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اطلاعات جغرافیایی (سپهر) - پیاپی 104 (زمستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 104 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • مرتضی میری، قاسم عزیزی *، حسین محمدی، مهدی پورهاشمی صفحات 5-17
    پژوهش پیش رو با هدف معرفی مدل همسان سازی داده های زمینی و ارزیابی دقت داده های این مدلدر مقابل داده های اندازه گیری شده ایستگاه های همدیدی سطح کشور به انجام رسیده است. مدل همسان سازی داده های زمینی بطور مشترک توسط مراکز ناسا و نوآ با هدف شبیه سازی دقیق متغیرهای جریان و شرایط چرخه آب و انرژی توسعه داده شد. پوشش جهانی، قدرت تفکیک مکانی و زمانی بالا به همراه سیستم مدلسازی ترکیبی داده های سنجش از دوری و مشاهدات زمینی از ویژگی های منحصر بفرد این مدل است. این مدل متغیر های سیستم جو - زمین را در مقیاس های زمانی ماهانه و 3 ساعته با قدرت تفکیک مکانی 1 و 25/0 درجه جغرافیایی برآورد می کند، که خروجی آن نتیجه شبیه سازی چهار مدل سطحی Mosaic،Noah،CLMو VICمی باشد. برای ارزیابی مدل GLDAS،داده های متوسط دمای ماهانه 66 ایستگاه همدیدی با پراکنش مناسب در سطح ایران و نیز داده های مدل GLDASبا دقت مکانی 25/0×25/0 درجه جغرافیایی از سایت های مربوطه دریافت و پردازش شد. برای ارزیابی آماری داده های نام برده از آماره های ضریب تعیین(2r)، مجذور میانگین مربع خطا (Rmse)، شیب خط(Slope)، اریب(Bias) و ضریب کارایی مدل(EF) استفاده شد. مقایسه های آماری انجام شده نشان داد که داده های این مدل در سطح ایران از دقت بسیار مناسبی برخوردار می باشد و میزان خطای این مدل در برآورد متوسط دمای ایستگاه های مورد بررسی بسیار اندک و قابل چشم پوشی است. با وجود این در برخی مناطق بویژه درایستگاه های شمالی کشور مقدار برآورد مدل بیشتر از مقدار مشاهده ای و درتعداد محدودی از ایستگاه ها مانند کاشان و سنندج کمتر از مقدار مشاهده ای برآورد شده است. با توجه به پوشش جهانی، متغیرهای زیاد اقلیم - هیدرولوژی و نتایج این تحقیق که بیانگر دقت مناسب برآوردهای مدل جهانی همسان سازی داده های سطح زمین در پهنه ایران است، پیشنهاد می شود دقت متغیرهای دیگر این مدل نیز برای مناطق مختلف ایران مورد ارزیابی و واسنجی قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون آماری، شاخص کارایی، متوسط دما، GLDAS، ایران
  • ناصر عبدی *، علیرضا آزموده اردلان، روح الله کریمی صفحات 19-34
    در دهه اخیر استفاده از شیوه تعیین موقعیت مطلق دقیق (Precise Point Positioning) در کاربردهای استاتیک و کینماتیک ماهواره ای متداول شده و چندین نرم افزار و سایت های پردازش برخط متعدد برای این منظور تولید شده اند. در این تکنیک از مشاهدات عاری از اثر یونسفر کد و فاز یک گیرنده دو فرکانس به همراه محصولات دقیق مدار و ساعت ماهواره که از سایت های مراکز مختلف IGS در دسترس اند، استفاده می شود. در نتیجه اگرچه در PPP به طور مستقیم نیازی به استفاده از مشاهدات ایستگاه های مرجع نیست، اما همچنان وجود یک شبکه مبنایی، حتی با فواصل بلند مانند شبکه IGS برای تولید محصولات دقیق مدار و ساعت ماهواره نیاز خواهد بود. همچنین استفاده از این شیوه تعیین موقعیت در کاربردهای مختلف، نیازمند داشتن دانش کافی از دقت، صحت و روش اجرای آن است. در مقاله حاضر، مشاهدات استاتیک چهار گیرنده GPS دو فرکانس از شبکه ایستگاه های دائمی ایران و مشاهدات کینماتیک گیرنده GPS مستقر روی هواپیما، با استفاده از نرم افزار برنیز (Bernese) و به دو شیوه مطلق دقیق و نسبی با استفاده از ایستگاه ها و محصولات دقیق IGS پردازش شده و نتایج آنها با هم مقایسه شده است. همچنین به منظور تعیین مدت زمان بهینه جمع آوری مشاهدات برای رسیدن به دقت بهتر از ده سانتیمتر در حالت استاتیک، مشاهدات ایستگاه های دائمی در هر مرحله با اضافه کردن یک ساعت به مشاهدات قبلی پردازش شدند. در نهایت مشخص شد که با داشتن مشاهدات GPS به مدت زمان بیش از یک ساعت، رسیدن به دقت بهتر از ده سانتیمتر در حالت استاتیک تضمین شده و با استفاده از تکنیک PPP دقت مشاهدات کینماتیک به طور متوسط و در مقایسه با حالت نسبی بهتر از ده و بیست سانتیمتربه ترتیب در حالت دو بعدی و سه بعدی است که می تواند در بسیاری از کاربردهای نقشه برداری مانند هیدروگرافی و فتوگرامتری کافی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: استاتیک، تکنیک مطلق، تکنیک نسبی، عاری از اثر یونسفر، کینماتیک
  • حسن خسروی، اسماعیل حیدری علمدارلو، سحر نسب پور * صفحات 35-44
    امروزه با گسترش فعالیت های انسانی، ارزیابی کیفی و کمی منابع آبی به ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک جایگاه ویژه ای در مطالعات منابع آب پیدا نموده است. یکی از شاخص های ارزیابی کیفیت آب، اندازه گیری مقدار غلظت یون های اصلی موجود در آب است. به منظور بررسی تغییرات مکانی، شاخص کیفیت آب زیرزمینی (GQI) که تلفیقی از پارامترهای موثر بر کیفیت آب می باشد، مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. در مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی نحوه توزیع یون های اصلی شامل کلسیم،منیزیم، سدیم،کلر،سولفات وکلموادمحلول (TDS) و پهنه بندی کیفی دشت یزد اردکان، شاخص GQI با استفاده از نرم افزارArcGIS برآورد شد. برای بررسی وضعیت تغییرات زمانی و مکانی شاخص GQI در دشت یزد- اردکان از آمار 53 چاه پیزومتری وابسته به وزارت نیرو (شرکت آب منطقه ای استان یزد) استفاده و نقشه های پهنه بندی کیفی سال های 1382، 1385 و 1390 تهیه شد. نتایج نشان داد که دشت یزد- اردکان در کلاس های متوسط و قابل قبول از نظر شاخص GQI قرار دارد. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار شاخص GQI به ترتیب در غرب و شمال دشت مشاهده شد. شاخص خود همبستگی فضایی موران1، شاخص GQI و همه متغیرهای شیمیایی مورد بررسی به جز منیزیم دارای الگوی توزیع مکانی خوشه ایهستند و منیزیم دارای الگوی توزیع مکانی تصادفی است.با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از میان شش پارامتر مورد بررسی سه پارامتر موادجامدمحلول (TDS)، سدیم و کلر با داشتن بیشترین ضریب رتبه بندی به ترتیب دارای بیشترین تاثیر در مقدار شاخص GQI و در نتیجه کیفیت آب زیرزمینی هستند. در مجموع می توان نتیجه گرفت که روند شاخص GQI در منطقه مورد مطالعه نزولی است و کاربری اراضی نقش بسیار زیادی در کاهش میزان شاخص GQI و در نتیجه کیفیت آب های زیرزمینی دشت یزد-اردکان دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: دشت یزد، اردکان، کیفیت آب های زیرزمینی، شاخص GQI، سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)
  • همایون خوشروان *، سورنا قاسمی نژاد، فائضه سلامی صفحات 45-55
    گرمایش کره زمین طی قرن بیستم سبب افزایش سطح تراز آب اقیانوس ها گردید و به زیر آب رفتن نواحی گسترده ای از مناطق ساحلی و بروز پدیده های فرسایشی از پیامدهای نامطلوب آن بود. تعیین شدت آسیب پذیری و ریسک مخاطرات فرسایشی در ناحیه ساحلی بندر آستارا بعنوان هدف اصلی تحقیق محسوب می شود. با مطالعه و تفسیر تصاویر ماهواره ای اشکال مورفولوژیکی ساحلی شناسایی گردید. در بازدیدهای میدانی وضعیت مورفودینامیک رسوبی و ساختار هندسی بخش خشک ساحل در پنج ایستگاه اندازه گیری مستقر در سه زون ساحلی پایش شد. با انجام عملیات نقشه برداری و هیدروگرافی ساختار هندسی ساحل آستارا اندازه گیری و خصوصیات بافتی رسوبات بستر دریا ارزیابی گردید. با آنالیز تصاویر ماهواره ای و عکس های هوایی در نرم افزار GIS، خطوط ساحلی دریای خزر در دو پریود با فاصله زمانی 52 ساله مقایسه شد و میزان جابجایی خط ساحل محاسبه گردید. نتایج اصلی نشان می دهد که میزان نرخ جابجایی خط ساحلی در ناحیه شهر آستارا متفاوت است. شیب بسیار ملایم ساحل آستارا سبب افزایش شدت آسیب پذیری در زمان افزایش سطح تراز آب دریای خزر شده است و ریسک مخاطرات فرسایشی در نواحی جنوبی بندر آستارا بعلت دخالت های انسانی نسبت به مناطق دیگر آن بسیار زیاد است. در مدل سناریوهای نوسانی عکس العمل ساحل آستارا موجب بروز چالش های جدی و تهدیدات زیست محیطی مختلف خواهد شد. بطوری که با افزایش 2 متر سطح تراز آب دریای خزر 30 هکتار از اراضی ساحلی دچار آبگرفتگی می شوند و کاربری های اقتصادی متنوعی از بین خواهند رفت.
