز بودند. نتایج نشان داد که خصوصیات رشدی، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد بیولوژیکی، دانه و اسانس زیره سبز به طور معنی داری تحت تاثیر روش های مدیریت غیرشیمیایی علف های هرز قرار گرفت (01/0p≤). بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی و دانه به-ترتیب 7/220 و 1/103 گرم بر متر مربع برای تیمار ماشک گل خوشه ایو کمترین میزان به ترتیب 4/72 و 6/28 گرم بر متر مربع برای شاهد مشاهده شد. میانگین این صفات در تمام تیمارهای مدیریتی در مقایسه با شاهد بیش از 100 درصد بهبود یافت. بالاترین عملکرد اسانس (8/2 گرم در متر مربع) برای گیاه پوششی ماشک گل خوشه ایو کمترین میزان (6/0 گرم در متر مربع) برای شاهد به دست آمد. کاشت گیاهان پوششی و کاربرد بقایای گیاهی در سطح خاک از طریق بهبود خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی و محتوی رطوبتی خاک باعث افزایش آماس سلولی شده که این موضوع موجب بهبود رشد و تولید ماده فتوسنتزی و افزایش عملکرد زیره سبز گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: بقایای گیاهی، دگرآسیبی، شخم در شب، کنترل نوری علف هرز، گیاه پوششی
  • علیرضا کوچکی *، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، روح الله مرادی، حامد منصوری صفحات 935-959
    با بهبود کارایی مصرف نهاده ها در بوم‏نظام‏های کشاورزی، جایگزینی نهاده های بوم سازگار با نهاده های شیمیایی به عنوان دومین گام و طراحی مجدد بوم‏نظام‏های زراعی به عنوان آخرین مرحله در گذار از کشاورزی رایج به پایدار مطرح می‏باشند. به منظور ارزیابی وضعیت نظام‏های زراعی کشور، 223 پژوهش و مطالعه انجام گرفته در سطح کشور در زمینه های مختلف از نظر جایگزینی نهاده ها و طراحی بوم‏نظام‏های زراعی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با توجه به این که در کشاورزی پایدار بیشتر کارکردهای چندگانه بوم‏نظام‏ها مدنظر می‏باشد، در این مطالعه سعی شده است جنبه های چند کارکردی مدیریت‏های مختلف در زمینه جایگزینی نهاده ها مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. کارکردهای مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش شامل بهبود خصوصیات بیوفیزیکوشیمیایی خاک، مدیریت بوم سازگار آفات و بیماری ها، کاهش مصرف انرژی و افزایش تنوع زیستی با استفاده از رهیافت های مدیریتی بوم سازگار می‏باشند که در قالب مدیریت‏های مختلف از قبیل استفاده از کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک، مدیریت بقایای گیاهی، استفاده از ویژگی های دگرآسیبی گیاهان، شخم‏های حفاظتی، تناوب زراعی و کشت مخلوط مطرح می‏باشند. در بخش طراحی، بر مبنای آگاهی و دانش حاصل از پژوهش‏های نظری و عملی، بوم‏نظام کشاورزی پایدار طراحی و بازآفرینی شد. در طراحی مدیریت آب و خاک، آب در مقیاس چرخه های بزرگ در نظر گرفته شد و در مورد خاک تاکید بر تغذیه خاک به جای تغذیه گیاه صورت گرفت. در مدیریت آفات به جای کنترل به بینش مدیریت آفات توجه شد و در مدیریت تنوع، مفهوم تنوع فراتر از گونه های زراعی مدنظر قرار گرفت و گونه های گیاهی غیر زراعی، گونه های جانوری و تنوع زیر خاک را نیز در نظر گرفت. رهیافت‏های تخفیف و سازگاری در رابطه با تغییر اقلیم و همچنین تدریجی کردن دوره گذار از رایج به پایدار به منظور به حداقل رساندن مخاطرات مالی برای کشاورزان نیز از جمله مواردی است که در طراحی بوم نظام مورد توجه قرار گرفت. به طور کلی، علی رغم این که در بخش جایگزینی نهاده های بوم سازگار به جای نهاده های رایج پژوهش‏های مختلفی در ایران انجام گرفته است ولی سیاست گذاری‏ در انتقال این راهبردها به مزارع ضروری است. گرچه از نظر طراحی بوم‏نظام زراعی بوم سازگار پژوهش‏های منسجمی در این زمینه صورت نگرفته است، ولی وجود نتایج کافی برای دو مرحله اول و دوم (افزایش کارایی نهاده ها و جایگزینی آن ها) می‏تواند مبنایی برای این مرحله باشد. بنابراین در مرحله آخر گذار به کشاورزی پایدار باید مطالعات عمیقی در سطح بوم‏نظام بر اساس پتانسیل هر منطقه انجام شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی، پایداری خاک، تغییر اقلیم، تنوع زیستی، توسعه روستایی، چند کارکردی
  • پرویز رضوانی مقدم*، قربانعلی اسدی، فاطمه رنجبر، مهسا اقحوانی شجری، روشنک شه صفحات 960-971
    به منظور مطالعه اثرات کاربرد جداگانه و تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و آلی بر شاخص های رشدی گیاه دارویی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) ، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و 11 تیمار در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از 1- کود زیستی میکوریزا، 2-کود دامی (منبع گاوی)، 3- کود شیمیایی (NPK)، 4- ورمی کمپوست، 5- شیمیایی+ دامی، 6- شیمیایی+ ورمی کمپوست، 7- شیمیایی+ میکوریزا، 8- دامی+ میکوریزا، 9- ورمی کمپوست+ میکوریزا، 10- دامی+ ورمی کمپوست+ میکوریزا و 11- شاهد. نتایج نشان داد که بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، میزان ماده خشک و سرعت رشد محصول به ترتیب در تیمارهای کاربرد منفرد کود شیمیایی (89/5)، تلفیق کود دامی+ شیمیایی (9887 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و میکوریزا+ شیمیایی (5/23 گرم بر متر مربع در روز) مشاهده شد و کمترین این صفات به ترتیب در تیمار شاهد (40/3)، تیمار میکوریزا+ دامی+ ورمی (7618 کیلوگرم هکتار) و تیمار کود دامی (9/16 گرم بر متر مربع در روز) به دست آمد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بین عملکرد کاسبرگ با ارتفاع گیاه همبستگی مثبت بسیار بالایی وجود دارد. به طور کلی، نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که مصرف تلفیقی کودهای آلی و شیمیایی در مقایسه با کاربرد منفرد منابع کودی، اثرات مثبت بیشتری را بر صفات رشدی چای ترش به همراه داشت. توصیه می شود کشت این گیاه به صورت نشاء در گلخانه حداقل سه ماه قبل از کشت در زمین اصلی صورت گیرد. در صورت عدم کشت به صورت نشاء کشت این گیاه در این منطقه توصیه نمی گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: سرعت رشد محصول، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد کاسبرگ، کود زیستی
  • مهدی نصیری محلاتی*، علیرضا کوچکی صفحات 972-992
    در طی چند دهه گذشته تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در کشور با اتکاء به مصرف نهاده های شیمیایی افزایش قابل توجهی داشته است. با این حال پیامدهای محیطی مصرف این نهاده ها برای انسان و منابع طبیعی به درستی مشخص نمی باشد. در این پژوهش مجموعه ای از اثرات محیطی شامل تغییر کاربری اراضی، تخلیه منابع غیر قابل تجدید، پتاتسیل گرمایش جهانی، پتانسیل اسیدی شدن محیط، پتانسیل پر غذایی آب و خاک و سمیت اکولوژیکی برای انسان و محیط حاصل از بوم نظام های تولید گندم کشور با استفاده از روش استاندارد ارزیابی چرخه حیات از مبداء تولید مواد اولیه تا دروازه مزرعه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. مطالعه بر روی 14 استان که روی هم 80 درصد از سطح زیر کشت و تولید گندم کشور را شامل می شوند، به اجرا در آمد. ابتدا بوم نظام های واقع در این استان ها بر اساس سطح مصرف نهاده ها به سه گروه کم، متوسط و پر نهاده طبقه بندی و سپس در مرحله ممیزی کلیه نهاده های ورودی و نیز مواد انتشار یافته در محدوده مرزهای تعریف شده برآورد شدند. نتایج حاصل از ممیزی بر حسب دو واحد کارکردی (هکتار و تن دانه گندم) برای هر گروه تاثیر بر اساس واحد مربوط به آن گروه معادل سازی شد و در نهایت، تاثیر سطح مصرف نهاده ها بر هر یک از اثرات محیطی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در واحد کارکردی هکتار با افزایش میزان مصرف نهاده ها کلیه اثرات محیطی حاصل از بوم نظام های گندم به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت، ولی با محاسبه این اثرات بر حسب تن گندم به دلیل اختلاف عملکرد بین بوم نظام ها نتایج متفاوتی به دست آمد. شدت تخلیه منابع غیر قابل تجدید (سوخت های فسیلی و منابع P و K) در نظام های پر نهاده معادل GJ/ha 1/27 و تقریبا 8/1 برابر نظام های کم نهاده بود در حالی که براساس واحد عملکرد مقدار این انرژی در نظام های پر نهاده تنها 10 درصد بیشتر از نظام کم نهاده بود، زیرا برای تولید هر تن گندم در نظام کم نهاده به 3850 متر مربع زمین نیاز است در حالی که همین عملکرد در نظام پر نهاده از 2374 متر مربع به دست می آید. بر این اساس عملکرد بیشتر بوم نظام های پر نهاده باعث شد تا در آن ها پتانسیل اسیدی شدن، سمیت آبی و سمیت برای محیط های خشک بر حسب واحد عملکرد کمتر از نظام های کم و متوسط نهاده باشد. در حالی که پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی، پر غذایی و سمیت برای انسان در نظام های پر نهاده در هر دو واحد کارکردی وضعیت نامطلوبی در مقایسه با نظام کم نهاده داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: اثرات محیطی، بوم نظام پر نهاده، پایداری، مصرف انرژی
  • مهدی نقی زاده، روح الله مرادی * صفحات 993-1006
    تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی جنبه های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زراعی و مدیریتی پایداری دو نظام تولید پسته (Pistacia vera L.) و گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) که غالبیت کشت را در استان کرمان دارا هستند، اجرا شد. اطلاعات مربوط به این نظام‏های کشاورزی شامل سنجه های اجتماعی- اقتصادی، تولید محصولات زراعی و دامی، کود و نهاده های شیمیایی، مدیریت بقایای گیاهی، منابع آب و آبیاری، شخم و مکانیزاسیون، تنوع گونه‏ای کشاورزی و مدیریت علف‏های هرز در مناطق اصلی مورد کشت این دو گیاه در سال های 1393 و 1394 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. بررسی ویژگی های فردی کشاورزان نشان داد که میانگین سنی آن ها در نظام های تولید گندم و پسته به ترتیب حدود 43 و 39 سال بود. در هر دو نظام مورد بررسی، افراد با تحصیلات دیپلم بالاترین فراوانی را داشتند. میانگین عملکرد گندم 3460 و پسته 573 کیلوگرم در هکتار برای استان گزارش شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان مصرف کود و نهاده های شیمیایی، در هر دو محصول و به ویژه در پسته به شدت بالا بوده که این امر مغایر با اهداف کشاورزی پایدار می باشد. متوسط درآمد سالانه برای گندم و پسته به ترتیب 4 و 18 میلیون تومان بود. بررسی سنجه های مختلف پایداری نشان داد که شاخص پایداری در گندم 26/47 و در پسته 22/44 بود که هر دو در گروه تا حدودی ناپایدار قرار می گیرند. سنجه های مدیریت بقایای گیاهی در نظام تولید گندم و سنجه اجتماعی-اقتصادی در پسته نسبت به دیگر سنجه ها از وضعیت مناسب‏تری برخوردار بودند. به طور کلی، نهاده های شیمیایی، آب آبیاری و عدم ثبات اقتصادی کشاورزان، اصلی ترین مشکلات در زمینه پایداری بوده و برای حصول به پایداری باید جنبه های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زراعی و مدیریتی مورد بازبینی و اصلاح قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: جنبه های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، درآمد، سنجه، شاخص، مدیریتی
  • رشید چراغی *، محمود رمرودی، جواد طایی سمیرمی، شاپور لرزاده صفحات 1007-1019
    شناخت چگونگی توزیع جغرافیایی بارندگی و دمای بهینه و در نتیجه استفاده کارآمدتر و تطابق بیشتر این منابع حین عملیات کاشت، جوانه زنی و سبز شدن گیاهان زراعی، لازمه هرگونه عملیات زراعی می باشد. لذا این تحقیق به منظور بررسی توزیع جغرافیایی احتمال بارندگی و دمای بهینه مرحله «کاشت تا سبز شدن» کلزا (Brassica napus L.) دیم در استان خوزستان انجام شد. در این پژوهش از داده های روزانه 17 ساله هواشناسی و هچنین پارامترهای بارندگی موثر، تاریخ کشت و درجه روز رشد (GDD) استفاده گردید. درجه روز رشد (GDD) مناسب برای تکمیل مرحله «کاشت تا سبز شدن» کلزا از منابع مختلف استخراج گردید و با توجه به میزان بارندگی بهینه و دمای بهینه برای آن مرحله، توزیع جغرافیایی احتمال وقوع بارندگی بهینه و دمای بهینه در این مرحله رشدی کلزا دیم در محیط GIS حاصل گردید. نتایج نشان داد که توزیع جغرافیایی احتمال وقوع بارندگی بهینه و دمای بهینه برای مرحله «کاشت تا سبز شدن» کلزا دیم در نقاط مختلف استان خوزستان متفاوت می باشد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که نقاط مختلف استان خوزستان از نظر زمان شروع و پایان مرحله «کاشت تا سبز شدن» گیاه کلزا متفاوت می باشند که این می تواند به دلیل وجود شرایط آب و هوایی و اقلیمی متفاوت در منطقه مطالعاتی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، امکان پذیری، درجه روز رشد، دمای پایه
  • سید جلال یدالهی نوش آبادی، محمدرضا جهانسوز*، ناصر مجنون حسینی، غلامرضا پیکانی صفحات 1020-1030
