فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences - Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hossein Ali Rangkooy *, Payam Rashnuodi, Mohsen Monjezi Ali Salehy, Akbar Bavandpour Page 1
    Background
    Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is a preventable occupational health problem, which is considered among the 10 major work-related illnesses. According to the World Health Organization, repair of noise damage around the world costs four million dollars.
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to determine noise-induced hearing loss in a number of workers of the Kaviyan Steel Industry.
    Methods
    In this descriptive-analytical study being of cross-sectional type, hearing status of 34 male workers was investigated. In the present study, workers were divided to 3 occupational groups; mechanics, turner and millers, and welders, and to determine a more exact noise exposure level based on network methodology, dosimeter was done using a TES 1358 audiometer for each group. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 16 statistical software using correlations, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t test.
    Results
    The average age and work experience of the subjects was 36.58 ± 7.48 and 11.11 ± 6.8 years, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between sound pressure level and work experience with hearing loss (P > 0.05), yet a significant relationship was found between the decline in hearing threshold in 3000 Hz, 4000 Hz, and 6000 Hz frequencies in the left ear and a frequency of 8000 Hz in the right ear and work experience (P ≤ 0.05). The relationship between age and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) was significant (P ≤ 0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results showed that even in a situations where people are imposed to lower levels of noise exposure standards, increasing working experience and age may cause hearing loss.
    Keywords: Noise, Induced Hearing Loss, Noise, Age, Hearing Loss, Steel Industry
  • Marjan Kiani Haftlang, Kamran Mohsenifar *, Aida Bayati Page 2
    Background
    The wastewater of alcohol plants is called Vinasse. After conversion of molasses to alcohol and other derivatives, this compound must be removed as waste from the factory.
    If released without careful planning and proper management and supervision, this wastewater can cause serious and several social, economic, and environmental consequences. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate heavy elements before the waste goes deep into the soil or to underground water reservoirs.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is to use 2 natural absorbents zeolite and vermiculite to low-off or lower the movement of heavy metals lead and cadmium in the soil.
    Methods
    To evaluate the potential of Vermiculite and Zeolites in refinement of metal pollutants cadmium and lead, 2 irrigation periods by Vinasse and 3 treatments were conducted. First, the soil of the region was irrigated by Vinasse up to the saturation level. Second, the soil of the region with 2 layers of Zeolites in the depths of 25 cm and 50 cm was irrigated by Vinasse up to the saturation level. Third, the soil of the region with 2 layers of Vermiculites (same depths as treatment two) was irrigated by Vinasse up to the saturation level. The experiment was performed within columns with diagonal of 90 mm and height of 1000 mm. Surface irrigation (flooding) with the volume of 2.3 l was conducted every 5 days. Sampling in the depths of 15 - 25 cm and 40 - 50 cm of soil columns and drained water from the bottom of the soil columns were collected 24 hours after each irrigation and samples were taken to a laboratory to perform chemical analysis.
    Results
    The results showed that before the experiment, the amounts of lead and cadmium in soil were 2.6 mg/kg and 42.0 mg/kg, respectively. As for Vinasse, the amounts were 46.2 and 7.11 mg/kg, respectively. After irrigation by Vinasse in the depth of 15-25 in treatments 1, 2, and 3, the increases in the level of cadmium were 0.034, 0.042, and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the increases in the level of lead in the depth of 30-50 in treatments 1, 2, and 3 were 0.28, 0.036, and 0.034 mg/kg, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The concentration of lead in drainage water in all three treatments decreased. Vermiculite was not effective in adsorbing lead compared to the treatment in which no adsorbent was used.
    Keywords: Vinasse, Irrigation, Cadmium, Lead
  • Hamid Reza Najari, Masoumeh Omrani Sigaroudi, Maryam Rastgoo* Page 3
    Background
    Brucellosis as a zoonotic disease is controlled in many developed countries though it still remains endemic in the majority of Middle Eastern and developing countries.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic features, clinical manifestations, and laboratory tests of patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Ghazvin province of Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, medical records of 83 cases with brucellosis (54 males and 29 females) over a 3-year period (from June, 2012 to June, 2015) were reviewed, retrospectively. Demographic features, clinical signs and symptoms, hematologic findings, and liver enzyme level were derived from the patients’ medical record.