    کلیدواژگان: بندر آستارا، مورفودینامیک رسوبی، مخاطرات فرسایشی، دریای خزر
  • محمدکاظم شمس پویا *، جمیله توکلی نیا، مظفر صرافی، زهره فنی صفحات 57-76
    زمین پایه ی هرگونه توسعه شهری است و نقش مهمی در راستای تحقق توسعه ی پایدار شهری بازی می کند؛ البته این موضوع با چگونگی تصمیم سازی های زمین شهری و به عبارت بهتر حکمروایی زمین ارتباط می یابد. در این میان رویکرد حاکم بر برنامه های توسعه و سیاست های زمین شهری و تحلیل آن بر پایه ی الگوی حکمروایی خوب زمین گام مهمی در آسیب شناسی اقدامات و فعالیت های گذشته و ترسیم دورنمای مناسب برای آینده محسوب می شود. این تحقیق از سنخ تحقیقات توصیفی تحلیلی و روش کلی حاکم بر تحقیق نیز روش تحلیل ثانویه است که با معرفی حکمروایی زمین و ویژگی های آن، تلاش شده است تا برنامه های توسعه و سیاست ها و قوانین زمین شهری از منظر الگوی حکمروایی خوب زمین تشریح و الزامات و چالش های آن به صورت موردی در کلانشهر تهران به بحث گذاشته شود. نتایج نشان می دهد که سیاست های زمین شهری، ضوابط منطقه بندی و تفکیک زمین، نقایص برنامه ریزی مسکن، تداخل قوانین با یکدیگر، نبود چشم انداز مناسب در حوزه ی مدیریت زمین شهری و پاسخگو نبودن نهادهای زمین شهری منجر به سوداگری زمین و مسکن در کلانشهر تهران و نادیده گرفته شدن گروه های کم درآمد و آسیب پذیر در طرح های شهری و افزایش پراکنده رویی شهری، گسترش ساخت و سازهای بی رویه و بی ضابطه، تضییع حقوق شهروندی و نقض قوانین معماری و شهرسازی شده است که برخلاف اصول و معیارهای حکمروایی خوب زمین است. روند متمرکز تصمیم گیری و شکل نگرفتن مدیریت محلی زمین، فقدان شفافیت و مبهم ماندن وضع مالکیت اراضی داخل و خارج از محدوده و حریم کلانشهر نیز از مواردی است که با اصول حکمروایی خوب زمین در تضاد است. از این رو، لزوم تجدیدنظر در ساختار حکمروایی زمین و تفویض وظایف و اختیارات به سطوح محلی از سوی دولت امری ضروری است؛ البته با ذکر این نکته که تحقق مدیریت محلی زمین خود منوط به تحقق حکمروایی شایسته زمین است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، حکمروایی زمین، سیاست زمین، تهران
  • سید وحید رضوی ترمه، محمدرضا ملک * صفحات 77-90
    واقعیت افزوده ترکیبی از دید واقعی با محتوای مجازی در زمان آنی است که رابطی جهت بهبود درک کاربر با دنیای واقعی و تعامل با آن است. استفاده گسترده از دستگاه های تلفن هوشمند مجهز به حسگرهای مختلف مانند GPS، ژیروسکوپ، دوربین و همچنین دسترسی گوناگون به شبکه های بی سیم با سرعت بالا، سرویس های واقعیت افزوده را در سال های اخیر به طور فزاینده ای محبوب کرده است.
    با افزایش اطلاعات در واقعیت افزوده، ارائه ی همزمان همه ی اطلاعات نه تنها سودمندی و خوانایی این اطلاعات را کاهش داده بلکه جزییات و نحوه ارائه آن هم باید تابع شرایط باشد. برای غلبه بر این منگاره، ترکیب واقعیت افزوده با بافت آگاهی را ارائه داده ایم. بنابراین در تحقیق حاضر با توجه به بافت های کاربر، نحوه ارائه واقعیت افزوده تغییر می کند. بعد از مروری بر انواع روش های پیاده سازی، ردیابی و چارچوب های واقعیت افزوده به بررسی چارچوب واقعیت افزوده بافت آگاه و نحوه ی ترکیب مولفه های بافت آگاهی و واقعیت افزوده پرداخته می شود.
    برای پیاده سازی نمایش اطلاعات موضوعی مرتبط با زمین لرزه ترکیبی ازبافت آگاهی و واقعیت افزوده مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. در تحقیق حاضر سه بافت فاصله، جهت و زمان برای ارائه اطلاعات در واقعیت افزوده مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور پس از پهنه بندی آسیب پذیری ناشی از زمین لرزه در تهران، مجتمع تجاری دنیای نور به عنوان مطالعه ی موردی انتخاب گردید و نحوه ی ارائه ی اطلاعات با توجه به سه بافت در نظر گرفته شده برای مکان موردنظرانجام شد. برای ارزیابی سیستم ارائه شده، ترکیب واقعیت افزوده و بافت آگاهی را با سیستم واقعیت افزوده به تنهایی مقایسه می کنیم. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی نشان می دهد، ترکیب سیستم های واقعیت افزوده و بافت آگاه می تواند اطلاعات مفیدتر را با توجه به بافت کاربر نمایش دهد درحالی که نحوه ی ارائه ی اطلاعات در واقعیت افزوده به صورت یکنواخت است و هیچ پویایی در تغییر اطلاعات نمایشی ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: واقعیت افزوده، بافت آگاهی، سیستم بافت آگاه، حسگر، پهنه بندی آسیب پذیری
  • محمد مردانی شهر بابک * صفحات 91-102
    برای پنهان سازی سازه ها و تاسیسات زیرسطحی، شناخت عملکرد و توان فناوری های سنجش از دور نوین و پیشرفته از ضروریات اساسی است. یکی از این فناوری ها در سامانه های پر قدرت گرم کننده ی الکترومغناطیسی یونسفری بکار گرفته شده است که از امواج الکترومغناطیسی پر قدرت در محدوده فرکانسی 3 تا 10 مگاهرتز استفاده می‏کند. هارپ با ساطع کردن این امواج به منطقه ای از یونسفر موجب گرم شدن آن منطقه شده و این گرمایش منجر به گسیل امواجی با محدوده فرکانس خیلی پائین VLF و ELF می‏شود. هدف اصلی این تحقیق تحلیل و شناخت قابلیت سنجش از دور سامانه های پر قدرت گرم کننده ی الکترومغناطیسی یونسفری (هارپ)، در شناسایی اهداف زیرسطحی می باشد. در این پژوهش با بهره گیری از روش ترکیبی تجزیه و تحلیل داده های چندگانه بر مبنای توصیف و تحلیل داده های جمع آوری شده از منابع علمی و تئوریک، گزارشات رسمی و معتبر، بررسی نتایج آزمایشات تجربی انجام گرفته در جهان و ایران و در نهایت اخذ نظر خبرگان و صاحب نظران جامعه آماری تحقیق به روش میدانی، به سوال اصلی تحقیق پاسخ داده شده است. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان می ‏دهد که سامانه های پر قدرت گرم کننده ی الکترومغناطیسی یونسفری، قابلیت سنجش از دور و امکان شناسائی اهداف زیرسطحی را دارند. بر این اساس، این سامانه ها تهدیدی جدی برای شناسایی اهداف زیر سطحی محسوب می شوند؛ و لذا در ادامه تحقیق، راهکارهای دفاع غیرعامل در برابر این تهدید نیز ارائه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: امواج الکترومغناطیسی پر قدرت، هارپ، سنجش از دور، اهداف زیرسطحی، یونسفر
  • سجاد فردوسی *، حمیدرضا شاه محمدی، محبوبه جلالی صفحات 103-115
    منافع اقتصادی ناشی از گردشگری در سال های اخیر، توجه بسیاری از کشورهای دارای مرز دریایی را به سوی خود جلب نموده است. در این میان دریای خزر در بخش شمالی کشور ایران از پتانسیل ویژه ای در زمینه گردشگری برخوردار است که تنها با رویکردی همه جانبه در این زمینه، می توان شاهد افقی روشن در حوزه گردشگری بود. بر این اساس نوشتار حاضر به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با هدف شناسایی مطلوب ترین بازه های زمانی از نظر شرایط اقلیمی به منظور توسعه گردشگری تدوین گردیده است. نتایج حاصل از روش TCI نشان می دهد که در تمام طول سال می توان شاهد نواحی با شرایط اقلیمی مطلوب در حاشیه دریای خزر بود که با برنامه ریزی زمانی و مکانی مناسب زمینه رشد و توسعه گردشگری در این منطقه فراهم می شود. در این خصوص به ترتیب ماه های خرداد، تیر، شهریور و مرداد به عنوان مطلوب ترین بازه های زمانی جهت برنامه ریزی برای حضور گردشگران و ارائه خدمات به آن ها می باشند. مطلوبیت شرایط اقلیمی در این چهار ماه و هم زمانی آن با آغاز مسافرت های تابستانی، فرصتی ویژه به منظور گسترش گردشگری و بهره مندی از مزایای اقتصادی قابل توجه آن محسوب می گردد. همچنین به ترتیب ماه های فروردین، اسفند، مهر، دی، اردیبهشت، بهمن، آبان و آذر به لحاظ مطلوبیت شرایط اقلیمی در اولویت های بعدی قرار دارند. البته این بدان معنی نیست که در این ماه ها، گردشگری مسکوت می ماند، بلکه این رتبه بندی صرفا مطلوبیت اقلیمی را در ماه های مختلف در مقایسه با یکدیگر بیان می دارد. در واقع تقریبا در اغلب ماه های سال می توان شاهد شرایط اقلیمی مطلوبی در راستای گردشگری در نواحی هم جوار با دریا بود.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، اقلیم، دریای خزر، ایران، TCI
  • سعید اجاقی *، صفا خزایی صفحات 117-127
    آشکارسازی تغییرات با رویکرد شیءگرا در تصاویر با قدرت تفکیک مکانی بالا به این دلیل که علاوه بر ویژگی های طیفی از ویژگی های مکانی، هندسی و بافتی استفاده می کند در مقایسه با رویکرد پیکسل مبنا نتایج بسیار خوبی به همراه داشته است. با این وجود، انتخاب الگوریتم و ویژگی های بهینه همچنان به عنوان چالشی اساسی باقی مانده است. در این تحقیق، جهت بهبود آشکارسازی تغییرات با رویکرد شیءگرا از الگوریتم جنگل تصادفی (RF) در فضای ویژگی های بهینه استفاده شده است. در این راستا، نخست ویژگی های بافت بر روی تصاویر مربوط به دو زمان متفاوت استخراج می شود و از PCA جهت انتخاب ویژگی های بافتی مناسب استفاده می گردد. سپس، قطعه بندی چند مقیاسه در فضای ترکیب یافته از باندهای طیفی و ویژگی های بافتی مناسب در چهار سطح مختلف با استفاده از نرم افزار Ecognition انجام شده و بهترین سطح قطعه بندی تعیین می شود. در ادامه، ویژگی های بافتی، مکانی و هندسی از روی تصویر قطعه بندی شده در بهترین سطح استخراج می گردد و بر اساس محاسبه ی فاصله اقلیدسی مربوط به نمونه های آموزشی در کلاس های مختلف، ویژگی های بهینه شناسایی می شوند. کارایی الگوریتم RF شیءگرا در مقایسه با روش های متداول SVMو KNN بر اساس معیار کاپا و صحت کلی و مدت زمان محاسبات مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در این تحقیق، از تصاویر ماهوارهای GeoEye-1 و Quick Bird-1مربوط به سال های 2002 و 2015 جهت آشکارسازی تغییرات در جزیره قشم استفاده شده است. بر اساس نتایج تجربی، برای الگوریتم های RF شیءگرا، SVM و KNN صحت کلی به ترتیب 57/86، 76/83 و 75 درصدو ضریب کاپا به ترتیب97/0، 75/0 و 63/0 به دست آمد. همچنین، RF به دلیل استفاده از آستانه گذاری بر روی باندهای مختلف و تولید طبقه بندی کننده های درختی با تنوع بالا و وزن دهی مناسب، نسبت به هر یک از نتایج طبقه بندی کننده ها توانست بالاترین دقت را تولید کند.
