فهرست مطالب

Pollution - Volume:4 Issue: 2, Spring 2018
  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, Spring 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
  • Farhad Golbarg, Gholamreza Nabi Bidhendi *, H. Hoveidi Pages 195-210
    The aim of this study is to assess the risk factors of pipelines and prioritize their severity in order to prevent their effects in Shadegan International wetland, Iran. Due to the participatory nature of the managerial affairs, the study employs an integrated approach that combines Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method. Also, Likret Scale has been applied to quantify the qualitative (verbal) data, thus reducing the uncertainty of oil pipeline's risk evaluation. In order to evaluate potential risk factors, Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method has been applied. According to the study results, in terms of the likelihood of environmental impacts on the main considered criteria of natural and man-made environments, the former's effect is a priority risk, weighing 0.670 and primarily important. On the other hand, environmental hazards caused by oil pipes of water quality in Shadegan wetland has been ranked first, with a relative weight of 0.389 to contain the highest level of risk. The risk degree for diversity and density of benthos is 12.6 and 6.3for fish, both higher than other parameters of water systems in Shadegan wetland. Considering the recognized factors that lead to probable risks of pipelines along with their most notable outcomes, the paper suggests environmental management plans on how to control and reduce the potential impacts, with an emphasis on elimination of the most likely causes.
    Keywords: AHP, FMEA, Shadegan wetland, Environmental ecosystems, Delphi Method
  • Serajuddin M. *, Aktarul Chowdhury, M.M. Hussain Pages 211-225
    In 2004,ammonia concentration in raw water of Sitalakhya River at the eastern periphery of Dhaka was found higher than the expected rate of 4 mg/Lforecasted in feasibility studies,with a value of about 8 mg/L, which could not be removed by conventional treatment chain employed at Dhaka, hence, recentlyan ammonia removal plant has been constructed. This important background has ledto the current study on ammonia, a single quality parameter to understand the trend of deterioration, its probable causes, and the probable remedy.Water samples have been collected and tested for ammonia for a period of fifteen years, from 2002 to 2017, mostly in the laboratory of the existing plant. Ammonia levels have been found generally below 4 mg NH4-N/L in the wet season,though during the dry season they rise up to 20 mg NH4-N/L (sometimes more). The maximum and average values of concentration follow a more or less similar pattern with time, withboth average and maximum values, increasing around 1 mg/L annually,suggesting a similar trend in future which will make the existing treatment process inadequate. This needs attention in terms of both regulatory measures and proactive strategies on how to handle the resulting future challenges.
    Keywords: Drinking water, indiscriminate pollution, pollution control, Sitalakhya river water
  • Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi *, Ali Reza Porkhabbaz, Bent-Olhoda Sangak Sani Pages 227-237
    Agricultural intensification is associated with the use of great amounts of agrochemicals that may result in the accumulation of metals in soils, and –subsequently—agricultural products and food chain. Nowadays, this is a major concern for many Iranian agricultural products, necessitating scientific researches on the issue. Therefore, the present study has been conducted to evaluate the level of metal contamination in some agricultural products of Torbat-e Jam, Iran, with the following
    (i) to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), and maize (Zea mays) as well as water and soils of some farms in Torbat-e Jam, Iran; and (ii) to examine chemical fertilizers as a possible source of heavy metal's contamination. To do so it has taken some samples from soils, irrigation waters, chemical fertilizers, and crops, measuring their heavy metals contents by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that heavy metal's concentrations in groundwater and soil were lower than the adopted global standards. Among fertilizers, only Cd content of triple-superphosphate was higher than the standards, leading to a substantial buildup of Cd in the soil, compared to Pb. The greater use of potassium fertilizer has increased Pb concentration in the soil samples of maize farms during the growing season. Among all elements, Pb had the greatest transfer coefficient. It seems that current farm management practices as well as excessive use of chemical fertilizers may further the contamination and loss of soil quality in agricultural systems of the region.
    Keywords: cadmium, concentration factor, fertilizer, melon, transfer coefficient
  • Abaidya Nath Singh, Reshu Shrivastava, Devendra Mohan, Pankaj Kumar * Pages 239-250
    River Ganga is one of the prime sacred National Rivers of India, closely associated with economic, social, and cultural heritage of Indian people. Recently, it has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution as a result of receiving huge amounts of domestic and industrial wastewater as well as religious ritual activities and surface runoff. The present study attempts to study spatial and temporal changes in water quality of River Ganga while calculating its Water Quality Index (WQI) by analyzing 9 physico-chemical, 7 trace metal, and 4 microbiological parameters at eleven sampling stations, on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash. Thus it can assess water’s suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes along with other human uses. The study is directed towards the use of WQI to describe pollution level in the river for a period of 1 year (from January to December 2014). It has been shown that index values as per CPCB class range between medium to good, while the ones as per NSF Index range from bad to good water quality. The study also identifies critical pollutants, affecting the river water quality within its course through the city. Finally, pH, DO, BOD, DO, EC, and FC have been found to be critical parameters for the stretch in each season of this research.