    در سال های اخیر نگرانی های زیادی درباره اثرات آفت کش ها روی موجودات غیر هدف به وجود آمده است. بقایای ناشی از مصرف سموم شیمیایی آفت کش سبب آلودگی محیط زیست گردیده و سلامتی انسان ها را در معرض خطر جدی قرار داده است. محدوده مطالعاتی هشتگرد با وسعتی حدود 1170 کیلومتر مربع بدلیل نزدیکی به کلان شهر تهران و تمرکز تعداد زیاد واحدهای کشاورزی، صنعتی وخدماتی دارای موقعیت سیاسی- اقتصادی مهمی می باشد. این مقاله اثرات منفی حشره کش های عمده مصرف شده در منطقه هشتگرد و میزان ریسک بالقوه و محیطی آن ها را با استفاده از شاخص تاثیر زیست محیطی (EIQ) مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می دهد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد در میان حشره کش های عمده مصرفی در منطقه هشتگرد سمیت بالقوه ایمیداکلوپراید (کنفیدور) و تاثیر محیطی مزرعه ای مالاتیون بیشتر بوده است. بیشتربن خطر در هر سه جزء کارگران مزرعه، مصرف کننده و اکولوژیک مربوط به سم ایمیداکلوپراید بود که این سم را به عنوان خطرناک ترین حشره کش عمده مصرفی در منطقه مطرح کرد. شاخص EIQ برای سموم ایمیداکلوپراید، دیازینون، مالاتیون و فوزالون بیشترین تاثیر پذیری را از بخش اثر اکولوژیک گرفته که به ترتیب 7/105، 75/81، 25/63 و 25/58 بوده است. در خصوص سم دلتامترین قسمت کارگران مزرعه بیشترین تاثیر را بر روی نمره نهایی EIQ داشته است. هم چنین نتایج نشان داد که بر اساس شاخص تاثیر زیست محیطی، بیشترین مخاطرات زیست محیطی ناشی از سوم حشره کش در منطقه هشتگرد به دلیل عدم شناخت مناسب و انتخاب غیرصحیح برخی از حشره کش ها و استفاده بیش از اندازه آن ها می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: آفت کش، اثر اکولوژیکی، ایمیداکلوپراید، دیازینون
  • محمود احمدی، شاهین شاهسونی*، حمید عباسدخت، حمیدرضا اصغری، شاهرخ قرنجیک صفحات 1031-1049
    به منظور بررسی اثر گل گوگرد،کود آلی ورمی کمپوست و باکتری تیوباسیلوس بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و عملکرد ذرت دانه-ایZea mays L.) ) (سینگل کراس 704) در منطقه دشت بخش جوین، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در 36 کرت آزمایشی در سال 1391 اجرا گردید. فاکتور گل گوگرد در سه سطحS0 = عدم مصرف،S1 = مصرف 500 کیلوگرم درهکتار،S2 = مصرف 1000 کیلوگرم در هکتار، کود آلی ورمی کمپوست در دو سطح =V0عدم مصرف، =V1 مصرف 5000 کیلوگرم درهکتار و فاکتور تیوباسیلوس که در دو سطح عدم مصرف (T0) و مصرف (T1) اعمال گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که ترکیب سه عامل گل گوگرد، کود آلی ورمی کمپوست و باکتری تیوباسیلوس به صورت مستقل یا توام با هم باعث افزایش هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و افزایش فراهمی فسفر، آهن، روی، سولفات قابل جذب و کاهش اسیدیته خاک گردیدند. درصد کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، درصد رطوبت اشباع و درصد ظرفیت زراعی در تیمارهای به خصوص دارای کود آلی ورمی کمپوست افزایش معنی داری نشان دادند. تیمار کاربرد ورمی کمپوست و سطح کاربرد 1000 کیلو گرم گل گوگرد بیشترین عملکرد دانه را بر میزان 1/9 تن در هکتار و کمترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار شاهد، عدم مصرف گل گوگرد و عدم کاربرد ورمی کمپوست حاصل شد. در یک جمع بندی کلی می-توان نتیجه گرفت که اثر متقابل مصرف گل گوگرد با کود آلی ورمی کمپوست و اثر متقابل کاربرد تیوباسیلوس و گل گوگرد به طور معنی داری عملکرد دانه ذرت را افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسیدیته خاک، کودآلی، مایه تلقیح، هدایت الکتریکی
  • مهدی مومن کیخا، عیسی خمری*، مهدی دهمرده، محمد فروزنده صفحات 1050-1069
    کشت مخلوط عبارت است از کشت دو یا چند محصول زراعی به طور همزمان در یک مزرعه. اصلی ترین هدف کشت مخلوط، حصول عملکرد بیشتر در یک قطعه زمین و استفاده از منابعی که در غیر این صورت توسط یک نوع محصول نمی توان مورد استفاده قرار داد. اهداف عمده کشت مخلوط شامل کاهش جمعیت آفات و بیماری های گیاهی، کاهش فرسایش و حداقل رسانیدن هزینه نیروی کارگری در کنترل علف های هرز هستند. به منظور ارزیابی جنبه های اکوفیزیولوژیک کشت مخلوط گوار (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) و آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل (چاه نیمه) در سال زراعی 92 -1391 اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی شامل سه سطح کود نیتروژن 0، 100 و 150کیلوگرم در هکتار و عامل فرعی، نسبت مختلف کشت شامل کشت خالص آفتابگردان، کشت خالص گوار، 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان، 50 درصد گوار+ 50 درصد آفتابگردان، 25 درصد گوار+ 75 درصد آفتابگردان بود. نتایج تجزیه داده ها نشان داد که سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن، نسبت های کاشت و برهمکنش آن ها تاثیر معنی داری بر عملکرد زیست توده دو گیاه آفتابگردان و گوار داشت. بالاترین عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان (33/1633 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از الگوهای کاشت 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان همراه با مصرف 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن و در گوار (7/4356 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان و کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم درهکتار کود نیتروژن به دست آمد. سطوح مختلف کود و نسبت های کاشت تاثیر معنی داری بر عدد اسپد در دو گیاه آفتابگردان و گوار داشت. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار نیتروژن خاک به ترتیب با میانگین 2/0 و 17/0 درصد از کشت خالص گوار و کشت خالص آفتابگردان به دست آمد. بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین (73/2) از مخلوط 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان به دست آمد. در خصوص کنترل علف های هرز، بیشترین وزن خشک علف هرز به ترتیب با میانگین 2/192 و 6/156 گرم در متر مربع از کشت خالص آفتابگردان و کشت خالص گوار به دست آمد و کمترین میزان آن نیز با میانگین3/153 گرم در متر مربع از 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان مشاهده شد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در آفتابگردان و گوار به ترتیب در تیمار مخلوط 25 درصد گوار+ 75 درصد آفتابگردان و 75 درصد گوار+ 25 درصد آفتابگردان حاصل شد. همچنین میزان وزن خشک علف های هرز مربوط به کشت خالص آفتابگردان بود، اما کشت خالص گوار و تمامی نسبت های کشت مخلوط باعث کاهش وزن خشک علف های هرز گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی کشت، عدد اسپد، علف هرز، کشت خالص، نسبت برابری زمین
  • یاسر علی زاده، علیرضا کوچکی *، مهدی نصیری محلاتی صفحات 1070-1083
    این مطالعه به منظور بررسی بیلان کربن و مطالعه اثر کودهای شیمیایی و دامی ‏بر تولید خالص اولیه، تنفس خاک و بیلان کربن در گندم پاییزه (L. Triticum aestivum) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در دو سال زراعی 90-1389 و 91-1390 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل؛ 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن (F1)، 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن (F2)، کود دامی (M)، مخلوط کود دامی ‏و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن (F-M)، تیمار شاهد (C) و یک تیمار بدون گیاه و بدون استفاده از کود، برای جداسازی تنفس هتروتروفی از تنفس خاک در نظر گرفته شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. بیلان کربنی در هر دو سال با استفاده از تکنیک‏های اکولوژیک برآورد گردید. تولید خالص اولیه در تیمار F-M و F2 به ترتیب با 6294 و 6467 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال اول و 6410 و 6260 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال دوم به طور معنی داری بالاتر از تیمارهای دیگر بود و کمترین میزان تولید خالص اولیه در دو سال آزمایش در تیمار شاهد با 2965 و 2740 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. بالاترین نسبت ساقه به ریشه (6) نیز در تیمار F2 مشاهده شد و کمترین میزان ساقه به ریشه در تیمار کنترل با 2/5 و 1/5 به ترتیب در سال اول و دوم به دست آمد. روند جریان دی-اکسید کربن 250، 220، 200، 170، 160 و 55 میلی گرم کربن در متر مربع در ساعت به ترتیب در تیمارهای F-M، M، F2، F1 و تیمار بدون گیاه به-دست آمد. بالاترین تنفس سالانه خاک و تنفس هتروتروفی خاک در تیمار M-F به ترتیب با 3257 و 1150 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در سال اول و 3310 و 1250 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در سال دوم مشاهده شد و کمترین میزان تنفس خاک و تنفس هتروتروفی نیز در تیمار شاهد به ترتیب با 1878 و 745 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در سال اول و 1753 و 740 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در سال دوم آزمایش مشاهده گردید. بیشترین میزان تولید خالص اکوسیستم (NEP) در سال اول و دوم 5000 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار بود که در تیمار M-F حاصل شد و کمترین آن در هر دو سال مربوط به تیمار شاهد با 2065 و 1825 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در سال بود. تولید خالص بیوم (NBP) تنها در تیمارهایی که کاربرد کود دامی داشتند مثبت بود و در بقیه تیمارها بیلان کربنی منفی مشاهده شد، به طوری که، بیشترین کاهش کربن در سال اول با 300 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار و در سال دوم با 400 کیلوگرم کربن در هکتار در تیمار شاهد مشاهده شد و تیمار M با 1400 و 1200 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش سالانه کربن بالاترین تولید خالص بیوم را داشت. نتایج به دست آمده از این آزمایش نشان داد که در صورت برداشت از اندام هوایی گندم به شکل رایج برای جلوگیری از کاهش کربن آلی خاک کاربرد کود دامی ‏ضروری می‏باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تنفس هتروتروفی، تنفس خاک، تولید خالص بیوم، تولید خالص اکوسیستم
  • وحید محمدی، سجاد رحیمی مقدم * صفحات 1084-1098
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر تراکم علف هرز و سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن بر شاخص های رشدی ذرت (Zea may L.)، تاج خروس ریشه قرمز (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) و ارزن (Panicum miliaceum L.)، آزمایشی در سال 1388 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی تربیت مدرس به صورت فاکتوریل سه عاملی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام پذیرفت. بر همین اساس، سه عامل کود نیتروژن (138، 184 و 230 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار)، گونه علف هرز (تاج خروس و ارزن) و تراکم علف هرز (به ترتیب 5 و 25 بوته در متر مربع برای تاج خروس و 5/7 و 5/37 بوته در متر مربع برای ارزن) در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار وزن ماده خشک کل (39/2429 گرم) در تیمارهای کنترل علف هرز و 230 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار به دست آمد. ذرت در رقابت با علف هرز ارزن بیشینه سرعت رشد محصول را در تیمار کم علف هرز و 138 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار کسب کرد. همچنین ذرت در رقابت با تاج خروس بیشینه سرعت رشد محصول و بیشینه سرعت رشد نسبی را به ترتیب با مقدارهای 83/30 گرم بر مترمربع در روز و 055/• گرم بر گرم در تیمار کم علف هرز و 138 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار کسب کرد. به طور کلی نتایج مشخص کرد، در مزراعی که علف هرزهای نیتروژن دوستی مانند تاج خروس غالب هستند، افزایش میزان مصرف کود نه تنها موجب افزایش ماده خشک و شاخص سطح برگ ذرت نمی شود، بلکه ضمن کاهش آن ها، موجبات آلودگی بیشتر محیط زیست را فراهم می آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: رقابت، سرعت رشد محصول، شاخص سطح برگ، ماده خشک، نیتروژن دوست
  • اسماعیل قلی نژاد* صفحات 1099-1116