    کلیدواژگان: آشکارسازی تغییرات شئ گرا، جنگل تصادفی، ماشین های بردار پشتیبان، آنالیز مولفه های اصلی
  • شراره سعیدپور، دیمن کاشفی دوست صفحات 129-144
    شهرها به عنوان مراکز تجمع سرمایه های مادی و انسانی، در زمان بحران خسارات فراوانی را متحمل می شوند. لذا توجه به بحث پدافند غیرعامل می تواند میزان خسارات ناشی از حوادث را تا حد قابل توجهی کاهش دهد. پدافند غیرعامل ازجمله موضوعاتی است که در سال های اخیر در طرح ها و برنامه های شهری موردتوجه قرارگرفته است. یکی از سیاست های پدافند غیرعامل در تمام کشورها به طور عام و کشور ایران به طور خاص، ساخت پناهگاه های شهری در جهت صیانت از جان شهروندان و کاهش آسیب ها در حوزه ی انسانی می باشد. این پژوهش باهدف ارائه ی یک رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل در مکان یابی پناهگاه ، مشخص کردن و استفاده از معیارهایی جهت انتخاب بهترین پناهگاه به منظور اسکان موقت تدوین گردیده است. روش انجام تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و اطلاعات موردنیاز به روش کتابخانه ای و میدانی گردآوری شده اند. به منظور طبقه بندی و تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده از تکنیک فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای به تعیین ضرایب اهمیت شاخص ها و اعمال این ضرایب در محیط (Overlay) معیارها پرداخته شد و درنهایت از طریق همپوشانی لایه های اطلاعاتی ارجح ترین مکان ها در تناسب باهدف، شناسایی شده است. همچنین از نرم افزارهای ARC/GIS و Super Decisions جهت ترسیم لایه ها بهره گرفته شد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهند نقاطی از شهر که دارای فضاهای باز کافی و در عین حال سازگار با کاربری های اطراف می باشند، دارای پتانسیل نسبتا بهتری برای استقرار آسیب دیدگان هستند.با تلفیق لایه های مختلف کاربری های تاثیرگذار، نقشه نهایی فضاهای بهینه جهت احداث پناهگاه های شهری در 5 دسته از بسیار خوب تا بسیار ضعیف تقسیم بندی و 9 مکان پیشنهادی برای این امر در نظر گرفته شده است که در این میان فضاهای سبز، اراضی بایر و مدارس، بیشترین امتیاز جهت اسکان موقت را دارا می باشند؛ لذا 4 پارک در سطح شهر، 1 مدرسه و مابقی فضاهای باز و بایر بدین منظور اولویت یافته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان یابی، پناهگاه های شهری، پدافند غیرعامل، تحلیل شبکه ای، شهر سقز
  • مصطفی محمدی ده چشمه *، هادی علیزاده صفحات 145-158
    امنیت یکی از ارکان اساسی دستیابی به یک جامعه سالم و داشتن شهرهای پایدار می باشد. در این راستا هدف از مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی مولفه های امنیت شهری بر پایه رویکرد ساختار گرا از نگاه شهروندان در شهر ارومیه می باشد. این پژوهش با رویکردی کاربردی و به شیوه «توصیفی- تحلیلی» انجام شده که با استفاده از روش پیمایشی با ابزار پرسشنامه امنیت در فضاهای شهری را در قالب نظریه ساختاری در سه بعد بنیادی، دینامیک و ایمنی در شهر ارومیه مورد تحلیل قرار داده است. جامعه نمونه پژوهش 322 نفر از شهروندان شهر ارومیه می باشند که براساس فرمول عمومی کوکران به صورت تصادفی ساده انتخاب و مورد پرسش قرار گرفته اند. میزان پایایی سازه های پژوهش 73 درصد و میزان روایی آن به میزان 71 درصد ارزیابی شد. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده های پژوهش و متناسب با اهداف پژوهش از آزمون های همبستگی، آزمون T و تحلیل تشخیص در قالب نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد اولا ارزیابی ارتباط بین مولفه های تبیین کننده امنیت از دیدگاه ساختارگرایی در شهر ارومیه حاکی از آن است که این مولفه ها دارای همبستگی درونی بالایی برای تبیین مقوله امنیت در شهر ارومیه می باشند. ثانیا ارزیابی اولویت مولفه های امنیت از دیدگاه ساختاری برای بسترسازی و تبیین امنیت در فضاهای شهری در ارومیه بیان گر اولویت مولفه بنیادی در امنیت شهری با توجه به اختلاف از میانگین مبنای پایین 0858/0 به نسبت مولفه دینامیکی با 3575/0 اختلاف از میانگین و مولفه ایمنی با 3982/0 اختلاف از میانگین مبنا می باشد و ثالثا پیش بینی فرایند تحقق امنیت شهری در شهر ارومیه از طریق مولفه های منتخب نشان می دهد که مولفه ایمنی با میزان لامبدای 201/0 و میزان پیش بینی کلی 502/0 دارای پیش بینی قوی تر و بهتری به نسبت سایر مولفه ها برای تحقق امنیت در فضاهای شهری ارومیه می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت شهری، مولفه بنیادی، رویکرد ساختارگرا، شهر ارومیه
  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، یعقوب ابدالی *، سارا الله قلی پور صفحات 159-172
    امروزه در پی تغییرات سریع شهرها، بخشی از بافت های شهری به علت فرسودگی و ناکارآمدی نتوانسته اند ارتباطی مناسب با محیط خود و خدمات دهی به بهره برداران برقرار کنند. وجود سطح گسترده بافت فرسوده یکی از مهم ترین چالش های مدیران شهری، شهرسازان و معماران می باشد، زیرا عدم توجه به این بافت ها موجب زوال شهر و توسعه ناهمگون آن وایجاد شهرهایی نوپا در حاشیه شهر قدیمی می گردد. منطقه یک شهر اهواز به این علت که بخش قابل توجهی از مشکلات شهر اهواز در این منطقه نمود عینی یافته است و بخش مرکزی به دلیل گستردگی بیش از حد بافت فرسوده و روند فرسودگی شدید در آن، به عنوان قلمرو مورد پژوهش انتخاب شد. پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف توسعه ای- کاربردی و از لحاظ روش شناسی توصیفی- تحلیلی مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای وبررسی های میدانی است. برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق، شاخص های اسکلت ساختمان، جنس مصالح، تعداد طبقات و قدمت ساختمان استخراج شد. برای کشف روند الگوها از ابزار Regression و برای وزن دهی به لایه ها در داده های فضایی از روش خود همبستگی فضایی موجود در نرم افزار Geoda استفاده شد. همچنین برای بررسی آسیب پذیری بافت فرسوده از روش ([1]Aneslin Local Morans) از ابزار sisylanA reiltuO & retsulC از مجموعه ابزارهای موجود در slooT scitsitatS laitapS مربوط به نرم افزار SIG crA استفاده شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد 38/54 درصد مساحت در بازه آسیب پذیری متوسط تا زیاد قرار دارد و گویای این است که بخش زیادی از بافت فرسوده در محدوده مرکزی شهر اهواز به نوعی نیازمند برنامه ریزی پدافند غیرعامل می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، سازه، Regression، بافت فرسوده، Anselin Local Morans، پدافند غیرعامل، اهواز
  • حاتم پرنیان *، کرامت الله زیاری، محمد میره ای، مهدی مدیری صفحات 173-184
    آمایش مناطق مرزی، بهره برداری مطلوب از کلیه امکانات انسانی و فضایی این مناطق در جهت بهبود وضع مادی و معنوی جامعه به دنبال تبیین مبانی نظری سازماندهی مطلوب فضایی پایدار انسان، سرزمین و فعالیت های انسانی در مناطق مرزی با توجه به ویژگی های این مناطق در چارچوب طرح آمایش سرزمین و تحقق توسعه و امنیت ملی است.به واقع می توان گفت که برنامه ریزی برای توسعه مناطق محروم و عقب مانده به ویژه مناطق مرزی به علت جایگاه شان در توسعه و امنیت در بسیاری از کشورها ازجمله ایران ضرورت تام یافته است. این پژوهش به لحاظ روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و به لحاظ هدف توسعه ای کاربردی می باشد. روش گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد که از ابزارهای مصاحبه و پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل متخصصین در زمینه مطالعات مرزی می باشد، که با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند 30 نفر از بین آنها انتخاب شده است.در ادامه به تحلیل مفهوم استنباطی مرز از دیدگاه های مختلف پرداخته شده و با مطالعه وضعیت توسعه یافتگی مناطق نابرابری ها مشخص شده اند. همچنین جایگاه ناحیه موردمطالعه در مبادلات مرزی نیز با استفاده از ارائه آمارهای موجودبررسیشده است.سپس با استفاده از الگوی تحلیلی SWOT به شناخت سایر توانمندی ها و مشکلات محیطی ناحیه مورد مطالعه با رویکرد آمایشی جهت برنامه ریزی توسعه پرداخته شده است. نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از این است که مناطق مرزی ازلحاظ برخورداری در وضعیت محروم قرار دارند و همچنین از ظرفیت های این مناطق به نحو درستی استفاده نشده است، که با یک برنامه استراتژیک متناسب می توان در جهت دست یابی به توسعه این مناطق گام برداشت.
    کلیدواژگان: استراتژی، توسعه، مناطق مرزی، آمایش سرزمین، ارومیه، سلماس
  • زهره مریانجی *، سید اکبر حسینی، حامد عباسی صفحات 186-196
    استفاده ازانرژی های تجدیدپذیر مانند خورشید،گرمای زمین و بادمی توانددرکاهش آلودگی هواوپدیده تغییر اقلیم موثرباشد. وزش بادهای شدید و مداوم،منبع انرژی بسیار مهمی برای بسیاری از نقاط کشوراست. دراین مطالعه میانگین وحداکثرسرعت باد سالانه و فصلی و انرژی آن براساس داده های نه ایستگاه همدیدی (سینوپتیک) درسطح استان همدان و در دوره اقلیمی 2014 - 2000 محاسبه و تحلیل شده وپراکندگی مکانی سرعت و انرژی باد در این منطقه مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است. تاثیرتوپوگرافی برسرعت باد نشان می دهد شهرستان های کوهپایه ای استان از جمله همدان، نهاوند و اسدآباد بیشتر در معرض وزش بادهای دشت - کوه می باشند،وگرم باد پدیده خاص هواشناسی ناشی از اثرکوهستان،غالبا درشهرستان همدان رخ می دهد. نقشه رقومی سرعت وانرژی باد منطقه درمقیاس سالانه و فصلی در محیط GIS پهنه بندی شده است (به روش کریجینگ). براین اساس شرق و مناطقی ازشهرستان ملایروبالاخص مناطق شمالی استان بیشترین سرعت متوسط با درا (بالای سه متردرثانیه) نشان داده ومناطق غرب و جنوب غرب با کمترین سرعت باد درطول دوره مورد مطالعه مشخص می شود. بادخیزترین منطقه،نواحی شرقی و شمالی استان است و دربیشتر زمان های سال دارای توان تولید برق بادی است. دشت کبودرآهنگ و مناطقی از شهرستان رزن بالاترین پتانسیل انرژی باد برحسب وات برمترمربع را دارد وبیشترین پتانسیل میزا ن تولید انرژی ناشی از باد در همدان،درفصل بهاروپاییزاست. درمنطقه مورد بررسی ایستگاه های نوژه (شمال استان) بابیش از 18 درصدوملایر(جنوب شرق استان) بابیش از 17 درصد،تداوم وزش باد دراولویت نصب توربین های بادی می باشند. بامطالعه احتمال وقوع و پیش بینی سرعت باد درایستگاه های هواشناسی استان همدان مناطقی از دشت رزن و کبودرآهنگ با سرعت بالاتر باد پیش بینی می گردد. نتایج این بررسی دربرنامه ریزی و مدیریت انرژی منطقه قابل استفاده است.