    Results
    The mean age of cases was 42.5±18.3 years. Constitutional symptoms, which were noted in 45 (54%) cases, were the most common symptom of the disease. Clinical manifestations, including Sacroileitis, arthritis, and epididymo-orchitis were seen in 20 (24.1%), 10 (12%), and 7 (8.4%) cases, respectively. One case of Endocarditis (1.2%) was noted. Anemia as the most frequent blood abnormality was seen in 44 (53%) cases. Leukopenia and leukocytosis were noted in 17 (20.5%) and 9 (10.8%) patients, respectively. Thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis were detected in 26 (31.3%) and 3 (3.6%) of the patients, respectively. Bicytopenia and pancytopenia were revealed in 9 (10.8%) and 11 (13.3%) cases, respectively. Elevated level of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected in 29 (34.9), 37 (44.6), and 51 (61.5) patients, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Brucellosis could affect every organ system of the human body. Variable manifestations and laboratory findings of brucellosis must be kept in mind, especially in endemic areas.
    Keywords: Brucellosis, Signs, Symptoms, Hematological Tests
  • Soheil Sobhanardakani * Page 4
    Background
    Due to the world research for non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals in the processed meat products, the aim of the present study was to determine the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) and associated health risks through consumption of sausage and ham marketed in Hamadan city in 2016.
    Methods
    In this descriptive study, 30 samples from 10 brands of sausage and 30 samples from 10 brands of ham (totally 60 samples) were collected from the market basket of Hamadan city. After preparation and processing of the samples in the laboratory, the concentration of metals was determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The health risk index (HRI) was assessed based on the ratio of average daily intake of metal (DIM) to the reference dose of the metal. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 20).
    Results
    The results showed that the mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cu, Pb, and Zn were 1.88 ± 0.69, 0.35 ± 0.18, and 4.61 ± 1.71 in sausage samples and 1.48 ± 0.25, 0.32 ± 0.11, and 3.18 ± 1.28 in ham samples. Pb was higher than the maximum permissible level (0.20 mg/kg) in 80% of the samples. In addition, the computed health risk index showed no potential risk for adults and children via consumption of studied foodstuffs.
    Conclusions
    According to the results, the HRI values of analyzed processed meat products were within the safe limits and there was no potential health risk for human through the consumption of them under the current consumption rate. However, considering that the mean content of Pb in 80% of the samples exceeded the MPL, serious attention should be paid to the discharge of pollutants to the environment, chemicals residue monitoring especially for toxic heavy metals in foodstuff, and control of heavy metals content during the whole production process of sausage and ham.
    Keywords: Food Safety, Heavy Metals, Health Risk, Processed Meat Products, Average Daily Intake
  • Rabea Agh Atabay, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Farzane Montazerifar, Iraj Zareban * Page 5
    Background
    Poor dietary behaviors contribute to morbidity and mortality. A sizeable percentage of chronic diseases is related to unhealthy eating habits. Family is a prominent element of the social environment where dietary behaviors are enacted and learned and mothers play a crucial role in children’s nutrition. Regarding this important role, identifying the factors affecting the choice of healthy cooking methods by females can be helpful in future planning to increase the choice of healthy cooking methods.
    Methods
    The current cross sectional study investigated 230 native females of Chabahar, Iran, within the age range of 12 to 75 years. Participants were selected via multistage sampling by native assistants. Data were gathered with a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire consisting of knowledge and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention) as well as demographic characteristics. The Pearson correlations and stepwise regression were employed to analyze the data with IBM SPSS software version 16.
    Results
    Results of the Pearson correlations showed that subjective norms were correlated with choice of healthy cooking methods. There was also significant association between attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, and intention. Stepwise regression showed that subjective norms significantly predicted behavior and PBC significantly predicted intention.
    Conclusions
    A broad and community based educational program which improves PBC and subjective norms of rural females, is necessary to have rural and Baluch females increase choice of healthy methods for cooking.