    به منظور بررسی اثرات دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا بر کاهش تنش خشکی روی عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیک هشت توده محلی کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.)، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی هنرستان کشاورزی ارومیه در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری شامل آبیاری نرمال (آبیاری بعد از 70 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه)، تنش ملایم (آبیاری بعد از 90 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه) و تنش شدید (آبیاری بعد از 110 میلی متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه)، فاکتور دوم شامل تلقیح گونه قارچ میکوریزا در سه سطح گلوموس موسه آ، گلوموس اینترارادیسز و عدم تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزا و فاکتور سوم شامل هشت توده محلی کنجد به نام-های جیرفت 13، محلی طارم زنجان، محلی مغان، ناز چند شاخه، TC-25، TS-3، داراب 14 و دشتستان 5 بود. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی، تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه به جز وزن ویژه برگ، کاهش معنی داری یافت. تنش شدید خشکی عملکرد دانه و محتوای نسبی آب برگ را نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب به میزان 63 و 30 درصد کاهش داد. استفاده از دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا نسبت به حالت عدم استفاده، صفات عملکرد دانه (33 درصد)، شاخص سطح برگ (40 درصد) و محتوای نسبی آب برگ (20 درصد) را افزایش داد. ژنوتیپ های محلی مغان و محلی طارم زنجان از نظر عملکرد دانه و شاخص های فیزیولوژیک بر سایر توده های محلی برتری داشتند. بالاترین ضریب همبستگی بین عملکرد دانه با شاخص سطح برگ (**82/0=r) به دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، توده های محلی مغان و طارم زنجان جهت کشت در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی ملایم و شدید، همچنین همزیستی قارچ میکوریزای گلوموس موسه آبا بذر کنجد جهت افزایش عملکرد دانه در شرایط مطلوب آبیاری و جلوگیری از کاهش بیشتر عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید توصیه می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: سطح ویژه برگ، شاخص سطح برگ، کم آبیاری، وزن ویژه برگ
  • ظهراب اداوی*، محمودرضا تدین صفحات 1117-1135
    هدف از این مطالعه شبیه سازی اثرات تغییر اقلیم بر مراحل فنولوژیکی، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد زیست توده و غده سیب زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) در شرایط تغییر اقلیم آینده منطقه فریدون شهر اصفهان بود. برای این منظور پیش بینی دو مدل گردش عمومی HadCM3 و IPCM4 تحت سه سناریوی A1B، B1 و A2 در سال های 2030، 2060 و 2090 به کار گرفته شد. برای شبیه سازی پارامترهای اقلیمی از مدل LARS-WG و برای شبیه سازی مراحل رشد سیب زمینی از مدل SUBSTOR-Potato و نرم افزار DSSAT استفاده گردید. نتایج ارزیابی مدل SUBSTOR-potato نشان داد مدل برآورد مناسبی (RMSE≤10) برای پیش بینی صفات عملکرد غده، حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، روز تا گلدهی و روز تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک گیاه سیب زمینی در شرایط آب و هوایی فریدون شهر دارا می باشد. نتایج شبیه سازی نشان داد که در تمام سناریوهای مورد بررسی، رشد و نمو سیب-زمینی تحت تاثیر پدیده تغییر اقلیم در آینده قرار خواهد گرفت و عملکرد آن نسبت به سال مبنا کاهش خواهد یافت. به طوری که بیشترین کاهش عملکرد غده در سناریوی A2 و در سال 2090 برای هر دو مدل گردش عمومی HadCM3 و IPCM4 شبیه سازی شد. میزان کاهش عملکرد غده در سناریوی B1 نسبت به دو سناریوی دیگر کمتر بود. گیاه سیب زمینی در سناریوی A2 در مقایسه با دو سناریوی دیگر از شاخص سطح برگ کمتری برخوردار بود. همچنین طول مرحله کاشت تا گلدهی و مدت زمان رسیدگی سیب زمینی در منطقه فریدون شهر در شرایط تغییر اقلیم آینده نسبت به شرایط فعلی کاهش خواهد یافت که دلیل اصلی این کاهش، افزایش درجه حرارت (بسته به سناریوهای مختلف بین 1/1 تا 4/5 درجه سانتی گراد) و در نتیجه افزایش سرعت رشد گیاه در شرایط تغییر اقلیم آینده می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سناریوهای انتشار، شبیه سازی عملکرد، مدل LARS-WG، مراحل فنولوژیکی
  • سیده سعاد حسینی، محمدعلی بهدانی*، عباس خاشعی سیوکی صفحات 1136-1148
    در بین عوامل مختلف تاثیرگذار در تولید محصولات کشاورزی، شرایط اقلیمی از مهمترین متغیرهای محیط طبیعی است. از سویی دیگر، اساس توسعه کشاورزی، آگاهی دقیق از ویژگی های محیطی در هر نقطه و اعمال مدیریت ویژه می باشد. پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) به دلیل داشتن ریشه های گسترده و نفوذپذیر و همچنین دارا بودن قابلیت تنظیم تعداد برگ و میوه زمانی که گیاه تحت شرایط تنش قرار می گیرد و نیز داشتن دوره قوزه دهی قابل انعطاف از گیاهان مناسب برای کشت در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک محسوب می شود. بر این اساس، این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی شرایط اقلیمی برای کشت پنبه در تاریخ های کشت مختلف در استان خراسان جنوبی در یک دوره آماری 25 ساله (1394-1374) صورت گرفت. بدین منظور، پانزده ایستگاه هواشناسی استان خراسان جنوبی انتخاب و به کمک محیط نرم افزاری GIS Arc مدل سازی و تحلیل فضایی صورت گرفت. با بهره گیری از شرایط اقلیمی مطلوب در هر مرحله از رشد پنبه، لایه های اطلاعاتی کلاس بندی و ارزش وزنی هر کدام از عوامل مشخص گردید. در نهایت، به منظور هم پوشانی لایه های اطلاعاتی با استفاده از روش های تصمیم گیری چند معیاره مبتنی بر روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، نقشه های نهایی مربوط به هر تاریخ کشت از نیمه اول فروردین تا نیمه اول تیر براساس عوامل اقلیمی برای کشت پنبه در استان خراسان جنوبی تهیه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که نقش هر یک از عناصر اقلیمی بارش و دما، متناسب با هر تاریخ کشت، در مناطق مختلف استان متفاوت بود و اهمیت آن بیشتر از عوامل زمینی بود و از بین همه تاریخ های کشت از فروردین ماه تا تیرماه، بهترین تاریخ کشت مربوط به نیمه اول و نیمه دوم اردیبهشت ماه بود، چون از نظر مساحت مناطق مناسب به ترتیب 56 و 68 درصد بیشترین مساحت را به خود اختصاص داده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، تاریخ کاشت، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی
  • محمدرضا حاج سید هادی*، محمد تقی درزی صفحات 1149-1167
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر ورمی کمپوست و باکتری های تثبیت کننده نیتروژن بر عملکرد و برخی ویژگی های کیفی مرزه تابستانه (Satureja hortensis L.) ، آزمایشی در اراضی تحقیقاتی کشاورزی شرکت ران واقع در فیروزکوه و در سال 1394 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با دو فاکتور شامل کود زیستی نیتروژنه در سه سطح (عدم تلقیح، تلقیح بذر با نیتروکسین و تلقیح بذر با سوپرنیتروپلاس) و ورمی کمپوست در چهار سطح (0، 5، 10 و 15 تن در هکتار) و در سه تکرار انجام شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل وزن تر و خشک بوته، عملکرد سرشاخه گل دار، درصد اسانس و درصد عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در اندام های هوایی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقادیر وزن تر و خشک بوته و درصد اسانس با مصرف 10 تن ورمی کمپوست حاصل شد و بیشترین عملکرد سرشاخه گل دار، درصد نیتروژن و فسفر در اندام های هوایی با کاربرد 15 تن ورمی کمپوست به دست آمد. تلقیح بذر با کود زیستی سوپرنیتروپلاس باعث بیشترین مقادیر در صفات اندازه گیری شده در مرزه تابستانه شد. بیشترین درصد نیتروژن تجمع یافته در اندام های هوایی نتیجه مصرف نیتروکسین بود. نتایج اثرات متقابل تیمارها نیز نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار پتاسیم در اندام های هوایی از کاربرد 15 تن ورمی کمپوست همراه با سوپرنیتروپلاس حاصل شد.
    کلیدواژگان: سوپرنیتروپلاس، سیستم تولید پایدار، ماده خشک، ماده موثره، نیتروکسین
  • محمد پازکی طرودی، حسین عجم نوروزی، عباس قنبری مالیدره *، محمدرضا داداشی، سلمان دستان صفحات 1168-1193
    بهره گیری از مدیریت پایدار گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) به منظور افزایش عملکرد و بهینه سازی در مصرف نهاده ها و حفاظت از محیط-زیست امری ضروری است. لذا، هدف از این پژوهش، ارزیابی بیلان انرژی و انتشار دی اکسید کربن در تولید گندم بود. برای انجام این تحقیق، ابتدا شش مزرعه کاشت رایج گندم در شهرستان های جویبار، ساری و قائمشهر طی سال زراعی 94-1393 شناسایی شده اند. سپس، با روش کاشت بهبود یافته (بر اساس زراعت کم نهاده گندم طراحی شده توسط محققان) مقایسه شده اند. اطلاعات مربوط به انرژی ناشی از عملیات زراعی مزارع رایج و روش کاشت بهبود یافته ثبت و جمع آوری شدند. سپس، مصرف انرژی در هشت بخش شامل تهیه زمین، کاشت، کوددهی، حفاظت گیاه، کنترل علف های هرز، آبیاری، برداشت و حمل و نقل به کارخانه طبقه بندی شدند. پس از آن، انرژی ورودی و خروجی، شاخص های انرژی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی (GWP) ناشی از انتشار دی اکسید کربن برآورد شدند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین کل انرژی ورودی در چهار روش کاشت برابر 61/11811 مگاژول در هکتار بود که کم ترین میزان انرژی ورودی در روش کاشت بهبودیافته مشاهده شد. در بین تمامی ورودی ها، انرژی مصرفی مربوط به نیتروژن با 03/38 درصد در رتبه اول قرار گرفت. انرژی سوخت و بذر در رتبه های بعدی قرار گرفتند. بیشترین انرژی تولیدی در روش کاشت بهبودیافته به دست آمد که 34/36 درصد از آن مربوط به دانه و 66/63 درصد مربوط به کاه و کلش بود. میانگین انرژی ورودی تجدیدپذیر و تجدیدناپذیر در چهار روش کاشت به ترتیب برابر 28/3071 و 33/8740 مگاژول در هکتار بود. میانگین کارایی انرژی در روش های کاشت برابر 57/14 بود که بالاترین میزان آن مربوط به روش کاشت بهبودیافته بود. همچنین، میانگین بهره وری انرژی در چهار روش کاشت برابر 37/0 کیلوگرم بر مگاژول حاصل شد. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی کل ناشی از فعالیت های مختلف در روش های کاشت برابر 56/798 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هکتار بود که بیشترین میزان انتشار دی اکسید کربن و گرمایش جهانی به دلیل ورودی بیشتر مربوط به مصرف نیتروژن، سوخت و بذر بوده است. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در واحد وزن دانه در چهار روش کاشت برابر 2/184 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هر تن دانه بود. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در واحد انرژی ورودی و خروجی در روش های کاشت نیز به ترتیب برابر 75/66 و 94/4 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در گیگاژول بود. روش کاشت بهبودیافته با 35/4 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در گیگاژول کم ترین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی را در واحد انرژی خروجی دارا بود. به طور کلی، میزان GWP ارتباط مستقیمی با شیوه مدیریت مزرعه و مصرف نهاده ها نشان داد که در نظام تولید بهبودیافته این شاخص در کمترین مقدار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییر اقلیم، گرمایش جهانی، نظام کاشت بهبودیافته
  • زهرا میر، مهدی دهمرده *، عیسی خمری، جمشید پیری صفحات 1194-1207
    به منظور بررسی اثرات کودهای زیستی و محلول پاشی آهن بر عملکرد و شاخص های کیفی گیاه دارویی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) آزمایشی در مزرعه آموزشی- پژوهشی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 1395-1394 به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل چهار سطح مصرف کود آلی شامل؛ شاهد، ورمی-کمپوست، کودگاوی، جلبک دریایی و سه سطح محلول پاشی آهن شامل؛ شاهد، محلول پاشی به میزان سه و شش سی سی در هزار بودند. تیمارهای کود زیستی عامل اصلی و سطوح مختلف محلول پاشی آهن عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل؛ عملکرد اقتصادی، بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، مقدار کلروفیل a، b و کاروتنوئید، آنتوسیانین، کربوهیدرات و میزان پروتئین بود. مصرف سطوح مختلف محلول پاشی آهن و تیمارهای کود زیستی و بر همکنش آن ها بر تمامی صفات به جز شاخص برداشت در سطح یک و پنج درصد معنی دار شد. بیش ترین مقدار عملکرد اقتصادی وزن خشک کاسبرگ چای ترش برابر با 60/587 کیلوگرم در هکتار با مصرف توام شش سی سی در هزار محلول پاشی آهن و کود زیستی جلبک دریایی به-دست آمد و بالاترین مقدار آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ (960/8 میکرو مول برگرم وزن تر) در تیمار سه در هزار آهن و کود دامی حاصل گردید، همچنین غلظت شش در هزار محلول پاشی آهن سبب افزایش میزان کربوهیدرات و پروتئین سرشاخه ها گردید. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف تلفیقی کودهای زیستی و محلول پاشی آهن، نسبت به مصرف جداگانه آن ها می تواند در افزایش عملکرد و ویژگی های کیفی چای ترش نقش موثری را ایفا کند.