    کلیدواژگان: GIS، دوره برگشت، توپوگرافی، پتانسیل انرژی باد، استان همدان
  • کمال امیدوار، رضا ابراهیمی *، احمد مزیدی، تیمورعلیزاده صفحات 197-209
    افزایش روزافزون تقاضای انرژی در برابر کاهش منابع فراگیر انرژی به همراه پیامد های گرمایش جهانی، اهمیت بررسی کمی تغییرات نیاز سرمایش، گرمایش کشور را در دهه های گذشته و آینده ضروری می سازد. در پژوهش حاضر، نخست داده های گردش کلی جو از پایگاه دادهEH5OMاستخراج شد. این داده ها تحت سناریو A1B هیئت بین المللی تغییر اقلیم بوده و سپس با مدل اقلیم منطقه ای، داده های میانگین دمای روزانه به تفکیک 27/0 × 27/0 درجه که حدودا نقاطی با ابعاد 30 × 30 کیلومتر ایران را پوشش می دهند در بازه زمانی (2050-2015) ریزمقیاس شدند. داده های میانگین دمای روزانه دوره گذشته نیز از پایگاه داه های اسفزاری در دوره آماری (2004-1970)بر روی یاخته هایی به ابعاد 15×15کیلومتر بر سراسر کشور استخراج شد. از آستانه دمایی 11 درجه برای محاسبه درجه روز گرمایش و آستانه3/18 برای محاسبه درجه روز سرمایش استفاده شد. میانگین ماهانه این فراسنج ها بر روی ماتریسی به ابعاد 2140×12 (آینده) و 7187×12 (گذشته) به دست آمد که سطرها بیانگر زمان (ماه، سال) و ستون ها مکان یاخته می باشند. سپس نقشه میانگین ماهانه هر دو دوره ترسیم و تفسیر گردید. نتایج گویای سردترشدن هوا در دهه های آتی نسبت به دوره گذشته در ماه های ژانویه و دسامبر در اکثر مناطق کشور به جز ناحیه ساحلی و پسکرانه ها و گرم تر شدن هوا در اکثر مناطق کشور در ماه های گرم سال (ژوئن، جولای، اوت)؛ بر میزان مصرف انرژی جهت گرمایش و سرمایش اثرات قابل توجهی خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل EH5OM، ریزمقیاس نمایی، مدل RegCM4، ایران
  • لیلا عشرتی *، امیر محمودزاده، مسعود تقوایی صفحات 211-222
    مناطق شهری بسیاری به وسیله مخاطرات مرکب مورد تهدید قرار می گیرند که منجر به ایجاد آسیب های جدی به انسان ها ، ساختمان ها و زیر ساخت ها می گردد. این مساله متاثر از تحولات مرتبط مانند شهرنشینی، ساخت و سازها در مناطق با آسیب پذیری بالا می باشد. مهمترین هدف در این مطالعه، توسعه رویکردی شاخص محور می باشد که بستری را برای ارزیابی آسیب پذیری در خصوص مخاطرات مرکب (حریق در پی زلزله )فراهم می نماید. مدل شاخص محور ارائه شده، بر اساس انتخاب مشخصات رتبه هایی می باشد که شاخص های آسیب پذیری کالبدی و انسانی را در محدوده مورد مطالعه مطرح می نماید. کاربرد مدل PTVA[1]، در محدوده ای از شهر شیراز می باشد. تجزیهوتحلیلاطلاعاتجمعآوری شدهبر اساس نوع و هدف مطالعه باتوجهبهروش های آماریومبتنیبرمشخصات ارزیابی ریسککمی با استفاده از نرم افزارهای HAZUS& GIS و تجزیه و تحلیل آسیب پذیری معیار محور (RVI[2]) می باشد، یافته ها در برآورد سطوح آسیب پذیری کالبدی و انسانی(تلفات) نهایی حاکی از این می باشد که 69 ساختمان با مساحتی برابر 47523.64متر مربع از محدوده مورد مطالعه دارای سطح ریسک گسترده و کامل می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل شاخص محور PTVA، ارزیابی آسیب پذیری، حریق در پی زلزله، HAZUS، شهر شیراز
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  • Morteza Miri, Ghasem Azizi *, Hossein Mohammadi, Mahdi Pourhashemi Pages 5-17
    Introduction
    The limited access to the atmospheric and terrestrial data such as rainfall, temperature, humidity and soil temperature is the most important problem in studying many climatological and hydrological in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries, rural and mountainous areas. One of the solutions to overcome this obstacle is to use available gridded datasets that have proved their representativeness for many different parts of the world. Although the use of satellite data and gridded datasets is a reasonable alternative source for areas lacking station and data, since local effects can vary from region to region and can affect satellite and model performance, thus an dataset must be evaluated in a region before it is used as a decision-making tool in that region.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study is aimed at the presentation of Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and evaluates this model dataset against data measured by synoptic stations. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been developed jointly by scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in order to produce such fields. The goal of a land data assimilation system is to ingest satellite and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface modelling and data assimilation techniques. The uniqueness of GLDAS is that it is a global, high resolution, offline terrestrial modelling system incorporating ground and satellite observations. The temporal resolution for the GLDAS products is 3-hourly and Monthly with 0.25 and 1 degree spatial resolution its output is the result of four land surface models: the Community Land Model (CLM), NOAH, Mosaic, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model.The products are in Gridded Binary (GRIB) format and can be accessed through a number of interfaces.
    The representativeness and performance of GLDAS in estimate temperature amount at 66 Iranian synoptic stations distributed across the country is herein examined. To evaluate the performance of the considered dataset when compared to the observed temperature records at the considered locations we have used R squared, the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (EF), RMSE, Bias, B slope of the regression and the standardized RMSE indicators. The performance of the dataset was also graphically represented through scatter plots of the established regression between GLDAS and observation at the selected stations.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of the statistical indicators were represented through plotting the indicators over the map of Iran to ease displaying spatial tendency of the indicators and explaining the possible geographical role in controlling the spatial variation of the indicators. According to the results of the evaluation, the GLDAS data performs well in all of the studied stations with strong correlation coefficient. However, the Special physiographic and climatic characteristics is one of the main reasons for this overestimation in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea. very likely due to not properly taking into account the complex topography of the region in its model parameterization or not being able to remove the effect of sea atmosphere in the stations nearby the seas. However, since the cloud of the estimated data for this region are distributed along the regression line, it can be said that the observed over-estimation could be resolved through establishing a statistical relationship between the observed and modeled datasets; thus such a mismatch might not be considered as a drawback of the modeled dataset. Considering that this model output is produced through combination of the modeled, observed and remotely sensed data, it could be confidentially used for mountainous areas and deserts of Iran that suffer from lack of weather stations or substantial missing values. This data-set might be considered as a superior dataset to be used for many climatological and hydrological subjects in Iran and thus should be seen as a promising tool for extending hydrological and climatological research areas in the country.
    Conclusion
    Statistical comparisons indicate that the GLDAS data perform well in all of the studied stations with strong Accuracy. Due to the Global coverage of the model dataset, A large number of climate-hydrological variables, and the results of this research that indicate the Good accuracy of the GLDAS model in Iran, It is suggested that all variables in the model to be evaluated.
    Keywords: Statistical Test, Efficiency Index, Average Temperature, GLDAS, Iran
  • Naser Abdi *, Ali Reza Azmoude Ardalan, Roohollah Karimi Pages 19-34
    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique to determine the position of a single receiver using un-differenced dual-frequency code and carrier phase observations. In this technique, the precise satellite orbit and clock products obtained from the GPS reference station network are also required. Unlike the relative positioning techniques, the network needed for PPP is not necessary to be dense, and even a sparse network with long baselines like the International GNSS Service (IGS) network can be used. The IGS collects, archives, and distributes GPS observation data sets of sufficient accuracy to satisfy the objectives of a wide range of applications and experimentation. These data sets are used by the IGS to generate the data products which are made available to interested users through the IGS website. Moreover, in contrast to the relative positioning techniques, PPP can provide a uniform accuracy throughout the world without having the reference station observations. In the last decade, PPP has been widely used for the static and kinematic applications. The use of this technique in various applications requires to know its accuracy, processing software requirements, and performing methods. The aim of this paper is to study the performance of PPP by using the static and kinematic observations in comparison with the double difference relative solutions. For this purpose, the static observations of four dual-frequency receivers within Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN), namely AHVA, SFHN, SNDJ and TORQ, and the kinematic observations of GPS receiver installed on airplane were processed in the PPP and double difference relative solutions by the Bernese GNSS software version 5.0. The Bernese GNSS Software is a scientific, high-precision, GNSS data processing software developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). It is, e.g., used by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) for its international (IGS) and European activities. In the double difference relative solution, the coordinates of 10 IGS stations in ITRF2008, which have been located around Iran, have been chosen as the weighted constraints, where the accuracy of constraints for horizontal and vertical components has been taken equal to 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The double difference relative results are assumed as reference values for comparisons. To find the optimum time interval of PPP for obtaining the accuracy better than 10 cm in the horizontal and vertical components, the various sessions have been taken in to account. The GPS station observations of each session are separately processed by the Bernese software in the PPP mode regarding the required parameters such as solid earth tide, ocean tidal loading, windup, antenna phase center offsets and variations for satellites and receivers, and satellite Differential Code Biases (DCBs). Then, the double difference relative results as reference values are subtracted from the obtained PPP results in X, Y and Z coordinates. To show the performance of PPP in both of horizontal and vertical components, the coordinate differences from Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) reference frame are transferred to the Local Geodetic (LG) reference frame in order to provide Northing (N), Easting (E) and Up (U) coordinates. From the PPP static results, we find that the minimum required time interval of the GPS observations is one hourin order to obtain the accuracy better than 10 cm. For assessment of the PPP performance in kinematic mode, the GPS observations collected by mounted GPS receiver on airplane are processed in relative and PPP modes. The duration of these observations is about 6 hours. In the relative kinematic processing by the Bernese software, the observations of 4 GPS reference stations within IPGN and IGS precise satellite orbit and clock products are used. The outputs of this step are three coordinates of GPS antenna mounted on airplane in 30-second epochs, which are considered as reference values. Like the static mode, the reference values are subtracted from the PPP kinematic results in X, Y and Z coordinates and transferred to the LG frame. The results show that the accuracy better than 10 cm and 20 cm can be obtained using the PPP kinematic technique in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. These accuracies are enough for many applications such as hydrography, aerial photogrammetry and navigation. As a result, this study shows that the PPP technique can be an adequate alternative for the relative techniques.