    Keywords: Nitrate, Heavy Metals, Manikarnika Ghat, spatial distribution, temporal variation
  • E. Birara, T. Kassahun * Pages 251-261
    Even though solid waste management has become a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of Ethiopia, only 2% of the population receive solid waste management services. The primary objective of this study is to assess solid waste management practices of Bahir Dar City. The technique of multistage random sampling has been employed to draw 350 households for this study, with both quantitative and qualitative primary data put into good use. Finally, the quantitative data has been analyzed by means of descriptive statistics with the results indicating that 78% of the respondents feel that the current solid waste management service is far below the required level; whereas, 22% of the respondents show satisfaction with the existing waste management service. The municipality has planned to provide solid waste management service for the residents once a week, but the survey results demonstrate that only 29% of the sample households received solid waste management services weekly, indicating that the performance of solid waste management service is low. Among 350 households, a sum of 66.6% practice illegal solid waste disposal with the remaining 33.4% waiting until solid waste collectors come to the area to take the waste away. Therefore, participation of urban households, micro and small enterprises, and governmental and non-governmental organizations plays a great role to upgrade the existing low status of solid waste management services.
    Keywords: Challenge, Municipality, pollution, urban, transfer station
  • Kamrul Islam *, Fatima Tuz Zahra, Arif Chowdhury, Suvo Moy Biswas Pages 263-272

    Water is one of the most crucial substances for life. In order to maintain their public health, each and every country has defined standards of drinking water quality, beyond which the water is considered harmful for human health. The current study compares physical, chemical, and biological standards of drinking water quality for the USA, EU, Japan, India, and Bangladesh, considering 4 physical parameters (namely, color, odor, taste, and turbidity), 35 chemical parameters (such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphate (PO43-), Sodium (Na), Phenolic compounds, Nitrite (NO2-), Arsenic (As), Aluminum (Al), etc.) and 2 biological parameters (i.e., Coliform (Fecal) and Coliform (Total)). The data has been collected from several secondary sources and since processes of data collection for water quality differ from one another, this aspect has been ignored. No variation has been found in biological water quality standards along with physical quality standards of the considered regions. In order to find out the differences in chemical parameters, standard ANOVA and pair-wise F-test have been conducted. There was no disparity among chemical parameters in ANOVA test. Moreover, thanks to the few excessive values of the standards (as in case of Bangladesh), the COD value is 4 mg/L, whereas in other countries this parameter is much less. However, the chemical parameters of water quality standards in Bangladesh vary significantly from other countries. Besides, there has been no variation among the standards of other countries, even though they are located in different continents. Most interestingly, despite being neighbors, Bangladesh and India differ significantly in this regard.

    Keywords: Water, Quality, Management, Resources, Environment, Health, Sanitation, Standards
  • Gabriel Olawepo, Clement Ogunkunle *, Olusoji Adebisi, Paul Fatoba Pages 273-280
    The present study has used soil samples from Nigeria, contaminated with Brass crude-oil, to determine its biodegradation through enhanced biostimulation with cow dung and periodic aeration. Over a period of twenty-eight days, the hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) and hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi (HUF) have been counted and identified. Results from biodegradation of the brass crude-oil over the aforementioned period show that amended crude-oil-spiked soil has had 54.82% degradation while for amendment and periodic turning this has been 55.90%, not significantly higher than the former at p≤0.05. Also degradation of spiked soil without cow dung amendment has been 16.13%. The identified HUB are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus thermophillus, with individual occurrence of 18.52% as well as Proteus vulgaris and Micrococcus luteus with 11.11% and 14.81% occurrence, respectively. Also, the occurrence rate of HUF like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Trichothecium roseum, and Penicillium citrinum have been 15.63% each;whilefor Alternaria alternata and Neurospora crazza it has been 6.25% and for Saccharomyces cerevisae and A. fumigatus, 9.38%and3.13%, respectively. The study concludes that amendment with cow dung and periodic turning of the soil enhance degradation of Brass crude-oil significantly. What is more, aeration by periodic turning slightly improves degradation only with cow dung treatment on Days 21 and 28.