    کلیدواژگان: آنتوسیانین، پروتئین، جلبک دریایی، کلروفیل، ورمی کمپوست
  • پویا آروین*، جواد وفابخش، داریوش مظاهری صفحات 1208-1226
    به منظور بررسی صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد نهایی ارقام کلزا متعلق به شش ژنوتیپ کلزای معمولی (Brasica napus L.)، شلغم روغنی (Brasica rapa L.) و خردل وحشی (Brasica juncea L.) در شرایط تنش و عدم تنش و کاربرد نژادهای سودوموناس، دو آزمایش (شامل مزرعه تنش و عدم تنش) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی طرق مشهد، در سال زراعی90-1389، با طرح آماری فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. بررسی صفات فیزیولوژیکی شامل شاخص برداشت، درجه سبزینگی، محتوی نسبی آب برگ تفاوت معنی داری را در میان محیط، رقم و باکتری در رقم نشان داد. تغییرات صفت محتوی نسبی آب برگ، از 23/64 درصد در تیمار باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا (Pseudomonas putida) تا 32/60 درصد در تیمار عدم تلقیح متغیر بود. اثر باکتری به صورت مجزا و مرکب با سایر تیمارها بر روی شاخص برداشت معنی دار شد. تفاوت معنی داری بین دو محیط و ارقام و برهم کنش محیط در رقم در مورد عملکرد دانه وجود داشت. عملکرد نهایی در محیط بدون تنش برابر 85/1351 کیلوگرم در هکتار به طور برجسته ای بالاتر از عملکرد در محیط تنش معادل 38/535 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. در بررسی صفات مرفولوژیک و اکوفیزیولوژیک این تحقیق هیبریدهای هایولا برتری خود را نشان دادند که این مهم منتهی به شکل گیری عملکرد بالاتر در این ارقام با 1381 کیلوگرم در هکتار در رقم هایولا 330 و 1083 کیلوگرم در هکتار در رقم هایولا 401 شد. درنتیجه، کشت این ارقام و کاربرد باکتری سودوموناس هم در شرایط فاریاب و هم تنش خشکی می تواند در جهت بهبود عملکرد و تخفیف شرایط تنش، مفید و ارزشمند باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع، درجه سبزینگی، شاخص برداشت، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، نژادهای سودوموناس
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  • Majid Khanali *, Behzad Elhami, Hadi Eslami, Soleiman Hosseinpour Pages 892-909
    IntroductionAgriculture itself serves a dual role as an energy user and also energy supplier in the form of bio-energy. Recently, the energy use in agriculture has been intensified in response to the rising population, the increasing of standards of living and the limitation sources of energy. Efficient use of energy is a possible pathway for reducing the environmental impacts of energy inputs in agriculture, and providing sustainable agricultural production, since it brings financial savings, fossil resources preservation and air pollution reduction. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is defined as the compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. Hybrid seed in agriculture is produced by cross-pollinated plants. Hybrid seed production is one of the main contributors to the dramatic rise in agricultural output during the last half of the 20th century. The alternatives to hybridization are open pollination and cloonal propagation. All of the hybrid seeds planted by the farmer will produce similar plants while the seeds of the next generation from those hybrids will not consistently have the desired characteristics. Controlled hybrids provide very uniform characteristics because they are produced by crossing two inbred strains.
    Materials and MethodsThe purpose of this study was to compare the energy consumption pattern and environmental consequences caused by the use of agricultural inputs in the production of seed corn harvested by hand, combine and picker husker. Information required was prepared by the questionnaire method in Alborz Province using census the total producers of hybrid corn in the Province. The investigated inputs were labor, agricultural machinery, diesel fuel, chemical pesticides, fertilizers, gas, electricity, water and seed. The energy of each input was calculated by multiplying the amount of that input with its energy equivalent. The ten environmental indicators including eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), ozone layer depletion (OD), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical oxidation (PO), human toxicity (HT), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MAE) and fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (FAE) were investigated. LCA was conducted using Sima Pro software from cradle to grave, i.e., from the production of raw materials to the production of hybrid corn considering the both farming and processing stages. One ton of produced hybrid corn was chosen as the functional unit in this study.
    Results and DiscussionTotal energy input to produce hybrid corn harvested by hand, combine and picker husker methods were calculated as 118711, 111335 and 120403 MJ ha-1, respectively. Electricity and nitrate fertilizer were the most important energy inputs for their investigated harvesting methods. The results of life cycle assessment revealed that electricity and diesel fuel used for irrigation had the most environmental impact in production of hybrid corn in the farm, while the consumption of fungicides had the largest environmental impacts in the processing stage. On the other hand, in harvesting method by picker husker, environmental indicators such as GWP, EU, HT, AP, AD and PO were higher than other harvesting methods. The different harvesting methods had no significant effect on OD and TE. MAE and FAE were higher than those of other harvesting methods because of the high consumption of diesel fuel and electricity in hand harvesting method,. Combine harvesting method had less environmental damage than other methods.
    ConclusionThe combine harvesting method was recognized as the best harvesting method from environmental viewpoint. Electricity and diesel fuel consumption for supplying irrigation alter had the most environmental burdens in the agricultural stage. The right application of inputs such as herbicides and chemical fertilizers, substitution of non-renewable energy resources with renewable ones and green manure application can reduce the environmental burdens in hybrid corn production.
    Keywords: Environmental indicators, Harvesting method, Hybrid seed corn, Life cycle assessment
  • Farima Doaei, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam *, Reza Ghorbani, Ahmad Balandary Pages 910-921
    IntroductionDwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) is an annual species from chicory genus in Asteraceae family grows in Western and Southern parts of Iran which is used as a traditional medicinal herb. To date there are a few studies on this species which have been carried out under field conditions. Dwarf Chicory can be used for cancer treatment. In many studies, the presence of phenolic and terpene lactones has been confirmed in chicory tissue. Each type of fertilizer (chemical, organic and biofertilizer) has its advantages and disadvantages but due to the problems caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, organic and biological fertilizers can be used as alternatives to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and produce sustainable agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers and biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) in different cuttings.
    Materials and MethodsThe experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and 36°15 N ) during 2011-2012 growing season. Plots were designed with 4 m long and 2.5 m width, 1 m apart each other. Between blocks, 1 m alley was kept. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (Urban compost 4 t. ha-1, vermin-compost 4 t. ha-1, urea fertilizer 130 kg. ha-1 and control) and biological fertilizer (Biosulfur biofertilizer pure sulfur 100 kg. ha-1 and control). Seed sowing was performed by hand on the middle of the furrows. Seedlings were thinned at the four-six leaf stage. The irrigation was done after seed sowing two times per week until plant establishment and then with weekly irrigation until maturity stage. Weeds were removed by hand during growing seasons. Harvesting was performed before stem initiation at the first cut and flower initiation at the second cut and then biological yields were measured by harvesting 2.25 m2 of the central part of each plot. Folin-Ciocalteu method of assay was used to measure leaf polyphenols. Comparison of means were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% and 1% probability level by using SAS and MSTAT-C statistical software.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that organic and chemical fertilizers and its interactions had significant effect on fresh and dry weight of biomass in the first and the second cuts and total accumulated biomass. The highest fresh weight of biomass at both cuts and total accumulated biomass were observed in chemical fertilizer biosulfur biofertilizer treatment. It seems that readily and immediately available of nitrogen and sulfur elements in chemical fertilizer biosulfur biofertilizer treatment increased the biomass yield of the plant. Compost treatment produced the highest dry weight of biomass in both cuts and total accumulated biomass. Results indicated that studied factors and their interactions had significant effect on poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves in both cuts. The highest and the lowest poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves in both cuts were observed in vermi-compost and chemical fertilizer biosulfur biofertilizer treatments, respectively. It seems that the slow growth and low shading of the leaves were the main reason to increase polyphenols and the absence of nitrogen deficiency and low soil pH cause reduced the concentration of polyphenols.
    ConclusionAccording to the results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that the compost treatment had a positive effect on vegetative yield and poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves and its use can be an effective step towards achieving sustainable agriculture and replacing the use of chemical fertilizers. Our results revealed that total poly-phenols contents declined by increasing nitrogen and decreasing pH.
    Keywords: Biosulfur biofertilizer, Compost, Medicinal Plant, Vermi-compost
  • Surur Khorramdel *, Reza Ghorbani, Homa Azizi, Mohammad Seyedi Pages 922-934
    IntroductionMedicinal and aromatic plants are major crops of domestic and industrial interest. The essential oil yield, seed yield and biomass of medicinal and aromatic plants are seriously affected by interspecific competition, meaning proper weed management becomes crucial. Competition with weeds is detrimental for medicinal and aromatic plants production for two main reasons. The first reason is that, in acting as an important stress factor, the interference of weeds is supposed to generate variations in photosynthesis rate and direction, pushing plants to allocate more carbon to roots (competition for nutrients or water) or shoots (competition for light). These plants are increasingly organically grown to improve profitability. However, the presence of weeds may lead to a decline in both yield and quality. Therefore, nonchemical methods of weed management are needed. More attention has been paid worldwide about the technical means for weeding, generally addressed to a removal of weeds as complete as possible, and sometimes to the effects of weeds on medicinal and aromatic plants yields and quality.Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an herbaceous and annual plant belonging to Apiaceae family which is planted in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran as medicinal plant. About 26% of the total area under cultivation of medicinal plants in Iran is allocated to cumin cultivation. This paper studied the methods of non-chemical weed control on yield components and quantitative and qualitative yield of cumin.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to study weed management methods, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2012-2013. Treatments included tillage at night, false seed bed, three cover crops such as hairy vetch, chuckling vetch and fenugreek, crop residues of sunflower, barley and garlic and weed infested control. Operation of tillage at night performed with moon light. Seed bed prepared, irrigated and weed removed at 28th February by using surface cultivation for false seed bed treatment. Cover crops removed and added to the soil at 5th March. After land preparation, 2.5 t.ha-1 crop residues of each species added to the soil. Cover crops planted as dense at 5th November then all plots irrigated and then seeding operation was done. Plant height, yield components, biological yield, seed yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield of cumin were measured accordingly. The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the growth characteristics, yield components, biological yield, seed yield and essential oil yield of cumin were significantly affected by non-chemical management procedures (p≤0.01). The maximum biological and seed yield were observed in hairy vetch with 220.7 and 103.1 g. m-2 and these minimum were for control with 72.4 and 28.6 g. m-2, respectively. These traits enhanced more than 100% for all management treatments compared to control. The highest essential oil yield of cumin was recorded in hairy vetch (2.8 g. m-2) and the lowest was for control (0.6 g.m-2).
    ConclusionNon-chemical weed management strategies had significantly effect on plant height, yield components and yield of cumin. Cover crops and crop residues enhanced cumin yield due to physical and chemical soil characteristics, moisture conservation and cell swelling improvement that they increased growth and production of photosynthetic matters. Generally, cover crop is a safe and effective technique for weed control that may decrease the necessity for chemical approaches to crop and soil.
    Keywords: Allelopathy, Cover crop, Crop residue, Photocontrol of weed, Tillage at night
  • Alireza Koocheki *, Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati, Rohollah Moradi, Hamed Mansouri Pages 935-959
    IntroductionSustainable agricultural development is an important goal in economic planning and human development worldwide. A range of processes and relationships are transformed, beginning with aspects of basic soil structure, organic matter content, and diversity and activity of soil biota. Eventually, major changes also occur in the relationships among weed, insect, and disease populations, and in the balance between beneficial and pest organisms. Ultimately, nutrient dynamics and cycling, energy use efficiency, and overall system productivity are impacted. Measuring and monitoring these changes during the conversion period helps the farmer evaluate the success of the conversion process, and provides a framework to determine the requirements for sustainability. After improving resource use efficiency, replacement of ecological inputs with chemical inputs as second step and redesign of agro-ecosystems is as final step in transition of common to sustainable agriculture. The study was investigated to evaluation of Iran’s agricultural systems status.
    Materials and MethodsUsing organic and ecological inputs than chemicals is the second step for transition to sustainable agriculture. This study was performed to assess and measure the status of inputs replacement and agro-ecosystem designing based on ecological principle in Iran. For this purpose, we used 223 studied researches on agronomical and medicinal plants. After, they analyzed based on functional and structural characteristics and then used. Considering to the importance of multi-functionality in sustainable agriculture, in this study we considered the multiple managements for inputs replacement. The using functions in the study were: improving fertility and bio-chemical characteristics of soil, ecological managements of pest and diseases, reducing the energy usage, and increasing biodiversity. Using the organic and biological inputs, remaining the plant residual on soil, using the allelopathy, reduced and conservation tillage, crop rotation and intercropping were the main approaches for inputs replacement. In section of agro-ecosystem designing, we designed the replaced systems based on increasing inputs efficiency approach (first step) and also replacement of conventional inputs with ecological inputs (second step). We considered the parameters about water, soil, pest management, biodiversity, climate change, low inputs systems, margin regions and environmental hazards in designing section. In designing sustainable agroecosystems, the designing of each component was considered in relation to others components and finally designed the total of agroecosystem as on society.
    Results and DiscussionThe results of studies showed that in most cases, mechanical control of weed in addition to environmental benefits can be most effective than chemical control. Crop rotation can be considered as a suitable replacement method than chemical herbicides. Intercropping was found as an appropriate approach for pest control. Using the allelophatic properties of plants had a positive role for pest and weed control in Iran.