    Keywords: PPP, DGPS, Ionosphere Free, Static, Kinematic
  • Hassan Khosravi, Esmail Haydari Alamdarloo, Sahar Nasabpour * Pages 35-44
    Introduction
    Water is the principal source of economic development, social security and poverty reduction. The value of water source leads to enhancement of management measures to maintain its quality and quantity by communities. Environmental changes and human activities effect on the quality and quantity of water. Urban growth, increasing industrial activities and overuse of chemical fertilizers in agriculture result in pollution of groundwater and surface water which have adverse effect on the health of human beings, animal and plants. Groundwater is the primary source to supply agriculture and drinking water hence recognition and awareness of groundwater quality and the water classification based on the number of various elements of them will assist us in making management decisions and decline groundwater pollution. Groundwater is particularly important in arid and semi-arid areas. On the other hand groundwater deterioration, both in quantitative and qualitative terms is important in water resources management of these areas.
    The concentration of common ions in water is one index for assessing water quality. Groundwater quality index (GQI), a combination of parameters for water quality, that constitute a reliable tool in defining aquifer vulnerability is used to investigate the spatial variability. GQI shows the data related to the water quality in an explicit manner. This index presents a way of summarizing the overall qualitative condition of water which is understandable for the audience.
    Materials and Methods
    Yazd-Ardakan plain has been faced with significant reduction of groundwater level in recent years. So, it is expected that the studying groundwater quality index can be effective for aquifer management in this plain. In this research GQI was used in order to study the distribution of major water ions including Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfate and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS); and zoning groundwater quality using ArcGIS10.1. The data of 53 piezometric wells provided by Iran Water Resources Management Company were used to study the status of temporal and spatial changes of GQI in Yazd-Ardakan plain. Water quality sampling campaigns were conducted during most vulnerable periods of early and late summer to ensure the representativeness of the targeted GQI under worst case conditions. Quality zoning maps were provided for 2003, 2006 and 2011. For this purpose, data were evaluated in GS 5.1 software, after calculation, the best model with the lowest estimated error was selected for zoning water quality parameters. Because of the lowest estimation error, Kriging, Gaussian and Spherical variogram models were selected as appropriate interpolation method for zoning the quality parameters. WHO standards were used to compare and investigate the quality status of the water. The water qualitative groups in the GQI map were divided into 5 classes of good, acceptable, medium, inappropriate, and poor, scoring from 0 to 100. The class which is close to 100 shows better quality and the class which is close to 0 shows lower quality.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that Yazd-Ardakan plain is located in average and acceptable classes according to GQI index. The highest and lowest amount of Groundwater Quality Index (GQI) were in the west and north of the study area, respectively. Moran's I spatial autocorrelation index, GQI and all chemical studied variables except for magnesium have cluster spatial distribution pattern, but Magnesium have random spatial distribution pattern. Three parameters of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium and Chloride having the highest coefficient ranking have a highest impact on GQI, respectively. On the other hand, these parameters have a high weight and GQI is more sensitive to them. In fact, these components in Yazd-Ardakan plain groundwater have more impacts on GQI model and their removal will cause greater changes in GQI. Therefore, they should be carefully evaluated and monitored. Generally, it can be concluded that GQI has the descending trend in the study area and land use has the important role in reducing GQI index and water quality. It can also explain the overall quality of groundwater and its threats in various uses of water. Finally, the regions with poor groundwater quality can be targeted for detailed studies and monitoring programs.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, due to the nature of natural phenomena such as drought, their complete removal is not possible. The only principled way to prevent dangerous consequences of the water table decline and reduction of groundwater resources quantity and quality is the correct and systematic use of water and avoidance of uncontrolled groundwater withdrawal.
    Keywords: Yazd-Ardakan Plain, Groundwater Quality, GQI, Geographical Information System
  • Homayoun Khoshravan *, Sorena Ghaseminejad, Faezeh Salami Pages 45-55
    The global warming in the twentieth century led to an increase in ocean levels, and the drowning of vast areas of the coastal regions and the emergence of erosion phenomena were its adverse consequences. Determining the severity of the vulnerability and the risk of erosion hazards in the coastal area of Port Astara is considered as the main objective of the research. Coastal morphological forms were identified by studying and interpreting satellite imagery. In field observations, the sedimentary morphodynamics status and geometric structure of the dry section of the coast were monitored at five measuring stations located in the three coastal zones. The geometric structure of the Astara coast was measured by performing mapping and hydrographic operations, and the texture characteristics of sea bed sediments were evaluated. The Caspian Sea coastlines were compared over a period of 52 years by satellite imagery analysis and aerial photos in the GIS software, and the displacement of the coastline was calculated. The main results indicate that the rate of coastline displacement in the Astara city area is different. The very gentle slope of the Astara coast has caused an increase in the severity of the vulnerability as the level of the Caspian Sea rises and the risk of erosion hazards in the southern areas of Port Astara is high due to human intervention with relation to other areas. In the oscillatory scenario model, the reaction of the Astara cost will cause serious different challenges and environmental threats, so that, with a 2-meter increase in the level of the Caspian Sea, 30 hectares of coastal lands will be flooded and various economic utilities will be destroyed.
    Keywords: Port of Astara, Sedimentary Morphodynamics, Erosion Hazard, The Caspian Sea
  • Mohammad Kazem Shams Pouya *, Jamileh Tavakolinia, Mozaffar Sarrafi, Zohreh Fanni Pages 57-76
    The concepts of land and land use planning and its objectives have changed over time. These changes include: Changes in the socioeconomic concept, the evolution of the concept of land, physical and new priorities in land use per capita. In addition, seeking to promote the environmental movement in the 1980s led to the global popularity of the concept of sustainable development, qualitative changes in approaches and methods of planning and urban design. Since then, urbanization goals have changed from physical and functional issues towards the sustainable urban development. In fact, equitable access to land is one of the components of sustainable development. The true role of land and its importance in sustainable development is properly understood when its prerequisites are taken into consideration. One of the most important of these prerequisites can be pointed to good land governance. Alongside this revival of land issues in development policy discourse, is the emergence of a distinct pole in governance discourse, namely, ‘land governance’. The term and notion of ‘land governance’ has gained currency within the mainstream agencies in recent years, and generally means the most efficient way of administration of land issues, such as cadastres, land titling, and so on.
    Land governance encompasses a range of issues and subjects that the laws and policies of urban land is one of those cases. So, the urban land laws and policies from the perspective of good governance approach Provides good understanding of the policies and rules and patterns of urban land issues.
    Materials and Methods
    The main method of this study was a descriptive-analytical approach that has been carried out using a literature review in library data. This research is both fundamental and practical. The main goal of this study is to determine the characteristics and consequences of good and poor governance and the interpretation of laws and policies from the perspective of good land governance model and determining the obstacles to fulfill the requirements of good land governance in Tehran Metropolis.
    Results and Discussion
    In the Third Development Plan (1962-1967), the master plan for Tehran Metropolis was prepared. Such plans led to long-term government intervention in the land market. It should be noted that the criterion of 300 meters for land separation in the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was far beyond the average residential land area in the status quo (about 100 meters) and was beyond the capacity of low-income groups.This pattern was repeated in subsequent programs and led to projections of lower income groups to the suburban areas. Whereas good land governance requires knowledge and beyond citizen participation and interest groups in the preparation and implementation of development programs and urban land policies, effectiveness and efficiency is one of the most important criteria for good land governance that must be based on accurate and perfect laws and regulations. In Tehran Metropolis, the lack of adequate and affordable housing, especially for low-income groups led to poor governance of land and housing. Also, given that decision-making process is centralized, the local land management has not been achieved.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that, zoning laws, land separation regulations, and housing planning flaws led to speculation of land and housing in Tehran metropolis and ignored low-income groups in urban plans and increased urban sprawl and expansion of the unregulated constructions as a result of poor land governance. Also, it is necessary to mention that the land acquisition and construction by various institutions without permission, the institutional irregularities, centralized decision-making process and the lack of formation of local land management, lack of transparency and unclear land property situation within and outside the cities, all of which are in contradiction with the principles of good land governance. Good land governance is based on transparency of ownership, land tenure security and transparency and so on. This is a very basic issue that also continues. Therefore, the need to revise the governance structure along with subsidiarity and providing the context of popular participation, and institutions such as councils by state are the essential issues. In the end, it must be emphasized that the realization of local land management also depends on good land governance.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Land Governance, Land Policy, Tehran
  • Seyyed Vahid Razavi Termeh, Mohammad Reza Malek * Pages 77-90
    Introduction
    Over time, spatial data has evolved from paper maps to Web GIS through digital mapping and finally to the current generation of GIS. Although this new interface has enhanced user’s insights about spatial information, it still needs more tangible interface that can be usable to the public and enhance human interactions with the environment and spatial objects. Combining real and virtual worlds, Augmented Reality (AR) systems can make more tangible experience with real world objects. These activities relies on the dynamic working environments. Therefore it is important to consider the users environment and its changing through context-awareness. Context-awareness is any kind of information about user’s status and its estimation allows to integrate the context with the happening changes. AR is a combination of real vision with virtual content in real–time and acts as an interface to increase user insight of the real world and interaction with it. With increasing information in the AR, the usefulness and readability of information decreases and the details and their display should also be subject to certain conditions. To overcome this problem, we offer the combination of AR with context-awareness. Hence, in this study, The AR representation varies according to the user’s context. The increasing use of sensors, their hardware and software enhancements, and growth and development of communication networks have led to development of context-aware computing. Context-aware computing is rooted in processing anywhere and anytime, and aims at understanding environmental changes in computer systems so that computers can understand and respond to their environment. The small screen, low bandwidth, interaction problems, and user’s quick need to obtain response from service have driven services to provide information based on users and their environments. Nowadays, in most location planning applications, they try to use directional data besides location data. By using this information, better interaction and information are provided to user. The activities performed depend on user’s dynamic work environment, so by using context-aware knowledge, the environment and user environment changes receive more attention. The output of old programs was based on specific input and did not consider context change.