    Keywords: Healthy Cooking, Theory of Planned Behavior, Female, Chabahar City
  • Afsaneh Ekhtiari, Zhila Amirkhani, Atoosa Esfahani, Seyedehsara Bayesh*, Reza Najibpour, Mohammadreza Saghafi Page 6
    Background
    Unwanted pregnancy (UP) is a worldwide problem. UP mainly results from the improper or lack of use of effective contraceptive methods. Hormonal emergency contraceptive (EC) is a method of family planning that reduces UP among women in reproductive age. We assessed the knowledge and attitudes of EC among married women in the reproductive age group.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 225 married women aged 15 to 49 years, who were referred to hospitals in Tehran Medical Branch during 2014 and 2015, were studied. Required data were collected through interviews and a questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.85, the validity of the questionnaire was detected using content validity, and its reliability was 0.973. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14.0 statistical software. Statistical significance was set at P
    Results
    Women with a mean age of 27.3 ± 3.2 were studied. Significant statistical differences were found between the respondents’ education and awareness (P = 0.02). There was a significant relationship between knowledge and current contraceptive method, with a confidence level of 90% (P = 0.013). About 38.6% of women were aware of the general perception, whereas 61.4% were not aware of it at all. In the target group, 22.6% and 73.3% had positive and negative attitudes toward the use of EC method, respectively, and 4% were neutral on this issue.
    Conclusions
    UP is one of the most important problems in Iran. Increasing the quality of family plan consoling in health centers and emphasizing the advantages of EC method to promote positive attitudes among women are highly recommended. Timely prevention may decrease adverse consequences for the mother and child.
    Keywords: Contraception, Pregnancy, Knowledge, Attitude
  • Effat Jahanbani *, Mostafa Mohammadi, Najmeh Noori Noruzi, Fatemeh Bahrami Page 7
    Background
    The quality of working life (QWL) is increasingly considered in organizations interested in job satisfaction (JS) and enhancing organizational effectiveness.
    Objective
    The current study aimed at investigating the QWL and JS in the employees of health centers in Ahvaz, Iran.
    Methods
    In the current descriptive-analytical study, 143 technical staff of health centers in East of Ahvaz were selected by the multistage random sampling method in 2015. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression with SPSS version 21.
    Results
    Overall, the Walton QWL questionnaire scored 72.95 and the JS survey scored 126.08 were in the moderate level in the current study. There was a significant relationship between QWL and JS (P = 0.00).Moreover, there was a significant relationship between JS and all components of QWL (P = 0.00). The highest and lowest correlation was related to social cohesion (0.539) and safe environment (0.212), respectively. Results of the regression analysis showed that the QWL explained 39.6% of the variance affecting the JS (R2 = 0.396, P = 0.00). Among the dimensions of QWL, growth and security (β = 0.190, P = 0.03), rule of law (β = 0.277, P = 0.00) and social cohesion (β = 0.321, P = 0.00) explained the variance affecting the JS significantly.
    Conclusions
    Due to the highest correlation between JS and social cohesion, superintendent of health centers should strive to increase the JS through development of teamwork, respect, and group decision-making.
    Keywords: Quality of Work Life, Job Satisfaction, Health Centers, Employees, Ahvaz
  • Fatemeh Ghannadiasl *, Reza Mahdavi Page 8
    Background
    Self-efficacy plays an important role in successful weight loss behaviors and weight loss.
    Objectives
    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a balanced low-calorie diet with or without nutrition education on eating self-efficacy and weight loss among obese women.
    Methods
    In a randomized clinical trial, a sample of 90 apparently healthy obese women was recruited from the nutrition clinic and randomly assigned to receive a balanced low-calorie diet with or without nutrition education. The anthropometric measures and weight efficacy lifestyle questionnaire were completed at baseline, 3, and 6 months after the intervention.
    Results
    The participants demonstrated a significant weight loss and improvement in total self-efficacy score in both the intervention groups (the time effect: F = 12.64, df = 2, P 0.05). The results showed that nutrition education could be more effective in the increase of self-efficacy, especially in the first 3 months in comparison with the second 3 months (1.01 ± 0.38 vs. 0.29 ± 0.17, P = 0.005).
    Conclusions
    The findings support the use of nutrition education for improvement of self-efficacy subscales among obese women attending nutrition clinics for weight loss.
    Keywords: Obese Women, Eating Self, Efficacy, Nutrition Education, Weight Loss