    Increasing the biodiversity must be considered in transition to sustainable agriculture. Crop rotation, organic fertilizers and intercropping were found the effective approaches for improving biodiversity in agro-ecosystems. Sustainability of agro-ecosystem is closed with soil sustainability. The studies showed that using organic chemical, remaining residual on soil, conservation tillage, crop rotation and intercropping spatially with legumes are the improving approaches for physical-chemical characteristics of soil and replacement for chemical fertilizers. Based on the researches, one main goal for achieving to sustainable agriculture was found minimizing energy consumption. Efficient use of energy in agriculture will prevent destruction of natural resources, and promote sustainable agriculture as an economical production system. Thus, natural resources could be used more efficiently. Eliminate the use of nonrenewable off farm human inputs that have the potential to harm the environment or the health of farmers, farm workers, or consumers. Mitigation and adaptation strategies in relation to climate change and quantization of transition period from common to sustainable agriculture to reduce economic risks for farmers were regarded in the agro-ecosystem design.
    ConclusionIn general, although different studies were performed in the replacement of ecological inputs instead of common inputs in Iran, needed policy is necessary to transfer findings of these researches to fields. Although the complete studies were not carried out about designing agro-ecosystem, the existence of enough results for two previous steps (increasing inputs efficiency and its replacement) could be basic for this step. Therefore, deep researches and studies based on site potential in the ecosystem level should be done in the final step of transition to sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Multifunctional, Recreation, Rural Development, Soil Stability
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam*, Ghorban Ali Asadi, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Mahsa Aghhavani Shajari, Roshanak Shahriyari Pages 960-971
    IntroductionThese days, using different chemical fertilizers has different negative effects such as imbalance soil nutrient, soil, water and air pollution and decrease quantitative and qualitative yield of crops, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs. Organic fertilizers providing the plants nutritional requirements and stabilizing soil fertility without having undesirable impact on the environment and crop quality. It has been reported that integrated organic and chemical fertilizer consumption in agro ecosystems increase chemical fertilizers efficiency and also decrease environmental impacts. Roselle is one of the most important medicinal plants of the Malvaceae family which is cultivated in southern parts of Iran. Roselle has been using as a folk remedy for abscesses, dyspepsia, cancer, debility since ancient times. Roselle is grown mainly for its calyces which contain vitamin C, anthocyanin, antioxidants, calcium, phosphorus and iron. Improved soil nutrients by using organic and chemical fertilizer together could improve the quality of the secondary metabolite content of Roselle. The present study was conducted to better understand the effect of integrated organic and chemical fertilizer on growth indices of Roselle in Mashhad, Iran condition.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to study the effects of integrated organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), a field experiment was conducted with 11 treatments based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research station of faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Iran, during year 2013-2014. The experimental treatments were including: 1- Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices), 2- Cow manure, 3- Chemical fertilizer, 4- Vermi-compost, 5- Chemical fertilizer Cow manure, 6- Chemical fertilizer Vermi-compost, 7- Chemical fertilizer Mycorrhiza, 8- Cow manure Mycorrhiza, 9- Vermi-compost Mycorrhiza, 10- Cow manure Vermi-compost ㌧⢮롢, and Control. The seeds were sown at greenhouse and then seedlings were transplanted to the farm at two mounts age. The land lied fallow for two years before year of the experiment. Seed bed was prepared using plough and disk in autumn 2014. Plots were designed with 4 m long and 3.75 m width, 1 m apart each other. Between blocks, 2 m alley was kept. The seedling sowing was performed by hand on the middle of furrows. Growth analysis samples were taken from 75 x 125 cm quadrates from middle of each plots in five times. The trend of Roselle plant dry matter (DM), leaf area index (LAI) and crop growth rate (CGR) were recorded through the growing season. For analysis of data and drawing shapes, Minitab Ver. 16 and Sigma Plot Ver. 11 softwares were used.
    Results and DiscussionThe results indicated that the highest LAI (5.89) was obtained in chemical fertilizer treatment. Integrated cow manure爗ꚉ욥 fertilizer treatment produced the highest dry matter (9887.23 kg. ha-1) compared with other treatments. The highest CGR (23.47 g / m2. day-1) was achieved in mycorrhiza chemical fertilizer treatment. The lowest LAI (3.4), DM (7618 kg.ha-1) and CGR (16.48 g. m-2. day-1) were shown in control, cow manure Vermi-compost ㌧⢮롢 and cow manure treatments, respectively. The highest LAI, DM and CGR were obtained at 156 days after transplanting to the farm. There was a significant correlation between plant height and calyx yield. Our results are in agreement with some experiments which use of organic and inorganic fertilizer on Roselle.
    ConclusionThe result of this experiment revealed that using of chemical and organic fertilizer in integrated form instead of individual application has a beneficial effect on improving the growth indices of Roselle. Based on the results of this experiment it can be concluded that the age of seedlings for transplanting to the farm should be at least three mounts and the direct sowing Roselle at Mashhad condition would not be recommended.
    Keywords: Biological Fertilizer, Calyx Yield, CGR, LAI
  • Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati *, Alireza Koocheki Pages 972-992
    IntroductionAgricultural intensification has serious environmental consequences such as depletion of non-renewable resources, emission of greenhouse gases, threatening of biodiversity and pollution of both surface and underground water resources. The life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a standard method for assessing environmental impacts from various economic activities, including agriculture, and covers a wide range of impact categories across the entire production chain. Over the past few decades, food production in Iran has been increased drastically due to heavier use of chemical inputs. Since the use of LCA method is overlooked for assesseing the effects of agricultural intensification in Iran and few researches are conducted at local level (such as province, cities), the purpose of this research is evaluation of wheat production systems throughout the country based on the level of intensification using LCA method.
    Materials and MethodsFourteen provinces covering 80 percent of total cultivated area of wheat production in the country were subjected to a cradle to gate LCA study using the standard method. The selected provinces were classified as low, medium and high input based on the level of intensification and all inputs and emissions were estimated within the system boundaries during inventory stage. Required data for yield, and level of applied inputs for 14 provinces were collected from the official databases of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. The various environmental impacts including, abiotic resource depletion, land use, global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication potential, human, aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential of wheat production systems over the country was studied based on emission coefficients and characterization factors provided by standard literatures. The integrated effects of emission of each impact category were calculated per functional units (hectare cultivated area as well as ton grain) and three production systems were compared for the intensity of environmental impacts of each category.
    Results and DiscussionThe results indicated that on per hectare basis all impact categories increased significantly with increasing inputs level. However, with grain yield ton as a unit of functional variable, results were obtained due to yield differences in wheat production systems. Depletion of non-renewable resources (fossil fuels and P resource) in high input systems was 27.1 GJ ha-1 which is almost 1.8 times higher than low input systems. However, energy consumption per unit of yield was exceeded in intensified system only by 10% because 1 ton of grain yield in high input systems was obtained from 2374 m2 area compared to 3850 m2 required for the same amount of yield in low input systems. Higher yield of intensified systems when calculated per ton grain was led to lower acidification potential, aquatic toxicity and terrestrial toxicity. However, global warming potential, eutrophication potential and human toxicity was not compensated by yield advantage and these impacts were higher in high input systems with both functional units. Global warming potential (GWP) in high input systems reached to 2911 kg CO2eq ha-1 but it was 45% lower (1600 kg CO2eq ha-1) in low input systems. When calculated with ton grain as functional unit, GWP of high input systems (1600 kg CO2eq t-1) was only 11% greater than that of low input systems.
    ConclusionGlobal warming potential, depletion of non-renewable resources, eutrophication potential, and human toxicity were identified as the most sensitive impact groups to intensification in wheat production systems of Iran, compared to other impact categories. In general environmental impacts of high input systems were greater than low input systems and the difference was very clear when the area was used as functional unit. It seems that increasing the use efficiency of inputs together with management practices based on the replacement of external inputs, is an appropriate approach to reduce environmental impacts while sustaining high yields. Further analysis at provience level is needed to compare the spatial variation of environmental impacts of wheat production systems in the country.
    Keywords: Energy use, Environmental impacts, High input system, Sustainability, Wheat
  • Mehdi Naghizadeh, Rooholla Moradi * Pages 993-1006
    IntroductionAgricultural sustainability is the ability of an agro-ecosystem to either maintain or to implement the productive characteristics and taking into consideration both the ecological-environmental and socio-economic aspects. Sustainable agriculture implies long term maintenance of natural systems, optimal production with minimum input, adequate income per farming unit, fulfillment of basic food needs, and provision for the demands and necessities of rural families and communities. All definitions of sustainable agriculture promote environmental, economic and social harmony in an effort to attain the meaning of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a sustainability index for quantifying the different aspects of sustainability as economical, social, agronomical and management for wheat and pistachio production systems which are dominant systems in Kerman province.
    Materials and MethodsIn the present study all aspects of agricultural sustainability including ecological, social and economic was selected..Accordingly, the sustainability index, a set of 82 indicators for wheat and pistachio crops were designed, to collect data through questionnaires and then analyze it. Sustainability indices include socio-economic indices, fertilizer and chemicals, crops and livestock production, crop residue management, irrigation water, diversity of agricultural systems, mechanization, tillage and weed management in the main cultivation area in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. Sustainability index was calculated using the weighting sum. Therefore the rate of contribution for each specific indicator in the final index and rating of all indicators were done from zero to its maximum rated indicators with regard to the most unfavorable situation to the most favorable indicators. After scoring each measure, the total scores of indicators is accumulated and was introduced as the final score. After designing the indicators, 295 and 234 questionnaires were completed for wheat and pistachio, respectively. Farms were selected randomly. Data were analyzed using Excel and SAS software.
    Results and DiscussionThe Study of individual characteristics of farmers showed that the average age of farmers for wheat and pistachios production systems was about 43 and 39 years respectively. Age was considered as an important factor in displaying the features of one’s personality. Therefore, young group is more zealous and earnest in their work and can handle farming activities more efficiency. In both studied systems, those who had high school education had the highest frequency. Education may enhance farm productivity directly by improving the quality of labor, increasing the ability to adjust to disequilibria, and through its effect upon the propensity to adopt innovation successfully. Average yield was reported 3460 kg ha-1for wheat and 573 kg ha-1for pistachios. Crop production is an indicator of system efficiency, in regard to genetic potential, ecological conditions, management, capital investment and labor use. The results showed that, unfortunately, the fertilizer and chemical inputs, especially in pistachio, is extremely high, which is inconsistent with the approaches of sustainable agriculture. The average annual income in wheat and pistachio was gained 4 and 18 million tooman, respectively. Non-agricultural income sources make sure to provide sufficient income to the farmers. Reduction in rural incomes will lead to different immigration outcomes. Family economic security directly affects on the economic sustainability of agriculture. Assessing various sustainability indicators showed that the sustainability index in wheat and pistachio was 47.2 and 44.2, respectively, and also that these agro-ecosystems are not sustainable. Crop residue management indicator in wheat and socio-economic in pistachios production systems had a better condition than other indicators. The results indicated that chemical inputs, irrigation water and the lack of economic stability for farmers, are the main problems in the field of sustainability and to achieve the stability in wheat and pistachio agro-ecosystems, various aspects of economic, social, agronomic and management should be reviewed and revised.
    ConclusionIn generally, to increase the sustainability of the wheat and pistachio agro-ecosystems, the following strategies are suggested: The sprinkler irrigation method must be developed and use of urea fertilizer and pesticide should be decreased. The best managements of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, social- individual characteristics of farmers, crop production and crop residual management can cause the sustainability.
    Keywords: Index, Income, Indicator, Management, Socio- economic
  • Rashid Cheraghi *, Mahmuod Ramruodi, Javad Taie Semiromi, Shapour Lorzadeh Pages 1007-1019
    IntroductionSpecific characteristics of canola and its adaptability to the various climatic conditions, have increased the importance of this product, and has turned it into a hope to supply the edible oil needs of the country. Canola, like other crops, with its own ecological characteristics, with the lack of any of these features lead to the development of the crop in some parts of the country. The total rainfall for the growing season dry land canola about 400-500 millimeters and lack of water and drought at planting and seedling emergence can result in a weak and ultimately reduce performance. The temperature suitable for the development of this plant is 25 to 30 ° C and temperatures over 35 ° C cause prolonged loss of germination ability and the ability of pollening. A study to compare the thermal needs of rape in the provinces of Khorasan came to the conclusion that different parts of the study area in terms of providing optimal temperatures are different for canola. Study as potential climatic zoning wheat cultivation in West Azerbaijan province, it concluded that the role of each of temperature and rainfall, according to the different stages of development in different regions is different.The study also aimed to assess the distribution of suitable rainfall and suitable temperature in the "planting to emergence" of rainfed canola was conducted in various parts of the Khuzestan province.
    Materials and MethodsKhuzestan province in the range of 47 degrees and 42 minutes to 50 degrees and 39 minutes east of Greenwich and 29 degrees 58 minutes to 32 degrees and 58 minutes north of the equator is located. According to the climatic classification based on Domarten, the Khuzestan province has three arid, semi-arid and is Mediterranean. Parameters studied were daily maximum and minimum temperature, total daily precipitation, Growth Degree Day (GDD) and land topography condition.
    To determine the exact time of the end of "planting to emergence" rainfed canola index GDD was used. Rainfed canola GDD required for this stage is 120.