    Materials and Methods
    By increasing the amount of realistic information, simultaneous provision of all information will not only reduce the usefulness and readability of information, but also details and their presentation. In order to overcome the problem, we have used a context-aware augmented reality that displays the necessary information according to actual increase in user’s context. Specially in the domain of spatial services, given the massive amount of the available information and simultaneous provision of data in real-time due to small display of associated equipment make visual distraction for user, so by using context-awareness, useful and proper information can be provided to the user. Having the vulnerability maps, specifically about buildings in the region of interest is a necessary requirement for any rescue and relief teams after earthquake. Due to the lack of immediate access to earthquake vulnerability maps, it is necessary to provide an intelligible context information system for displaying vulnerabilities of building with the help of augmented reality. In general, any type of navigation issue, information about building vulnerabilities to select safe paths or temporary accommodation is required. In order to implement such information system, three contexts, i.e. distance, direction and time for presenting information in augmented reality was studied. To this purpose, after zoning vulnerability caused by earthquake in Tehran, Donyaye-Noor business complex was used as the case study and information system was considered with three contexts for given site. In order to evaluate the presented system, our context-aware augmented reality system was compared with an augmented reality system alone.
    Results and Discussion
    Results of evaluation show that combination of augmented reality and context-aware can reveal suitable information by considering the user context, while data presentation in augmented reality is monotonic and there is no dynamism in changing information display. The results of evaluating combined augmented reality system with context-awareness compared with augmented reality alone show that context-aware augmented reality system is more active and always reveals more adopted information to the user regarding environmental dynamics. While information is uniform and does not change in augmented reality.
    Conclusion
    Using the context-aware spatial information system, the user can take different decisions under different circumstances or gain extra information about other context such as time, velocity, acceleration. To better understanding augmented reality, certain graphical forms can be used. Displaying vulnerability by augmented reality can be a tool for ordinary users or specialists in the field of urban design and management, without the need for mapping and map reading knowledge in managing important centers and building in low-risk areas. The results of integrated system evaluation from various users indicate the system’s performance is superior to augmented reality system alone.
    Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR), Context-aware, Context-aware System, Sensor, Vulnerability Mapping
  • Mohammad Mardani Shahrbabak * Pages 91-102
    Introduction
    Recognizing the performance and ability of advanced remote sensing technologies is one of the essential necessities to hide subsurface structures and facilities. One of these detection technologies that has used in Ionospheric Powerful Electromagnetic Heater Systems, is HAARP. This system uses electromagnetic fields signals in the frequency range 3 to 10 MHz. HAARP emits waves into one of the layers of the ionosphere and then warm the desired area. This leads to emit very low frequency waves in the range of VLF and ELF. The main objective of this research is to analyze the exploratory capabilities of the HAARP system remote sensing in detecting subsurface targets. In the case of the accuracy of remote sensing capabilities and the ability to identify subsurface targets by HAARP, it can be concluded that this system is a very serious threat to identifying major subsurface targets in the country and poses a serious challenge to inactive passive actions. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out strategic, operational and tactical planning to deal with this serious threat. However, in case of inaccuracy of this capability, it will resolve the uncertainties and anxieties of the minds of the commanders and officials of the country, especially in the field of passive defense of the country.The only research published in the country by the men of Mardani and Razavi Nejad (Mardani et al., 2011), published as a two-volume book, address the issue of the ability of the HAARP to make climate change. But in the area of detecting subsurface targets, no published scientific research has ever been presented.
    Materials And Methods
    This research utilizes a combination of multiple data analysis based on analyzing the data collected from scientific and theoretical sources, official and authoritative reports the results of experiments performed and finally the main research question has been answered by taking the viewpoints of experts and scholars of research statistical population. The type of research is applicable and the research method is descriptive-analytical and case-based. In this research, the required information is obtained through the search of Internet resources, authoritative scientific documents, books, internal and external publications, dissertations and researches carried out on the topic, opinions of experts based on interview and used to the Delphi scientific method in the field.The statistical population of this research includes scholars, academic experts and research centers in the fields of remote sensing, Ionospheric Powerful Electromagnetic Heater Systems and high-power radars in the country. The sample population of the study was 32 experts who were purposefully selected from the statistical population of the study.
    Results and Discussion
    The main objective of this research is to analyze the capability of remote sensing of high-power electromagnetic heat sink systems (HAARP) in identifying subsurface targets. The HAARP system uses electromagnetic fields with signals in the frequency range of 3 to 10 MHz, and can operate in the same way as the frequency domain electromagnetic geophysics. The Harp system, as an ionospheric heater, modifies the ionospheric heating using polar electrodes of the desired frequency waves and uses it as a source of waves for remote sensing and identifying subsurface targets.
    The results of this research show that the electromagnetic ionospheric heater power systems have remote sensing capabilities and can recognize subsurface targets. Accordingly, in this research, some solutions for passive defense against Remote sensing threats of HAARP system is provided. In general, HAARP provides the capability of a remote sensing system and subsurface radiography globally, and is a good option for underground exploration with the CSAMT approach. In this research, using the combined method of analyzing multiple data based on the description and analysis of data collected from scientific and theoretical sources, official and authoritative reports, examining the results of empirical experiments, and finally obtaining expert opinions and owner the statistical community of the field survey has responded to the main question of the research.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that high-power electromagnetic immune systems (HAARP), has remote sensing and the ability to identify subsurface targets. Accordingly, these systems are considered to be a serious threat to identify sub-targets, and therefore, in-depth research has suggested inaccessible defense strategies against this threat .Also, the results of the research showed that if the equipment is buried in a high conductivity ground, they cannot be detected by the HAARP VLF waveforms. If the waves of the HAARP system are of the type of ELF waves used in the CSAMT method, it can be used to prevent detection in addition to conductive ground, to deploy structures at depths of more than 150 meters.
    Keywords: High-Power Electromagnetic Waves, HAARP, Remote Sensing, Subsurface Targets, Ionosphere
  • Sajad Ferdowsi *, Hamid Reza Shahmohammadi, Mahboobeh Jalali Pages 103-115
    Introduction
    In recent years, the economic benefits of tourism has attracted attention of many countries that have maritime border. In this regard, Caspian Sea which located in the northern part of Iran, has special potential in the field of tourism and it can be seen a bright future in the field of tourism just with a holistic approach in this field. Meanwhile, climate is the most important factor in tourism development. General Specifications of Destination Weather and daily, monthly and seasonal changes, temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation, wind and other elements of the climate are important information for tourism destinations so that the applicant can plan in terms of travel time, type of clothing and equipment required. Tourism climatology includes a variety of topics about two applied issues of climate and tourism which is linked to the principles of atmospheric science, and in particular the study of climate on the one hand, and tourism, recreation and leisure on the other. In general, the present study seeks to answer the following question: What are the most appropriate timeframe for the development of tourism on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea?
    Materials and Methods
    In this research, the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, including three provinces of Golestan, Mazandaran and Gilan, as areas adjacent to the sea, have been studied and analyzed. Accordingly, 15 cities of Mazandaran province, 4 cities of Golestan province and 9 cities of Gilan province are located on the southern margin of the Caspian Sea that they are analyzed in terms of tourism climate index. The present study has been done on the method of descriptive- analytical and with aims of identifying the most desirable periods of climatic conditions for the development of tourism. The required data is obtained by method of library through documents, journals and books. In this regard, the required climatic parameters were collected from 2010 to 2014 in a 5-year period. In order to determination the appropriate timeframe for tourism development has been used from the method of TCI (Tourism Climate Indicator).
    Results and Discussion
    Based on the collected data, the TCI was calculated for each of cities along the Caspian Sea with a description of its descriptive class in different months of the year. The analysis of TCI indicate that respectively June and July are the most desirable time in terms of climate for the presence of tourists on the coast and the Caspian Sea. So that of the 28 neighboring cities of the Caspian Sea in June, there are 6 cities with very good climatic conditions, 6 cities with good climatic conditions, 12 cities with acceptable climatic conditions and 4 cities with low favorable climate conditions. Also In July, there are 6 points with very good conditions, 4 points with good conditions, 15 points with acceptable conditions and 3 points with low favorable climate conditions. In the meantime, in terms of the desirability of the climatic conditions, after June and July, the months of September, August, April, March, October, January, May, February, November and December are located.
    Conclusion
    In this research, the climatic conditions of the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, as one of the most important criteria for the development of tourism, were investigated. The results indicate that the southern margins of the Caspian Sea, each within a given time period, can provide favorable climatic conditions in order to attract tourists to these beaches. Somehow that in most of the months of the year you can see the favorable climate conditions for tourism in the area adjacent to the sea. The results of TCI indicate that over the years it can be seen areas with desirable climatic conditions in the Caspian Sea which it can be provided growth and development of tourism in this area with planning in appropriate time and place. Desirability of climatic conditions in the four months and coincided with the beginning of summer vacation, is a special opportunity to promote tourism and benefit from its significant economic advantages. In this regard the months of June, July, August and September is the most desirable periods for planning to presence of tourists and delivery of services to them. Also the months of April, March, October, January, May, February, November and December due to desirability climatic conditions are the next priority. Of course this does not mean that in these months, tourism remains silent, but the ratings is only Desirability of climate in different months. In fact, in almost all months of the year can be seen a favorable climate for the tourism in the area neighboring the sea.
    Keywords: Tourism, Climate, Caspian Sea, Iran, TCI
  • Saeed Ojaghi *, Safa Khazai Pages 117-127
    Extended Abstract
    Land use/cover (LULC) change detection is one of the most important applications in the remote sensing field, providing insights that inform management, policy, and science. In the recent decade, development of remote sensing systems and accessibility to high spatial resolution images has associated with the improvement of digital image processing. The advantage of high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery further supports opportunities to apply change detection with object-based image analysis, i.e. object-based change detection – OBCD.