    Keywords: Bacteria, Biodegradation, Organic amendment, Crude-oil, Fungi
  • Mahsa Tamjidi, Yousef Rashidi *, Farideh Atabi, Parya Broomandi Pages 281-290
    The present study applies the model of American Meteorological Society-Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) to investigate NO2 emissions from Besat thermal power plant, which is fuelled by natural gas to function. Results indicate that the simulated concentration of NO2 based on AERMOD, does not exceed NO2 concentration limit, set by the Iranian Ambient Air Quality Standard. This shows that NO2 emissions from Besat power plant do not have any significant impact on nearby communities. The natural-gas-based power plant is capable of reducing the air pollution level. It also can decrease the hospital treatment costs, thus protecting public health. The modeling results shows that natural-gas-based power plant as a clean technology in power generation. Also, the AERMOD model has been used to determine the pollution source matrix of Besat power plant. An innovative idea has been implemented to not only determine air-pollution-related taxes and complexities but to solve the legal problem associated with it, also. As for the complexities, their determination entails two different
    one, based on city's boundaries along with simulated amount of air pollutant concentrations in each receptor, and the other, based on the population of each receptor (i.e., the cities of Varamin, Eslamshahr, and Nasirshahr), which plays a vital role. According to the first approach, Varamin has the lion's share in the air pollution, caused by Best power plant. However, the second approach surprisingly shows that the largest portion belongs to Eshalmshahr, indicating the significant influence of its population.
    Keywords: NO2 concentration, Air pollution, Tax, Population, Air quality standards
  • David Adetitun *, Victoria Akinmayowa, Olubunmi Atolani, Albert Olayemi Pages 291-303
    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is a major global prevalent issue in the petroleum sector. This research focuses on evaluating biodegradation of three Gram-negative bacilli, isolated from cowpea planted soil, contaminated with kerosene. The Gram negative bacilli strains have been characterized and identified, using MicrobactTM ID24E systems for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and common Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacilli (MGNB). The identified organisms include Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Actinobacillus sp. with the biodegradation indices, monitored for the evaluation of their degrading abilities, being Optical density at 600 nm (OD600nm), pH, and emulsification stability. The chemical profile of single cultures and mixed cultures (consortia) on the jet fuel hydrocarbon has been determined by means of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), the results of which indicate that all the isolates have undergone above 70% reduction of the hydrocarbon substrates in terms of residual compounds. There has been 48 hydrocarbon compounds in the undegraded jet fuel which, following degradation process, decrease to 5, 13, 7, 10, 6, 9, and 10 compounds for Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Actinobacillus sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Actinobacillus sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,and Actinobacillus sp., respectively. The degradation efficiency of the isolates have been relatively high and comparable to the control. Results from this study indicate that all the strains, especially the consortia, are potential candidates for remediating the problem of hydrocarbon contamination in the environment.
    Keywords: Bacteria, Bacilli, Biodegradation, Gas chromatography, Jet fuel
  • D. H. F. Barcelos *, Carina Knidel, C. G. L. Fernandes Pages 305-315
    The association of the emergence of bacterial resistance to clinical environments is common; however, aquatic environments, especially the polluted ones, also play a key role in this regard. Aquatic environments can act as facilitator for the exchange of mobile elements, responsible for resisting antibiotics. They even may stimulate the emergence and selection of these elements through contaminants or the natural competition between bacterial phyla. Currently there is a large number of highly-reliable resistance genes, which is selected in aquatic environments, mostly due to several types of pollution, such as the mcr-1 gene that causes resistance to one of the antibiotics, available in the market, namely colistin. Thus, the present review aims to show a range of impacts capable of selecting bacterial resistance in the environment, thus clarifying this environment's role in dispersion of resistance.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Dispersal genes, pollution, mcr-1
  • Francis Abulude *, M.M. Ndamitso, A. Abdulkadir Pages 317-325
    Acid rain still poses a global problem today, exerting many adverse effects on man, animal, and materials. As its research question, the present study tries to find out whether or not acid rains exist in Akure, Nigeria. For so doing, it determines physico-chemical properties of rain water samples, namely pH, temp, Electrical Conductivity (EC), TDS, acidity, SO4-, NO2-, Cl-, and Free CO2. According to the results, the pH ranged between 6.0 and 7.8, never falling below 5.6 which is an indication of acid rain. Also, the minimum EC was 3µS/cm and the maximum, 201µS/cm. Moreover, TDS was between 1 and 100mg/L, while Free CO2 had a mean of 23.00 and Standard Deviation of 6.16. The dominant ion was SO4- (10-11%), followed by NO3-, and Cl-. Results from the first six months (July-December 2015) reveal slight correlations in the following: TDS with pH (0.532), EC and pH (0.501), Temp and Free CO2 (0.59), whereas strong correlations have been recorded in the following parameters: Acidity with pH (0.71) and Temperature (0.69), NO2- with pH (0.96) and acidity (0.96), SO4- with temp (0.68) and NO2- (0.83), and finally Cl- with Free CO2 (0.61), NO2- (0.73), and Cl- (0.65). It can be concluded that in the environment under this study there have been no acid rain within the period.