    In order to determine probability of rainfall for the "planting to emergence" of rainfed canola, according to the amount of precipitation for this period is 50 mm, the log-Pearson Type III distribution was used.
    To determine probability of suitable temperature stage "planting to emergence" of canola rainfed, normal distribution was used. Suitable temperature at this stage is between 10 and 25 °C, Z=(X-X ̅)/S Z= level probability, X ̅= Average, S= standard deviation, and X as desired temperature us.
    The feasibility of canola For this purpose, probability suitable rainfall and suitable temperatures of different stations in the GIS software was used.
    Results and DiscussionHumidity is an important factor affecting agriculture, especially in rainfed agriculture, and correct information is useful in precipitation during the last few years. Geographical distribution of the suitable rainfall probability in the "planting to emergence” of canola rainfed was reached. Geographical distribution of the suitable temperature probability in the "planting to emergence" of rainfed canola was reached. The overlay map of the geographic distribution of probability of suitable rainfall, and map of the geographical distribution of probability of suitable temperatures, and land use map of the province, the software Arc Map, map of the geographical distribution of probability of suitable rainfall and temperatures for rainfed canola was obtained.
    ConclusionAccording to the results, arable land study area was classified into three parts. Very poor areas, which probability of suitable rainfall and temperatures for the "planting to emergence " is less than 25 percent, and 33.7% of the arable land in the province are included. A poor area, which probability of suitable rainfall and temperatures for the "planting to emergence" is between 25 to 50 percent and 66.2% of the arable land covers the province. A middle-class area, which probability of suitable rainfall and temperatures for the "planting to emergence" of 50 to 75 percent, which is 0.01% of the arable land, covers the province.
    Keywords: Climate, GDD, Probability, Rainfed, Suitability, Temperature
  • Seyae Jala Yadollahi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza Jahansuz *, Nasser Majnoun Hosseini, Gholam Reza Peykani Pages 1020-1030
    IntroductionRecently, there is an increasing concern about the effects of pesticides on non-target organisms. Residual of pesticides cause environmental pollution and put in danger the human health. The problem is always in contact with pesticides, there are numerous risks related to the environmental and human health threat at different levels of their cycle, including production, sale, use in the field and ultimately for residue in food occurs. This study consider the harmful effects of pesticides in Hashtgerd study area and their potential and environmental risks using EIQ index. Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) is a model based on algebraic equations which by it can be classification chemical pesticides based on environmental hazards and risks to human health and toxins that cause minimal risk are selected. The ultimate purpose of this study was to determine 5 insecticide have been the highest consumption in the region Hashtgerd and then determine the potential environmental risks of them by EIQ index, so that eventually we can identify and eliminate hazardous insecticides.
    Materials and MethodsHashtgerd study area is one of 609 countries study area that is located in the Alborz province. This area with an extent of about 1170 square km because of the proximity to the metropolis of Tehran and focus a large number of agricultural, industrial and service units has an important economic and political position. The numerical value of the EIQ is average of the three main components include of the potential damage to the health of farm workers, the potential damage to consumers through the direct effect of toxic residues in food products or through ground water contamination and potential negative effects on the environment, including aquatic and terrestrial organisms show. The describes components of the EIQ are contains 11 variables. All input data for the impact of low, medium and high are judged to be harmful than, the one, three or five into account. Information on types of pesticides through questionnaires and interviews with farmers of all crops and gardens in the area (120 questionnaires in four cities in the study area) were collected. Information on pesticides and their effects from data bases IUPAC and the Pesticide Manual, 1997and Crop Protection, 2003 were collected.
    Results and DiscussionBecause EIQ index for imidacloprid, diazinon, malathion and phosalone pesticides has been most affected by the ecological effects, It can be concluded that in the land area that these insecticides were used, biotic intensity are at highest risk. In a study that examined environmental hazards of cotton production in Turkey, the role of ecological effects of pesticides on EIQ was more than consumer parts and farm workers. In examining of the pesticides registered in the United States, toxicity of farm workers, consumers and ecological were 37, 8 and 84/4 respectively and the final average EIQ for insecticides registered was 43/1. According to this another factor considered is the farm environmental impact of pesticides. Malathion insecticide in Hashtgerd region with farm environmental impact 42/18 as the most dangerous environmental toxins known and then insecticide diazinon that had the highest consumption in frequency of use, with farm environmental impact 41/76 was next in rank. Although Imidaclopride compared to other pesticides had a higher EIQ index so the potential toxicity was more but because of active ingredient and low dosage in terms of farm environmental impact was in third place. Therefore, with the expansion of the ecosystem-based approach to manage pests and method of integrated pest management, it can be greatly reduced environmental hazards arising from the use of insecticides. Among the major insecticides used in the Hashtgerd region potential toxicity of imidaclopride and farm environmental impact of malathion was more. The highest risk in all three components of farm workers, consumers and ecological related to Imidaclopride that has raised the most dangerous insecticides name as the main consumption in the Hashtgerd region. The results showed that based on the environmental impact index, most of environmental hazards of insecticides in the Hashtgerd region are due to lack of proper knowledge and incorrect selection of some insecticides and their use is excessive. In Imidaclopride and deltamethrin that farm workers effect of them on the final score EIQ was high, safety spraying will reduce the effects of this component by far.
    ConclusionThe results showed that among major consumed insecticides in the area Hashtgerd, potential toxicity of Imidacloprid and farm Environmental impact of Malathion was greater. Highest risk of all three components of farm workers, consumers and ecological, related to Imidaclopride insecticide that referred to as the most dangerous major pesticide consumption in the Hashtgerd region.
    Keywords: Ecological Effect, Environmental impact quotient, Pesticides
  • Mahmmud Ahmadi, Shahin Shahsavani *, Hamid Abasdokht, Hamid Reza Asghari, Shahrokh Gharanjik Pages 1031-1049
    IntroductionThe excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution that is led to imbalance of essential elements in agricultural production system. Organic matter application as compost in the soil can improve chemical quality and biochemical properties that increase essential elements for plant nutrition. Application of organic manure can significantly increase the soil aggregate as well. Reported that application of 7 ton ha-1 of vermicompost increased number of leaves, stem dry weight, and corn plant height as compared to control and water holding capacity increases. Sulphur in plant is near to phosphorus (0.2%). Sulphur deficiency cause severe reduction in plant growth and due to participation in protein building and its deficiency cause yellowish in younger leaves. Sulphur can be applied as elemental sulphur, with ammonium and super phosphate to the soil. Iran is situated in arid and semi arid region of the world and need to reduce the pH with sulphur application due to high pH above 8 in some parts. The aim of this research was to study the effect of above factors in yield and yield components of maize and reducing environmental pollution.
    Materials and MethodsThis research carried out at 2012 in Jovein Distract suberb of Sabzevar city. Before conducting the research soil sample were collected from 0-30 cm depth and physical and chemical properties of the soil were estimated. Treatments including sulphur, thiobacillus and vermicompost were applied to soil and well mixed with soil before sowing. Each plot consists of five rows with six m length by 80 cm from each other. Seeds were sown at the depth of five cm and 20 cm from each other. This research carried out as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design. In this research three factors including elemental sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were used with three replications. Elemental sulphur in three levels (control, 500 kg ha-1 and 1000 kg ha-1), Vermicompost at two levels (control and 5000 kg ha-1 and thiobacillus with two levels (control and application) were applied. All three treatments were mixed with each other and applied to soil one month before sowing that sulphur oxidation take place. At the time of sowing basal fertilizer were applied as diammonium phosphate as (P2O5) at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 and potassium sulphate at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 as (K2O) on the bases of local recommendations. Analyses of variance were done with MSTATC and SAS and means compared with least significant difference test at 5% level. Figures were done with Excel 2007.
    Results and DiscussionAnalysis of variance showed that interaction effect of sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were significant on soil EC at 5% level. The highest EC was observed in 1000 kg ha-1 sulphur, 5000 kg ha-1 vermicompost and thiobacillus treatments. Analysis of variance showed that interaction effect between sulphur and thiobacillus and interaction effect of sulphur and vermicompost were significant on soil pH at 1% level. Mean comparison of data showed that highest decrease of soil pH achieved in 1000 kg ha-1 sulphur. main effect of vermicompost and interaction effect of elemental sulphur with vermicompost and sulphur with thiobacillus had significant effect on soil organic carbon at 1% level. Interaction effect of sulphur and vermicompost were significant on soil nitrogen at 5% level. Mean comparison of data showed that this increase was due to using 5000 kg ha-1 and not using sulphur. Interaction effect of sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus had significant on available phosphorus. Main effect of three factors and their interactions on available zinc, iron and available sulphate were significant at 5% levels.
    ConclusionThe results of this research showed that application of elemental sulphur were significant on soil moisture, field capacity and soil pH and caused increase in soil EC and availability of soil zinc, iron, phosphorus, and sulphate. Organic manure like vermicompost increased soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen.
    Keywords: Elemental sulfur, Inoculation, Organic manure, Seed corn, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Vermicompost
  • M. Momen Keykha, I. Khammari *, M. Dahmardeh, M. Forouzandeh Pages 1050-1069
    IntroductionIntercropping is the cultivation of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop. The main aims of intercropping are reduces the insect populations and plant diseases, reduces hillside erosion and minimizes labor cost on the control of weeds. Guar belongs to the legume family and drought resistant plant which is cultivated as a forage and seed crop and vegetable in warm and dry regions of Asia and Africa. This plant is a precious plant in intercropping system, because it had a development root system as a source of fertilizer and located in symbiosis with nitrogen- fixing bacteria. In fact, use guar is necessary for second crop.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to investigate the physiological aspects of guar and sunflower intercropping under different levels of nitrogen a split plot experiment was conducted as based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the farm research of Agricultural Research Institute of University of Zabol (Chah nimeh), Iran in 2012-13 growing season -. Main factor was included 0, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N) (urea source) and sub factor was different planting ratio including: sole crop of sunflower, sole crop of guar, guar 75% sunflower 25%, sunflower 50% guar 50% and guar 25% sunflower 75%. Traits such as plant height, head diameter, 1000- seed weight, chlorophyll index, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index, guar LER, sunflower LER, total LER, soil nitrogen percentage and weeds dry weight were evaluated. Determination of soil nitrogen percentage carried out by using of Kjeldahl apparatus and measured leaf chlorophyll content by SPAD 502 Plus chlorophyll meter.
    Results and DiscussionThe statistical analysis showed that different levels of nitrogen fertilizer, planting ratios and interactions between them had significant effect on biological yield of sunflower and guar. The highest seed yield (1633.33 kgha-1) in sowing pattern of sunflower were achieved from 75% guar 25% with consumption of 100 kgN ha-1 and in guar (4356.7 kg ha-1) from 75% guar 25% sunflower and application of 150 kgN ha-1 of . Different levels of fertilizer and planting ratios had significant effect on chlorophyll index in sunflower and guar. The highest chlorophyll index of sunflower were achieved from 100 kg ha-1 nitrogen application and %75 guar %25sunflower treatment with mean of 100 values and in guar plant this trait was 29.6 values from non application fertilizers (control) and sole crop treatment. The maximum and minimum the soil nitrogen ratio were obtained on sole crop of guar and sole crop of sunflower with mean 0.2% and 0.17%, respectively. The highest land equivalent ratio (2.73) was obtained from 75% guar 25% sunflower and the lowest of value was obtained from 25% guar 75% sunflower treatment with mean of 2.5. On account of weed control, the highest weed dry weight were obtained from sole crop of sunflower and sole crop of guar with mean 192.2 and 156.6 g m-2, respectively and the lowest of weed dry weight showed that from 75% guar 25% sunflower with mean 153.3 g m-2. Based on the results of mean comparison, the highest of LER (2.73) was obtained from 75% guar 25% sunflower treatment.
    ConclusionThe highest seed yield of sunflower and guar were obtained from mixed 25% guar 75% sunflower and 75% guar 25% sunflower treatment respectively. Also weed dry weight was highest in sole crop of sunflower, but sole crop of guar and all ratios of intercropping reduced weed dry weight. The maximum of soil nitrogen was obtained from sole crop of guar and minimum value from sole crop of sunflower.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll index, Land equivalent ratio (LER), Planting ratio, Sowing pattern, Weeds
  • Y. Alizade, A. Koocheki *, M. Nassiri Mahallati Pages 1070-1083
    IntroductionThe imbalance between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere by ecosystems has led to an increase in the average concentration of this greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Enhancing carbon sequestration in soil is an important issue to reduce net flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon content is obtained from the difference between carbon input resulting from plant biomass and carbon losses the soil through different ways including soil respiration. CO2 emission varies largely during the year and is considerably affected by management type. The goal of this investigation was to study the effects of application of manure and chemical fertilizer on CO2 flux and carbon balance in agricultural system.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to evaluate the carbon dynamics and effect of fertilizer and manure management on soil respiration and carbon budget for winter wheat, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Faculty of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for two years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 . The experimental treatments were 150 and 250 kg chemical nitrogen (N1 and N2), manure (M), manure plus chemical nitrogen (F-M) and control (C). CO2 emission was measured six times during growth season and to minimize daily temperature variation error, the measurement was performed between 8 to 11 am. Chambers length and diameter were 50 cm and 30 cm respectively and their edges were held down 3 cm in soil in time of sampling so that no plant live mass was present in the chamber. Carbon budgets were estimated for two years using an ecological technique.