    OBCD analysis in comparison with pixel-based techniques provides a more effective way, especially in high spatial resolution imagery to incorporate spatial, spectral, textural and geometry feature that can identify the LULC change in comparison with pixel-based technique. OBCD approach is classified into for categories: (i) image-object, (ii) class-object, (iii) multi- temporal object, and (iv) hybrid change detection. Different algorithms and features can be employed in the process of image classification for OBCD. Therefore, the choice of algorithm and optimization features are major challenges in OBCD. This paper has introduced an object- based change detection method based on the machine learning algorithm, which can overcome the traditional change detection method limitation and find the interested changed objects. In this paper, multi-temporal object approach is utilized and high spatial resolution imagery, GeoEye-1 and Quick Bird-1 satellite images were acquired during 2002 and 2015, covering a region of the Geshm Island which were used to detect the meaningful detailed change in the study area. As an essential preprocessing for change detection, multi-temporal image registration with the accuracy of less than one second of a pixel is applied. Also, radiometric correction is performed using histogram matching algorithm in ENVI Software. In the Next step, a number of texture features of images such as mean, variance, entropy, homogeneity, momentum and such are extracted from two images. To reduce the input features space, PCA algorithm is employed and the result of this process is used in the segmentation process. The two images are incorporated with PCA output and are used as inputs feature to segmentation. Segmentation is the first step in OBCD. It divides the image into larger numbers of small image objects by grouping pixels. The segmentation algorithm is a region-merging technique. It begins by considering each pixel as a separate object. Subsequently, adjacent pairs of image objects are merged to form bigger segments. The merging decision is based on local homogeneity criterion, describing the similarity between adjacent image objects. Correct image segmentation is a prerequisite to successful image classification. At the same time, this task requires explicit knowledge representation. Furthermore, optimal segmentation results are depended on not only the choice of segmentation algorithm or procedure, but are also often influenced by the choice of user-defined parameter combinations which are required inputs for many segmentation programs. The segmentation has been done using multi resolution segmentation algorithm which involves knowledge-free extraction of image objects. Multi-resolution segmentation begins with single pixel objects and employs a region-growing algorithm to merge pixels into larger objects; pixels are merged based on whether they meet user-defined homogeneity criteria. Each multi-resolution segmentation task must be parameterized by the user and involves settings of three parameters: Scale, Color-versus-Shape, and Compactness-versus-Smoothness. In this paper the process of segmentation is performed in four different levels using Ecognition software and finally, the level with better output with scale of 100 is selected to provide the change map. The scale values were determined through an iterative method. The color/shape was set to 0.6/0.4 and compactness/sharpness was set to 0.5/0.5 for the selected level. Color and shape weightage are inter-connected to each other. If color has a high value, which means it has a high influence on segmentation; Shape must have a low value with less influence. If both parameters are equal, then each will have roughly equal amount of influence on segmentation outcome. In addition, texture, spatial and geometrical features from the segmented image are extracted. Feature space Optimization (FSO) tool available in Ecognition software have been used to calculate optimum feature combination based on class samples in four classes including: ”barren to road”, ”barren to building”, barren to vegetation” and “barren with no change. It evaluates the Euclidean distance in feature space between the samples of all classes and selects a feature combination resulting in best class separation distance. In this study, the performance of the proposed RF-based OBCD method is compared with the conventional methods such as support vector machine (SVM) and KNN. The commonly used accuracy assessment elements include overall accuracy, producer’s accuracy, user’s accuracy and the Kappa coefficient. The overall accuracy of the change map produced by the RF method was 86.57%, with Kappa statistic of 0.79, whereas the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of that by the SVM and NN methods were 83.76%, 0.75 and 75%, 0.63, respectively. Experimental results show that overall accuracy and kappa coefficient obtained from the proposed RF-based OBCD method improve 3% and 18%, 2% and 10% respectively compared with SVM and KNN improved. The results indicated that object base change detection method can be performed more accurately and reliably in the high-density region if it uses image with high spatial resolution. Also, selection of classification algorithm has very impressive effect on the providing change map.
    Keywords: Object Based Change Detection, Random Forest, Optimized Feature Space, PCA
  • Sharare Saidpour, Dyman Kashefidust Pages 129-144
    Introduction
    Cities as the physical and human assets aggregation centers, will toll a lot at crisis time. So attending to passive defense matter can considerably decrease the damages. Passive defense is one of those matters that have become attended during recent years at urban plans and schematizations. And one of the passive defense policies - in all countries generally and in Iran specially - is constructing urban shelters to protect citizens’ lives and decreasing human harms. Staying in shelters provides the ability of habitation and temporary people lives for one or two months and also provides preserving and modulating the activities, managing the environment, resistance and securing urban life.
    The city of Saqqez, as the center of Saqqez division at Kurdistan province, is subjected to present research which experiences many natural incidents as a mountainous city, of which, flood is the most important one. Generally further to geological status of this city, there exist several agents which increase the probability of crisis at Saqqez such as existence of loose earth, hillsides susceptible for sliding or stone staving, unobserving the construction rules and precepts, instability of the earth, lack of rebuilding of damaged zones, lack of suitable pathways, lack of fundamental studies and works for solving the inundation problem and repelling flood, missing the basic plans for encountering future tensions and hundreds of other problems which appear now in Saqqez city, so that if they continue and remain unsolved, they may lead to some hard knots and unsolvable problems and if such situations occurred, unless expending immense charges and hard trying of planners can’t improve the created situation. One of the most important tasks that appear after accident is temporary or semi-temporary habitation and consequently permanent habitation of survivors of accident.
    So present research have been codified with the main aim localization of urban shelters with passive defense approach and the minor aims specification and utilizing some criterions for selecting the best shelter for temporary habitation, helping the urban guardians and deciders in prioritizing latent locations and selecting the best location for making shelter.
    Materials and Methods
    This research is regarded among applied researches, and descriptive-analytical method is used for codifying it. Needed information is imitated through library, documents, fieldwork, statistical results and census tables. In this research based on available statics at detailed plan of Saqqez city and also a fieldwork at 2014, the ANP model at environment of Super Decision software has utilized for evaluating the criterions. Thereafter informative layers and proportionate maps with criterions was provided finally the combined map of criterions has been extracted which shows the best location for building shelter in this zone.
    Result &
    Discussion
    According to the performed studies, in order to answer the first question, the most effective criterions at localization of safe space of shelters: criterions of distance from clinic and infirmary centers, distance from fire stations, distance from open areas, distance from educational centers, distance from police stations and military centers, population accumulation, adaptability of urban land uses and accessing to communication network have been considered. In order to answer the second question, suitable locations for generating shelters at crisis times, are those points of city which have enough open areas and at the same time are compatible with surrounding land uses which have rather better potential for habitation of injured people. Those zones with incompatible and medley urban use and insufficient area have minimum possible ability for planning shelters. Thus central part has a high ability for habitation of injured people because of having proper open areas and also suitable accessibility.
    Conclusion
    Achieved results of this research show that by compilation of different layers of effective urban land uses, final map of optimized areas for generating urban shelters classified at five parcels from very good to very lean and 9 preferred locations have been considered which among them green areas, arid lands and schools have maximum scores for temporal habitation. Thus 3 parks in the city, 1 school and other open and arid lands have been preferred. According to performed analysis and results, designation of equipment and necessary services at selected locations for temporary habitation specially parks and gardens such as specifying heliport, toilets, water sources, etc. are obligatory then it is not necessary to spend time for providing them during any misadventure in order to not any tribulation retards the fast relief process.
    Constructing the wide open spaces such as parks, gardens, sport fields, etc. with at least 2000 square meter area inside the neighboring units simultaneously with performing other constructional works among these areas are useful and effective to fast evacuation of injured people to this areas and establishing the temporal houses.
    Informing and introducing safe places for people habitation is necessary and all governmental and private places, gardens, military places, stadiums and sport fields, bureaus and agencies, relief centers, etc. which have suitable spaces among the city or around it, by respecting protection and safety principles can use their spaces multipurpose and contribute in this matter.
    Keywords: Localization, Urban shelters, Passive Defense, ANP, Saqqez city
  • Mostafa Mohamadi Dehcheshme *, Hadi Alizadeh Pages 145-158
    Introduction
    Today, given the increasing trend of urbanization and the progressive growth of city and citizens’ risk-taking in relation to accidents and hazards, the necessity of addressing the security issue as one of the key determinants of a good city is felt more than ever, and this challenge has led theorists to find a definition of a healthy, safe and sustainable city. In its report on strengthening the urban safety and security in 2007, the United Nations has made human security and safety equivalent to supporting the vital needs of human, namely, freedom from undesirable conditions of life and bringing people closer to their aspirations and ambitions. This Interpretation of Human Security and Safety in the Copenhagen Declaration of 2005 was completed with the emphasis on efforts to eliminate hunger and malnutrition, creating food security, development and livelihoods, health services including safe drinking water, proper sanitation and shelter, and participation in social and cultural life. However, attempts to establish urban security on a global scale have generally confronted the offender rather than focusing on crime and the causes of security threats in urban areas. It can be argued that there is a certain amount of violence in every given city, but violence at the city level has not been randomly distributed and for a better attitude towards security topic, the factors creating insecurity in urban spaces should be sought and identified. Considering the mentioned issues and the necessity to pay attention to the security in urban spaces, in the present study, the city of Urmia has been evaluated as the basis of the study. Over the last few decades, the city as the capital of the province of West Azerbaijan, with the acceptance of various Kurdish ethnicities, Assyrian and Armenian Christians to live in the city and increasing the marginalization in the north, northwestern, and southern regions of the city, has become an appropriate context for creating insecure and anomalous spaces due to increasing ethnic and ideological prejudices among Azeri and other ethnic groups, and conflicts and increasing crime rates in the city. Ethnic bias, the lack of balanced distribution of resources and facilities at the city level, ideological bias among ethnicities, the lack of sustainable physical infrastructure in marginalized areas with ethnic diversity that has led to insecurity and dissatisfaction among residents and finally, distrust of citizens and ethnicities to influential institutions and urban policymakers in collaborative discussions on ideological issues has caused insecurity and dissatisfaction among citizens and reduced security in the cities and districts mentioned, for example, the formation of insecure urban areas such as Zurabad and Muftabad indicate the anomalous and unsafe situations in these areas in Urmia. The issue of the security crisis and the increase of social anomalies and ethnicity along with the issue of marginalization have made this challenge in the city to be considered as one of the challenges of urban management in terms of security and social issues. Considering the above mentioned issue, in the process of achieving urban security in Urmia, the issue of security realization has been evaluated through studying the components of structuralist approach in urban security of Urmia in this study.
    Material
    Method
    The present study was conducted with the applied targeting and “descriptive-analytical” method to analyze the security situation in urban spaces of Urmia city with regard to the structuralist approach in urban security. In order to achieve the set goals, to collect the descriptive part of the research, library studies and documents on the topic of research were used, and for the analytical part of the research, a survey method and a questionnaire were used to analyze the security of Urmia urban spaces in three fundamental, dynamic and safety dimensions from the citizens’ points of view. To analyze the research data, considering the components of the structuralist approach in the form of SPSS software, Pearson statistical correlation test was used to assess the internal relation of the security components in Urmia, T test was used to assess the priority of the security components in Urmia and the Diagnostic analysis model was used used to predict the implementation process of security in Urmia city.
    Results and Discussion
    The obtained results are the outcome of proper internal correlation among the components of security assessment in Urmia urban spaces. These results show that, firstly, the internal correlation of the components, in terms of the sample population, is meaningful at the level of 0.99. The final analysis of the priority of urban security components from a structural viewpoint in Urmia shows that the fundamental component with the difference between the lower mean and the two other components with the level of 0.0858 and the lower T, have a more inappropriate situation than the other two components in the city of Urmia from the citizen’s points of view. On the other hand, the final statistics of the diagnostic analysis shows that in order to predict the security in Urmia urban spaces, the safety component in continuation of confirming the preliminary results of the diagnostic analysis with a general prediction level of 0.522, has a stronger prediction for security in Urmia urban spaces. The results obtained in predicting urban security in Urmia show that, these conditions, in the present status, with the more obvious conditions, can be very important in the quantity and quality of security and its realization or non-realization in Urmia. These results show that considering the basic and fundamental factors in urban security issue in urban spaces of Urmia from the citizens’ viewpoints can be very helpful in establishing safe urban spaces in this city.