    Keywords: global problem, NO3-, Cl-, acid rain, environment, contaminants, WHO, Akure
  • Bijay Swain, Shreerup Goswami * Pages 327-333
    Traffic snarl-up or traffic jam is a common phenomenon in Puri, one of the imperative pilgrimage sites for Hindus as well as a popular tourist destination in India. Traffic congestion inevitably produces traffic noise, in turn annoying the drivers, leading to road rage. Keeping this in mind, the present article has monitored and assessed different noise descriptors in 7 different types of buses, totally involving 35 buses in and around Puri, for three years, from 2014 to 2016. The minimum and maximum noise levels have been more than 65.3 dB and 90 dB, respectively. Also, Leq is beyond 80dB, demonstrating a noisy environment inside the bus. The result of Karl Pearson’s Correlation Co-efficient clearly indicates that in general, the noise levels have gradually increased from 2014 to 2016. Furthermore, it has conducted a survey to reveal opinions of 156 passengers and 50 drivers of the buses concerning their annoyance from noise pollution.
    Keywords: Traffic Noise, Noise in Buses, Acoustic environment, Questionnaire, Puri
  • Mala Das Sharma *, P. Padmalatha Pages 335-348
    Nacharam and its surroundings, located inside the city of Hyderabad in Telangana State, India, is vulnerable to water-borne diseases; therefore, the present research works on concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium (57-263 mgL-1), lead (34-65 mgL-1), cadmium (2.3-22.4 mgL-1), and nickel (from below detection limit to 6.5 mgL-1) in different surface water and groundwater bodies of this area. Results indicate that with the exception of nickel, the majority of studied water bodies and aquifers of the area are contaminated, to variable degrees, with dissolved heavy metals. Also health-affecting bacterial and fungal colonies have been found in drinking water and groundwater bodies of the area. These findings collectively point at impending health threats to the residents of the area, thus this study has conducted a health survey, whose data indicate that about two third of the residents are affected by waterborne ailments, including hair fall, skin rashes, tooth decay, diarrhea, and joint pain. Hair fall is one of the major problems affecting about 40% of the area population. Other waterborne health-related issues are faced by relatively smaller numbers of residents (10% or less). Based on the results from this study, it is recommended not only to conduct periodic analyses of water samples used for drinking and other purposes, which would assist the government and local authorities in taking necessary steps to prevent groom and spread of microorganisms, but also to monitor other anthropogenic activities, potentially capable of contaminating water sources, .
    Keywords: inorganic pollution, microorganism, H2O, hair loss, skin rash
  • Neda Joneidi, Yousef Rashidi *, Farideh Atabi, Parya Broomandi Pages 349-357
    The current study aims at modelling the dispersion of two pollutants, namely CO (carbon monoxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) released from District 7 of Tehran Municiaplity, from 20 main line sources, by means of CALPUFF modeling system. CALPUFF is a non-steady state puff modeling software which employs meteorological, terrain, and land-use data to effectively simulate air pollutant's dispersion from a given source. CALMET software has been applied to provide meteorological conditions within the study domain. The study has been carried out on September 30, 2012 and shows that the modeled concentrations have been below both Iranian air ambient standard and NAAQS standard for CO and SO2. It also compares the measurements from the monitoring station of Setad Bohran, showing that the simulated hourly mean concentrations of the SO2 and CO do not follow similar temporal patterns for measurement values. For the absolute value, model results seem to be highly underestimated, compared to the monitored data (R2 = -0.41).
    Keywords: Air pollution concentration, Iranian Ambient Air Quality Standard, Temporal pattern, CO, SO2
  • Ahmed Ali *, H.A. Al-Mussawy, M.J. Hussein, N.J. Hamadi Pages 359-368
    The present study aims at designing a promising Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to utilize wastewater in order to generate electricity. Two types of salt bridge have been used in MFC (KCl and NaCl). The maximum electricity generation with 1M KCl and NaCl has been 823 and 713 mV, respectively. Varied salt concentrations (0.5M, 1M, 2M, and 3M) of salt bridge in MFC have been analyzed with different factors like temperature, type of electrode, configuration, and surface area of electrode being studied. The optimum temperature is found to be 32Co, with the optimum type of electrode being graphite rod, while the optimum configuration and surface area of electrode is graphite plate with surface area of 183.6 cm2. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed to predict voltage production of MFC and compare it with the experimental voltage. Multiple correlation methodology has optimized the voltage production with the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.999.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), Multiple correlation, Salt bridge, Wastewater