    Results and DiscussionThe net primary production (NPP) was significantly higher in the F2 and F-M treatments with 6467 and 6294kg ha-1 in the first year and 6260 and 6410 kg ha-1 in the second year, respectively. The highest shoot to root ratio was obtained in F2 and the lowest was observed in control plot with 5.1 and 5.2 for first and second years, respectively. The trend of CO2 flux as 250, 220, 200, 170, 160 and 155 mg C m-2 h-1 was gained in the F-M, M, F2, F1 and root-excluded plots, respectively. In general, manure treatments had the highest heterotrophic respiration. The highest of annual soil respiration and heterotrophic respiration were also in M-F treatment with 3257 and 1150 kgC ha-1 for the first year and 3310, 1250 kgC ha-1 in second year, respectively. The annual NPP was 5000 and 5000 kgC ha-1 year-1 for M-F, 5077 and 5100 kgC ha-1 year-1 in F1 and 2065 and 1865 kgC ha-1 year-1 for the control treatment in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The range of annual net biome production (NBP) in the fertilizer and control treatments ranged from -400 to -150 kg C ha-1 year-1, suggesting the loss of carbon in the field. On the other hand, NBP in the M was 1400 and 1200 kgC ha-1 year-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively and the M-F was 1300 and 1100 kgC ha-1 year-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively.
    ConclusionThe results of this experiment showed that in the wheat ecosystem, the carbon emission is higher than the carbon entry into the soil. The results also indicated that manure application in agro-ecosystems is a necessary approach to mitigate carbon losses in the winter wheat ecosystem and the results indicated a high correlation (> 0.9) between soil temperature and CO2 flux which was positive and exponential. Soil respiration increased under the influence of fertilizer treatments (both chemical fertilizer and manure) but, the main reason for the increased soil respiration under application of chemical fertilizers was autotrophic respiration. While both respiration of autotrophic and heterotrophic increased in manure treatment.
    Keywords: Heterotrophic respiration, Net biome production, Net ecosystem production, Net primary production, Soil respiration
  • Vahid Mohammadi, Sajjad Rahimi Moghaddam * Pages 1084-1098
    IntroductionCompetition for nutrient sources, especially nitrogen, is one of the reasons of corn yield reduction in the presence of weed. Weeds compete with corn for nitrogen uptake and affect its growth and development. Thus management and optimum application of nitrogen fertilizer may help corn to compete against weeds. More consumption of nitrogen fertilizer would change the competition ability of weed and crop. Comparison of crop-weed growth-related characteristics is a way to assess their rate of competition. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different weed densities and nitrogen levels on growth indices of corn, red root pigweed and millet.
    Material and MethodsIn order to study the effects of different weed densities and nitrogen levels on growth indices of corn, red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and millet (Panicum miliaceum), a field experiment was conducted in 2009 in the research fields of Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran with factorial arrangement of treatments based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Accordingly, three factors included different nitrogen fertilizers (75% optimum or 138 kg N/ha, optimum or 184 kg N/ha and 125% optimum or 230 kg N ha), weed species (redroot pigweed and millet) and weed densities (5 and 25 plants.m-1 for redroot pigweed and 7.5 and 37.5 plants.m-1 for millet) was considered as main plot. Destructive sampling was carried out in four stages (including mid-vegetative growth [35 days after planting], Tasseling [62 days after planting], milky stage [84 days after planting] and physiological maturity [130 days after planting]), to measure changing trend of the leaf area and dry matter in corn, red root pigweed and millet. Four plants were used at each destructive sampling. The OriginPro 9.1 software was used to fit equations and draw figures.
    Results and DiscussionThe highest dry matter (2429.39 gr), CGR (38.38 gr m-1 day-1) and LAI (4.57) was achieved for the treatment of 230 kg N ha-1 and weed control. However, the highest RGR with 0.06 g.g-1 was obtained in at the treatment of 184 kg N ha-1 and weed control. Corn in competition with millet was achieved the maximum CGR in 138 kg N ha-1 and 7.5 millet m-1 and also the maximum RGR was obtained in 184 kg N ha-1 and 7.5 millet m-1. Corn in competition with redroot pigweed was achieved the maximum CGR (30.83 gr m-1 day-1) and RGR (0.055 gr) in 138 kg N ha-1 and 5 redroot pigweed m-1 and also the maximum TDW (1815.92) and LAI (5.1) belonged to in 184 kg N ha-1 and 5 redroot pigweed m-1. Generally, analyzing the trends of growth indicators shows that the corn growth indices are reduced more by increasing the weed density in high levels of nitrogen and as a result, the competitive ability of weeds is more in high levels of nitrogen. The Millet and redroot pigweed growth indices show that their maximum TDW, CGR and RGR (In all different levels of nitrogen and weed densities) occurred at 62 days after planting. However, they have different values and trends at different levels of nitrogen and weed densities.
    ConclusionThe results of this study show that the species of weeds in the farm is a determinative factor impress on the role of increasing application of Nitrogen for improving dry matter production and growth indices of corn. Totally, the results indicate that increasing N application beyond the optimum rate not only do not increases corn growth but also reduces its yield, where nitrophile species are the dominants in farms, and leads to environmental pollution .
    Keywords: Density, Dry Matter, Leaf Area Index, Nitrophile, Weed
  • Esmaeel Gholinezhad* Pages 1099-1116
    IntroductionSesame (Sesamum indicum) plays an important role in human health because of its high oil capacity (47 - 52%).. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis protects host plants against the detrimental effects of drought stress through mechanisms of drought avoidance. Strategies of drought avoidance in mycorrhizal plants rely on the ability to maintain an adequate hydration status on the level of whole plants as characterized by relative water content. So the aim of current study was to evaluate the symbiosis effect of two different species of mycorrhizae fungi on yield and physiological characteristics of sesame landraces under different drought stress levels in Urmia.
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was conducted in 2014-2015 by using factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in the research field of Urmia agricultural high school with 12 Km distance from Urmia. The main plot factor was consisted of different irrigation levels: normal irrigation (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)), moderate drought stress (irrigation after 90 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)) and severe drought stress (irrigation after 110 mm evaporation of crop (ETC)). Also three levels of Sub plot factors included two species of mycorrhizae fungi) Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices) and no -inoculation (control). Sub-sub plot factorss consisted of eight landraces of sesames (named Jiroft13, Zanjan Tarom landrace, Moghan landrace, Naz of several branches, TC-25,TS-3, Darab 14 and Dashtestan 5). Then Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Dry Matter (TDM), Leaf relative water content (RWC), Specific leaf area (SLA), Specific leaf weight (SLW), Leaf Area Ratio (LAR), Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) of different landraces calculated using SAS and MSTATC.
    To compare the means, Tukey's test at 5% probability level was used.
    Results and DiscussionThe results of the experiment showed that with increasing the levels of drought stress, RWC, LAI, seed yield and LAR decreased significantly. Severe drought stress reduced RWC, LAI and LAR about 30 and 75 and 50 percent, respectively. The reason of LAI reduction in drought stress conditions was due to decreasing cellular turgecense and falling leaves at the onset of reproductive growth stage. By inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices in compare to non-inoculation, seed yield improved about 33 and 11 percent, respectively. It may be due to the effects of mycorrhizae on absorption of phosphorus and sulfur, lasting more leaves on the plant, maintaining and increasing the leaf size and improving the photosynthesis by more chlorophylls. Mycorrhizae application caused an increase in seed yield and improvement of physiological traits in compare to no inoculation (control). Among different sesame landraces studied in this research, Moghan and Zanjan Tarom landraces showed a superiority in seed yield, LAI, RWC, LWR and the first lateral stem above ground in compare to other landraces. It was also found that a significant proportion of seed yield reduction caused by drought stress was due to deterioration of physiological traits studied in this study.
    ConclusionThe results showed that increasing LAI caused more absorption of light and ultimately seed yield incensement. Among different sesame landraces studied in this research, Moghan and Zanjan Tarom landrace showed a superiority in yield and physiological indices in compare to other landraces. Also it was found that a significant proportion of yield reduction caused by drought stress was due to deterioration of physiological indices studied in this study. Based on the results of this study, application of Mycorrhizae species, especially G. mosseae, is recommended as an effective approach for increasing seed yield and improvement physiological traits in sesame.
    Keywords: Deficit-Irrigation, Genotype, Leaf Area Index, Specific Leaf Area, Specific Leaf Weight
  • Zohrab Adavi *, Mahmoud Reza Tadayon Pages 1117-1135
    IntroductionThe historical trend of Iran annual average temperature of shows a 0.05 °C.year-1 increase which indicates that future emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to increase temperature and consequently cause to climatic change in the country. This change in environment will have a serious impact on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes like photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photo-assimilates. The negative impacts of climate change on potato production are reported in the literature. The present study was conducted to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on phenology, growth and tuber yield of potato.
    Materials and MethodsThe climate projections of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3), France and Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (IPCM4), United Kingdom, was used to simulate the future conditions based on A2, B1 and A1B SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) scenario at three time periods including 2015-2045 (2030), 2046-2075 (2060) and 2076-2105 (2090)with a baseline of 1988-2012 (2012). For each period, the year shown in the parenthesis was considered as target year. The SUBSTOR-Potato model, one of the sixteen models embedded within the DSSAT (v4.5) program, was used to simulate the baseline and future yield and growth characteristics of potato. The model was calibrated and validated during 2012 and 2013 with two different farm experiments. In these experiments, the effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and morphological traits of three potato cultivars were investigated. Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg urea. ha-1) and three commonly planted potato cultivars in the region (Arinda, Santeh and Agria as early, medium and late maturity varieties, respectively) were studied as a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Several criteria were used to quantify the difference between simulated and observed data. The root mean-squared error (RMSE-N (%)) was computed to measure the coincidence between measured and simulated values, while mean deviation (RMD) was calculated to evaluate the systematic bias of the model and model efficiency (ME) to estimate the model performance in relation to the observed mean.
    Results and DiscussionThe evaluation of the SUBSTOR-Potato model showed adequate accuracy for simulating tuber yield, LAI, DTA and DTH of potato (Table 3). The results showed that the RMSE-N (%) was low for all the parameters. In both GCMs, number of days from planting to anthesis stages of potato decreased in compare to baseline of Fereydoon-Shahr region. Modeled values of day to anthesis in all scenarios and models (except B1 scenario in HadCM3 model) showed a decrease over the time, with the lowest amount in 2090. Under all scenarios and GCMs, the length of planting to harvest period will be declined in compareto baseline. Tuber yield will decline in compare to the baseline with a reduction range from 11.21% to 27.53% for HadCM3 model and from 12.60% to 30.58%for IPCM4 model. In HadCM3, B1 scenario in 2030 had the least difference with the baseline period (29.15 t ha-1) (Table 5), which is about 11.21% lower than the current condition. In IPCM4 model, the highest tuber yield was simulated under B1 scenario in 2030 (25.48 t ha-1), which shows a reduction of about 12.60% in compare to the baseline. A2 scenario in both GCMs showed the lowest tuber yield in 2090 (21.13 t ha-1 for HadCM3 and 20.24 t ha-1 for IPCM4), means a drop of 27.53% and 30.58% in tuber yield in compare to the baseline. In fact, in A1B, A2 and B1 scenarios, a decline of 20.29%, 27.53% and 16.04% in tuber yield for HadCM3 and a reduction of 20.88%, 30.58% and 17.90% for IPCM4 model was simulated, respectively.
    ConclusionThe results indicated that tuber yield of common varieties of potato under all scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) in both GCMs and during the evaluated years will decline in compare to the baseline in Fereydoon-shahr region.
    Keywords: GCM, LARS Model, Scenario, Simulation
  • Soaod Hosseini, -Mohammad Ali -Behdani *, Abbas Khashei Siuki Pages 1136-1148
    IntroductionClimatic conditions are the most effectiveness than from the natural environment variables for agricultural production On the other hand the base of agriculture development, especially in semi-arid zone is the accurate knowledge of environmental characteristics and its management practices. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), due to the extensive roots and permeability and the ability to set the number of leaves and fruits under water stress, is a suitable crop for planting in arid and semi-arid climates. South Khorasan Province is a dry, desert and mountainous region with post-semi-arid and semi-arid climates. South Khorasan province produces 34000tons of cotton annually with 13000 hectares of irrigated cotton lands and the second position in cotton production ranking in Iran.
    Materials and MethodsSouth Khorasan Province is located in the east of Iran with an area of 149,107 square kilometers and the geographical coordinates of 30 degrees and 31 minutes to 34 degrees and 53 minutes of northern latitudes and 57 degrees and 3 minutes to 57 degrees and 60 minutes of eastern longitude. This study was performed to evaluate the climatic conditions for the cultivation of cotton in the history of different cultures in South Khorasan province in a 25-year period (1990-2015). For this purpose, fifteen stations of South Khorasan province was chosen as target and modeling and spatial analysis was performed by Arc GIS. By using advantage of favorable climatic conditions at each stage of cotton growth, was prepared data layers of classification and weighting values for each of the zones. Eventually, in order to overlay layers using multi-criteria decision-making methods based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the final maps was prepared for each date based on the climatic factors of the cotton cultivation date in South Khorasan.