    Conclusion
    The structuralist approach to security, with regard to its theorizing process, addresses the assessment of the security category based on the conditions of developing countries. Its constituent parts also show root problems and challenges that can lead to insecurity in urban spaces in these countries. With this background, the components of this approach were evaluated in Urmia. In fact, in order to assess the state and accuracy of the definition of security in urban spaces of Urmia, the internal connection of selected components from the structuralist point of view was first measured. This assessment was aimed at demonstrating whether or not the components and indicators selected for the purpose of explaining the urban security category in Urumia had a coherence and intrinsic connectivity to illustrate this explanation. Secondly, the reason for assessing the priority of safety components from the point of view of structuralist approach in Urmia was to address planning to improve the level of security in urban spaces in Urmia by recognizing the importance of the components due to their weaknesses and strengths. Finally, our goal was to respond to this question that, which one of the selected components could better fulfill the security process in the urban environment of Urumia in accordance with the existing conditions.
    Keywords: Urban Security, Fundamental Component, Structuralist Approach, Urmia City
  • Hossein Hataminejad, Yaghob Abdali *, Sara Allah Gholipour Pages 159-172
    Today, following the rapid changes in cities, part of urban texture has failed to establish a proper connection with its environment and servicing to the users due to deterioration and inefficiencies. The existence of a widespread worn texture is one of the most important challenges facing urban managers, urban planners and architects, because the lack of attention to these structures causes the decline of city and its heterogeneous development and the creation of new towns on the edge of the old city. Due to the fact that a significant part of the problems of Ahwaz city has appeared in district 1 of the city, it was considered as the study area, and the central part was studied due to the excessive wear of the texture and the severe deterioration process. The present research is an applied-developmental research in terms of objectives, and a descriptive-analytical one in terms of methodology based on library studies and field investigations. In order to achieve the research goals, the building Structure Indexes, material, number of floors and building age were extracted. Regression tools were used to explore pattern trends, and spatial autocorrelation method existing in Geoda software was used to weigh the layers in spatial data. To examine the vulnerability of worn out texture by using Anselin local Morans method, the cluster & outlier analysis tool from the tool set available in Spatial Statistics Tools relating to the ArcGIS Software was used. The results of this study indicate that 45.83 percent of the surface area is in the range of medium to high vulnerability, suggesting that a large part of the worn out texture in the central area of Ahwaz is somehow in need of passive defense planning.
    Keywords: Vulnerability, Structure, Regression, Worn Texture, Anselin Local Morans, Passive Defense, Ahvaz
  • Hatem Parnian *, Karamatollah Ziyari, Mohammad Mirehie, Mahdi Modiri Pages 173-184
    Abstract [1]
    Land preparation of border regions, optimal exploitation of all human and spatial facilities of these areas in order to improve the material and spiritual condition of the society, Following the explanation of the theoretical foundations of the desirable organization of the sustainable spatial of man, land and human activities in the border regions, are within the framework of the land preparation plan and the realization of development And national security, considering the characteristics of these areas. Indeed, it can be said that planning for the development of deprived and backward regions, especially the border areas, has become a necessity due to their position in the development and security in many countries, including Iran. This research is a descriptive-analytical research in terms of methodology and an applied-developmental one in terms of objectives. Data gathering method is in the form of library and field information, and the tools of interview and questionnaire have been used. The statistical population of this study includes experts in the field of border studies, of which 30 have been selected using purposeful sampling. Then, the analysis of the border inferential concept has been studied from the different points of view and inequalities have been identified by studying the situation of the development of regions. The location of the studied area in border exchanges has also been examined by presenting existing statistics. Then, using the SWOT analytical model, other capabilities and environmental problems of the studied area were investigated using a preparatory approach for development planning. The results indicate that the border regions are in a deprived condition in terms of enjoyment and the capacities of these regions have not been exploited properly too. An appropriate strategic plan can be taken to achieve the development of these regions.
    Keywords: Strategy, Development, Border Regions, land Preparation, Urmia - Salmas
  • Zohreh Maryanaji *, Sayyed Akbar Hosseini, Hamed Abbasi Pages 186-196
    Introduction
    Growing demands for energy, increasing living standards and increasing use of electrical energy along with the overheating of planet Earth, as well as environmental problems and threats to human health are among the issues that attract the world’s attention to the use of renewable energies. So, new energy resources, including wind energy, account for one third of the energy needed for countries in the annual planning. Since Hamadan is one of the provinces in Iran with severe winds with relatively good continuity, the use of this energy in wind turbines is indispensable for generating electricity at the provincial level, especially in impassable areas. Today, many dangers, including the threat of climate, change the Earth’s environment. This controls the methods that can reduce the use of renewable energies such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Strong and frequent winds are very important energy sources for many parts of the country. In this study, the average and maximum wind speed yearly energy (annually and seasonally) and its energy based on the data from nine synoptic stations in Hamadan province in the climate period of 2000-2014 have been analyzed and spatial velocity of wind speed and its energy in this region were studied.
    Materials and Methods
    : The length of the statistical period in the present study was 10 years. After checking the accuracy of the data, the mean and maximum of the seasonal and annual wind speed were calculated and drawn. Then wind energy was calculated using wind power density (watts per square meter), air density (g / cm3), wind speed (m/s). To investigate the spatial distribution of wind energy potential in Hamadan province based on the obtained information, the values were zoned using Kriging method in GIS. Finally, the probability of occurrence and the prediction of the return period of wind were calculated using the Log Pearson type 3 method.
    Results and Discussion
    According to the zoning plan, the maximum annual wind speed in the Hamadan is related to the southern parts of the province. Some parts of the province in Kabudrahang are accompanied by intense storms. In winter, maximum wind speed is determined by the instability of air and weather in areas of Hamadan province.
    The Average annual wind speed zoning pattern indicates that the east parts of Hamadan and some parts of Malayer and Razan have the highest average wind speed (above 3 meters per second), while in other parts of the province it is less than 3 meters per second. The Eastern part of Hamadan province (from the South east to the North east), are the windiest region of the province, and in most of the times of a year these parts have the potential of wind power production. Some regions of the Southwest are also capable of producing wind power during the year.
    Conclusion
    The role of topography on wind speed in Hamadan province is noteworthy. The mountainous regions of the province such as Hamadan, Nahavand and Asadabad are more exposed to the winds of the plains - mountains. Hot wind is also one of the meteorological phenomena due to the mountain effects, which is often found in the city of Hamadan.
    The East and parts of the city of Malayer, and especially in the Northern areas of the province with the highest average wind speed (above three meters per second) and the West and Southwest shown with minimum wind speed during the period specified. Most of the year, the most windy areas, Eastern and Northern regions of the province, have the ability to produce electricity from wind energy. Kabodarahang plain areas of the city of Razan have the highest wind energy potential in watts per square meter and the greatest potential for energy production from wind in Hamadan is in spring and autumn.
    In the studied area, Nojeh station (North of the province) with more than 18%, and then Malayer station (Southeast of the province) with more than 17%, have the priority for establishing wind turbines due to wind speed persistence. By studying the occurrence of wind speed in the meteorological stations of Hamadan province, some areas of the Razan plain and Kabudrahang are suitable for planning wind power usage.
    Keywords: GIS, Return Period, Wind Energy Potential, Topography, Hamedan Province
  • Kamal Omidvar, Reza Ebrahimi *, Ahmad Mazidi, Teymur Alizadeh Pages 197-209
    Abstract[1]
    Increasing demand for energy against the reduction of comprehensive energy resources along with the consequences of global warming, make the importance of a quantitative review of changes in the need for cooling, heating of the country in the past and in the future decades essential. First, the overall atmospheric circulation data was extracted from the EH5OM database. These data were under the A1B scenario of the International Climate Change Board and were downscaled with regional climate model data of average daily temperature of 0.27 x 0.27 degree, which covers approximately 30 x30 kilometer dimensions of Iran in the time interval of (2015-2050). The average daily temperature data of the past period were extracted from the ISFZARI databases during the statistical period of (1970-1970) on cells measuring 15 x 15 km. throughout the country. The temperature threshold of 11 degrees was used to calculate the heating degree day and the threshold of 18.3 to calculate the cooling degree day. The monthly average of these parameters was obtained on a matrix of 12 × 2140 (future) and 7187 * 12 (past), in which the rows represent the time (month of the year) and the columns represent the locations of the cells. Then the monthly average map of both periods was drawn and interpreted. The results indicate that the cooling of the air in the coming decades compared to the previous period in January and December in most parts of the country except for the coastal areas and the hinterlands, and the warming of the air in most parts of the country in the warm months of the year (June, July, August) will have significant effects on the amount of energy used for heating and cooling.
    Keywords: EH5OM Model, Downscaling, RegCM4 Model, Iran
  • Leila Eshrati *, Amir Mahmoodzadeh, Masoud Taghvaei Pages 211-222
    Many built-up areas are threatened by multiple hazards which pose significant threats to humans, buildings and infrastructure. However, the analysis of the physical vulnerability towards multiple hazards is a field that still receives little attention, although vulnerability analysis and assessment can contribute significantly to risk reduction efforts. In this paper, an indicator-based vulnerability approach, the PTVA (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment), was further developed to be applicable in a multi-hazard context. The resulting multi-hazard version of the PTVA consists of four steps: the identification of the study area and relevant hazards as well as the acquisition of hazard information, the determination of vulnerability indicators and collection of data, the weighting of factors and vulnerability assessment, and finally, the consideration of hazard vulnerability. After the introduction of the newly developed methodology, a pilot application is carried out in a part of Shiraz municipality located in the Iran. In this case study the vulnerability of buildings and humans is assessed. The implementation of the methodology leads to reasonable results indicating the vulnerable buildings and supporting the priority setting of different end-users according to their objectives. The constraints of the presented methodology are: a) the fact that the method is not hazard-intensity specific, thus, vulnerability is measured in a rather qualitative and relative way, b) the high amount of data required for its performance, and c) Indicator-based vulnerability approaches are flexible and can be adjusted to the different hazards as well as to specific user needs.
    Introduction
    Multi hazard pose a serious threat to human life. It can cause considerable damages. The evaluation of the expected losses due to multi hazard requires a risk assessment. Multi-hazard risk assessment allows the identification of the most endangered areas and suggests where further detailed studies have to be carried out.
    Aim: This study aims to give a new methodology for Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment that makes the comparability analysis of vulnerability easier for different hazards and accounts for possible triggering (domino) effects.
    Methodology
    Methods used in this paper are based on theoretical approach and documentation. Two types of hazards will be assessed, namely earthquake and fire following earthquake.
    Statistical Analysis: Semi-quantitative and quantitative approach would assess risk rates at both regional and local levels.
    Results And Discussion
    In this study, representation of a new methodology for multi hazards risk assessment includes determination of a model with parameters, consideration of the indicator-based pattern of vulnerability assessment that selected all of the relevant indicators and presented new classification of indicators based on comparison to different hazards and possible triggering (domino) effects. This means that a potential multi-hazard indicator could be higher than the simple aggregation of single risk indicators calculation.
    Conclusion
    The focus is on establishing a general overview of the emerging issues, and indicating how hazard relations can be considered in multi-hazard studies. The hazard relations are identified and studied by means of a new method and the overlay of hazard areas to determine overlaps in final multi hazards map.
    Keywords: Indicator-Based Model (PTVA), Vulnerability Assessment, Fire Following Earthquake, Shiraz Municipality