    Results and DiscussionAccording to the results obtained from zonation of different cultivars, in the western and southern parts of the province, the suitable planting date will be from the first to second half of the April. This is while the planting date in the central and northern regions and some parts of the south of the province will continue from the first month of cultivate (March) to the first half of the second month until the first half of May. In the eastern parts of the province, suitable planting dates will continue from the second half of June to the first half of July. Considering the cotton ecological needs, if the plant cultivated in suitable planting date in different regions of the South Khorasan Province, there will be no growth inhibitory temperatures for this crop. The results of all cultivar maps indicate that among all planting dates from April to July, the best cultivation date was the first half to the second half of May, because they have the largest area in terms of area of suitable areas. The first half of July, due to lack of rainfall and temperature increase, is not a suitable time for flowering stage of cotton, because of it will be treated at a lower temperature when it is processed. Therefore, just with the reduction of the product. For cultivation of cotton in the first and second half of April the appropriate areas are western and southern regions of the province.
    ConclusionThe results was showed that the role of temperature and precipitation as climatic factors, were difficult for any cultivation date in different regions and cultures of all dates from April to July. The best planting date from the first half and the second half of May, because of, respectively, 84,680 and 103,100 square kilometer area of the right to have the largest area. For all climatic conditions also have an important loss condition.
    Keywords: climate, date of sowing, GIS
  • Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi *, Mohammad Taghi Darzi Pages 1149-1167
    IntroductionSummer Savory (Satureia hortensis L.) is the representative plants of Lamiaceae family, which has high significant nutritional and taste values. Its pharmacopoeial raw material is herb (Satureiae herba), which contains many different biologically active compounds beside essential oil and minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Sustainable agricultural systems has became an important issue throughout the world. It is obvious that intensive cultivation has led to a rapid decline in organic matter and nutrient levels as well as affecting the physical soil properties . The biofertilizers practice (such as vermicompost and biological nitrogen fixing bacteria) has been recognized for a long time as an effective means of improving the structure and fertility of the soil, increasing the microbial diversity, activity and population, improving the water storage capacity of soils and crop yield.
    Materials and MethodsThis investigation was conducted at agricultural research fields of RAN Company at Firouzkuh, Iran in 2015. Factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with two factors and three replications were chosen as an experimental design. The factors were biological nitrogen fertilizer at three levels of Control, Nitroxine and Supernitroplus, and vermicompost at four levels 0, 5, 10 and 15 ton per hectare. Measured traits consisted of fresh and dry plant weight, flowering shoot yield, essential oil content, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage in aboveground shoots. All data were subjected to statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) using SAS software. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% probability level were performed to calculate means of comparison. Data were transformed when necessary before analysis to satisfy the assumptions of normality.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that the highest fresh and dry plant weight (41.10 and 12.93g/plant, respectively) and essential oil content (2.01%) were obtained by using 10 ton per hectare of vermicompost. Applying 15 ton per hectare of vermicompost caused maximum flowering shoot yield (2237.82kg/ha), nitrogen (2.21%) and phosphorus (0.52%) content in the aboveground shoot. Mean comparison indicated that seed inoculation with Supernitroplus had significant effects on all measured traits except for nitrogen content in aboveground shoot. The maximum fresh and dry plant weight (40.21 and 14.42g/plant), flowering shoot yield (2406.21kg/ha), essential oil (2.05%), phosphorus (0.49%) and potassium (1.34%) were obtained by applying Supernitroplus. The maximum nitrogen content (2.23%) was obtained by using Nitroxine. Results of interaction effects showed that using supernitroplus and 15 ton per hectare of vermicompost caused maximum potassium content (1.50%) in Savory shoots.
    Several types of studies have shown a beneficial effect on crop plants by inoculation of seeds with Azospirillum and Azotobacter strains. Inoculation of plants with Azospirillum and Azotobacter can results in significant changes in various plant growth parameters. Positive effects of inoculation have been demonstrated on including increase in root length and nutrition (NO3- , NH4, P042- , K , Rb and Fe) uptake. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the two major plant nutrients and combined inoculation of nitrogen fixers and PSM may benefit the plants better than either group of organisms alone. Interaction studies have been done both in vitro and in vivo. Nitrogen fixers and PSM when inoculated together colonized the rhizosphere and enhanced the growth of crops by providing it with nitrogen and phosphate, respectively. Vermicompost contains most of the plant nutrients such as nitrate, phosphates, exchangeable calcium and soluble potassium, and microelements which result in improved plant growth and development and is responsible for increased qualitative and quantitative yield of many crops.
    ConclusionThe results of current experiment showed that vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria have stimulatory effects on the yield, essential oil and mineral elements (N, P and K) uptake by summer Savory and have thus considerable potential for providing nutritional elements in Savory production, especially for the sustainable production systems.
    Keywords: Biofertilizer, Nitroxine, Summer Savory, Supernitroplus
  • Mohammad Pazouki, Hosein Ajam Nouruzi, Abbas Ghanbari Malidareh *, Mohammad Reza Dadashi, Salman Dastan Pages 1168-1193
    IntroductionAmong the various factors affecting agricultural production, climatic conditions of the natural environment variables are effected .On the other hand the agriculture development , the exact knowledge of environmental characteristics and management practices is anywhere special in semi-arid zone. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) due to the extensive roots and permeability and also the ability to set the number of leaves and fruits when the plant is under water stress, is a suitable crop for planting in arid and semi-arid climate. South Khorasan Province has dry and desert climatic conditions in post-semi-arid and semi-arid climates in mountainous regions. South Khorasan province produces 34 thousand tons of cotton annually and planted 13 thousand hectares of irrigated cotton production ranks second in the country.
    Materials and MethodsSouth Khorasan province is located in the east of Iran with an area of 149,107 square kilometers and is located between the geographical circle of 30° and 31´ to 34° and 53´of northern latitudes and 57° and 3´to 57° and 60´ of east. This study is to evaluate the climatic conditions for the cotton cultivation in the history of different cultures in South Khorasan province in a 25-year period (2015-1990 AD). For this purpose, fifteen stations of South Khorasan province and to help software environment for modeling and spatial analysis was performed by Arc GIS. By taking advantage of favorable climatic conditions at each stage of cotton growth, data layers of classification and weighting values for each zone was determined and prepared. Finally, in order to overlay layers by using multi-criteria decision-making methods based the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the final maps was set for each date based on climatic factors for the cultivation date of cotton in Khorasan South,
    Results and DiscussionAccording to the results obtained in the zoning of cultivars, in the western and southern parts of the province, suitable planting dates will continue from the first and second half of the April month. The planting dates in the central and northern regions and part of the south of the province would continue from the first and the first half of second months of year and the first half of May. In the eastern part of province, suitable planting dates would continue from the second half of June and the first half of July. Considering the cotton needs if this plant in different regions of South Khorasan Province was cultivated in suitable dates, there will be no growth inhibitory temperatures. The results of all cultivar maps indicated that from all planting dates from April to July, the best cultivation date was for the first half and the second half of the month of may, In the first half of the first month of July, due to lack of rainfall and temperature increase, it is not suitable for the flowering and flowering stages of cotton, and it will be treated at a lower temperature when it is processed. On the cultivation of the first half and second half of April the appropriate areas, is in western and southern regions of the cotton cultivation.
    ConclusionThe results was showed that the role of each of the climatic factor of including temperature and precipitation, fits any cultivation date in different regions and cultures of all dates from April to July, the best planting date from the first half and the second half of May, because of, respectively,with area of 84,680 and 103,100 square kilometer area of the right to have the largest area. For all climatic conditions also have an important loss condition.
    Keywords: Climate, Date of Sowing, GIS
  • Zahra Mir, Mehdi Dahmardeh*, Issa Khammari, Jamshid Piri Pages 1194-1207
    IntroductionIn conventional agricultural systems to obtain the highest performance continuous use of chemical fertilizers is inevitable. The health of the plant, soil and living matter depends on the rotation of food elements in the ecosystem. This cycle is disrupted as a result of the loss of soil fertility, its food imbalance and inappropriate cultivation practices. Bio-fertilizers are composed of beneficial microorganisms, each for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate ions, potassium, iron. It should be noted that most studies in the field for sour Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are based on the use of various chemical fertilizers, but the reaction of this plant to bio-fertilizers and iron solubilization has not been considered. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of bio fertilizers and iron on yield and quality traits of Roselle in hot and dry weather conditions.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to investigate the effects of bio-fertilizers and foliar application iron on yield and quality indicators Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) experiment in Research field of Zabol University Agriculture Institute in 2015-2016 years was performed with split-plot based on completely randomized design and three replications. Treatments consisted of four levels of bio-fertilizers: control (without fertilizer), vermicompost, cow manure, seaweed and iron foliar applications include: lack of iron, foliar application at a rate of 3cc per thousand, 6cc per thousand was considered. As a source of bio-fertilizer treatments and foliar application iron levels were considered as sub plots. Before sowing Roselle seeds, vermicompost and manure were added to the soil and inoculation operation . Measurements were: economic yield, biological yield, harvest index, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, anthocyanins, carbohydrates and protein. Statistical analysis of data was done with SAS software version 9.1 and mean comparison with Duncan test was conducted at 5%.
    Results and DiscussionBased on the results, different levels of foliar application of organic manure and their interaction were significant for all traits except harvest index. The highest Roselle economy yield of 587.6 kg per hectare with consumption of 6 cc per thousand iron and seaweed bio-fertilizer foliar application was obtained This amount increased by 73% compared to the control (355.3 kg ha-1) and highest amount of sepals anthocyanins (8.960) in treatment 3 cc per thousand iron and manure was obtained, and concentration of 6 per thousand iron and vermicompost and seaweed bio-fertilizers increased chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids were also foliar application iron concentration of 6 per thousand increase amount of carbohydrates and protein were twigs. Comparison of means in interaction of bio-fertilizers and iron showed that the highest increases in chlorophyll a, in application of vermicompost and there is a concentration of 6 per thousand iron and the highest increases in chlorophyll b, by the same application seaweed and iron concentration was 6 per thousand. The highest amount of protein was obtained from seaweed treatments that have shown an increase compared to control by about 61%. Foliar application of iron increases protein of Roselle so that the highest amount of concentration was 6 per thousand and compared to control treatment the increase was about 52 percent.
    ConclusionThe results of this study indicated that the combination of biofertilizer and iron solubilization with a concentration of 6,000 has the greatest impact on quantitative and qualitative properties. Accordingly, the combined application of bio fertilizers and iron spraying has a significant advantage over the individual application of each one of them. Iron foliar treatments have put this element directly at the plant and by supplying these elements the plant needs are eliminated and the most of the measured traits increased. Also, considering the important role of biofertilizers in improving the physical, chemical and fertility characteristics of arable land, providing appropriate levels of these materials in the soil helps to achieve maximum performance. Accordingly, fertilizer management with biological fertilizers and iron foliar application is an important part of organic agriculture.
    Keywords: Anthocyanin, Chlorophyll, Foliar iron, Roselle, Seaweed
  • Pooya Arvin *, Javad Vafa Bakhsh, Dariyoush Mazaheri Pages 1208-1226
    IntroductionOilseed rape (Brassica spp L.) is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years. Iran is located in a semi-arid region, and water shortage has caused problems, namely providing drinking water as much as water supply for crop production. Not only does Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) make plant growth stimulating hormones like Auxin and Gibberellin but also can ease stress conditions by producing ABA. Consequently, considering the current water shortage crisis in Iran, we took three main criteria into account: the roles of PGPRs in increasing resistance to abiotic stress, relief of drought effects, and the importance of cultivation of oilseed rape. The present research has been compiled to study drought and some Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape.
    Materials and MethodsThe current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments) during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is situated in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 ASL ) . Two research sites (under stress and no-stress fields) were selected beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm). The experimental design was factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was Plant Growth Promoting Rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control), B1: co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169. putida 108), B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush cultivars belong to B. rapa and BP18 and landrace cultivars belong to B.juncea .Greenness index, plant height, relative water content, canopy temperature depletion , harvest index and final seed yield were measured in the present study as well. In addition, variance analysis (ANOVA) was performed using SAS ver. 9.1 software.
    Result and DiscussionThe examination of physiological characteristics including Harvest Index (HI), chlorophyll content, and Relative Water Content (RWC) showed that there is a considerable difference between location, cultivar, and bacteria cultivar. At the second stage of sampling, due to the reduction of cell water content and enhancement of concentration of cell content in stress field, the chlorophyll rate was enhanced in stressed locations. While findings in RWC showed that Pseudomonas putida had the highest percentage (64.23%), and no inoculation had the lowest RWC (60.32%). Therefore, inoculation treatment, specifically the individual inoculation in the study of RWC, could ease the effects of drought stress. Results of the final stem height were significant, only in cultivar level and BP.18 with 1.24m was the highest and Hayol 330 with 0.9m was the shortest cultivars regarding to stem height. Individual and interaction effects of bacteria with other treatments on harvest index were significant. In current study, it seems that application of bacteria treatments has caused better formation of final seed yield .There was a considerable difference between location, cultivars and interaction of location×cultivar regarding to ultimate yield. Final seed yield in non-stress location (1351.85 Kg.ha-1) was significantly higher than in stress location (535.38 Kg.ha-1). In the study of both morphological and physiological traits and final seed yield of the current research, Hayola hybrid showed more superiority than other cultivars.
    ConclusionIt seems the individual application of either P. flourescens 169 or P. putida 108 leads to better formation results than two mixed strains of the aforementioned bacteria. In the current study, Hayola hybrids showed a better function in physiology and ultimate yield; therefore, plantation of these hybrids would be valuable even in water deficits as well as application of PGPR.
    Keywords: Greenness index, Plant height, Relative water content, Canopy temperature depletion