فهرست مطالب

مسکن و محیط روستا - پیاپی 160 (زمستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 160 (زمستان 1396)
  • 164 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 80,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • آزاده لک، افتخار عزیزخانی صفحات 3-18
    افزایش جمعیت همواره نیاز رشد کالبدی و ساخت و سازهای جدید را در برهه زمانی در سکونتگاه های انسانی به وجود آورده است. رشد کالبدی معاصر بسیار شتاب زده و براساس طرح های توسعه شهری الهام گرفته از شهرسازی غربی صورت گرفته اند که رنگ و بوی متفاوت از زمینه اصیل دارند لذا در بهسازی این بافت ها، عملا همپیوندی اجزای کالبدی نوظهور با بافت های قدیمی به چالشی جدی در علوم طراحی به ویژه طراحی شهری تبدیل شده اند. روستای قهی به عنوان یکی از روستاهای تاریخی با قدمتی چند صدساله و با بافت ارگانیک نیز همچون بسیاری از سکونتگاه های انسانی در معرض گسترش کالبدی روستا تحت تاثیر طرح های توسعه در سال های اخیر به شکل بافت های شطرنجی معاصر و در تعارض با نظام کالبدی ارگانیک روستا قرارگرفته است و عملا از نظر کالبدی همپیوندی میان بافت قدیم و جدید روستا و هویت تاریخی آن از بین رفته است.
    این مقاله درصدد است با توجه به ماهیت تاریخی این سکونتگاه مدلی از عوامل تاثیرگذار بر تجربه انسجام و همپیوندی کالبدی ساکنان را میان بافت قدیم و بافت جدید در سکونتگاه انسانی تدوین نماید. این مطالعه به صورت کیفی و به روش تحلیل محتوا صورت گرفته است. گردآوری داده ها از طریق مشاهده میدانی ناظر تعلیم دیده به صورت مستقیم و انجام تکنیک های فضایی توده و فضا، مکان و ارتباط و در نهایت تحلیل برداشت ها صورت گرفته است. همچنین تجربه ساکنان با انجام 10 مصاحبه با ساکنان اصیل روستا در هر دو بافت قدیم و جدید جمع آوری شده است. فرایند جمع آوری داده تا اشباع نظری ادامه یافته و به روش تحلیل محتوا، تحلیل شده اند.
    تحلیل محتوای داده های مطالعه نشان می دهد که تجربه ساکنان برای ارتباط عناصر و انسجام کالبدی بافت قدیم و جدید سکونتگاه انسانی از طریق عواملی مانند تشخیص مرز اتصال، ارتباط پذیری، تداوم نقاط لنگرگاهی، معاصر سازی، تعلق مکانی، تداوم هویت مکانی و کیفیت زندگی درک شده است. به کارگیری این عوامل چه در سطح مداخلات کالبدی و چه در افزایش تعاملات اجتماعی ساکنان می تواند به ویژگی های اصلی در جهت همپیوندی بافت های درحال رشد کالبدی به خلق مکان های با هویت و منسجم با کالبد پیشین در فرایند برنامه ریزی و طراحی کمک کند.
    کلیدواژگان: انسجام کالبدی، نظریه نقش - زمینه، نظریه اتصال، نظریه مکان، روستای قهی
  • فرزین حق پرست *، مازیار آصفی، آقای سید مهدی میرهاشمی صفحات 19-34
    بدون استفاده از ابزارهای ارزیابی محیطی، وضع استاندارد و پایش محیطی امکان پذیر نیست و نمی توان پیامدهای فعالیت انسان را پیش بینی نمود. به همین دلیل امروزه رهیافت های ارزیابی محیطی نقش مهمی در طراحی و برنامه ریزی پروژه های بزرگ بازی می کنند. از میان این رهیافت ها، رهیافت جای پای بوم شناختی در حوزه های مختلف از جمله صنعت ساختمان مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. جای پای بوم شناختی تکمیل کننده روش هایی مانند چرخه حیات مواد و همین طور جای پای کربن است. این رهیافت می تواند نتایج چنین روش هایی را به شکل ملموس تر یعنی به صورت میزان زمین مولدی که در اختیار جوامع است، بیان کند.
    جای پای بوم شناختی در این مقاله به عنوان ابزاری برای محاسبه اثرات زیست محیطی دو گونه ساختمان مسکونی (نمونه اول با اسکلت فلزی و نمونه دوم با پوشش طاق آجری) مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. این دو گونه ساختمان، نماینده دو شیوه رایج ساخت در یکی از شهرهای متوسط کشور می باشند. هدف از این مقایسه بررسی ویژگی های موثر بر پیامدهای زیست محیطی مرحله ساخت و بهره برداری از ساختمان ها است. هدف ثانویه این تحقیق متراکم سازی شیوه محاسبات در روش جای پای بوم شناختی است به نحوی که ضمن حفظ دقت محاسبات تا حد امکان از اطلاعات داخلی که بر شیوه های ساختمانی موجود منطبق است استفاده شود. در پایان پس از بررسی مبانی نظری شیوه جای پای بوم شناختی، اثرات محیطی این دو نمونه محاسبه شده است.
    نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد کل اثرات زیست محیطی نمونه اسکلت فلزی به میزان اندکی بیشتر از نمونه آجری می باشد اما اثرات زیست محیطی به ازای زیربنای ساختمان ها نشان از برتری قطعی نمونه اسکلت فلزی دارد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد برای استفاده از روش های بومی و سنتی باید با احتیاط اقدام نمود و زمینه ای را که یک ساختمان در آن شکل می گیرد در نظر گرفت، شرایطی که در صورت عدم تحقق آن، شیوه های سنتی چندان پر بازده نخواهند بود. همچنین نتایج این بررسی تا حدودی از افزایش تراکم سکونتگاه ها حمایت می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی اثرات محیطی، جای پای بوم شناختی، انرژی انباشته، شیوه ساختمان سازی، مسکن
  • بهروز محمدی یگانه *، مهدی چراغی، محمد کاظم جمشیدی، مائده امامی صفحات 35-44
    مسکن به عنوان عمده ترین و مهم ترین جزء بافت کالبدی روستا است که درگذر زمان و هماهنگ با دگرگونی های اجتماعی، اقتصادی و گسترش امکانات و فناوری های نوین اطلاعاتی با تحول کارکرد همراه بوده است. در حال حاضر تحولات و دگرگونی های کالبدی در روستاها با فرهنگ و اقتصاد روستایی هماهنگ نبوده و موجب ایجاد ناسازگاری های اقتصادی-اجتماعی و تغییر در کارکرد این فضاهای زیستی و به ویژه مسکن روستایی شده است. یکی از عوامل موثر در تحولات کارکرد مسکن روستایی شاخص های اقتصادی است. بر این اساس تحقیق حاضر به بررسی شاخص های اقتصادی موثر در تحولات کارکرد مسکن روستایی در دهستان غنی بیگلو شهرستان زنجان و در ابعاد معیشتی، تدارکاتی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زنان پرداخته است. به این جهت سوالات تحقیق این است که وضعیت کارکردهای مسکن در محدوده مطالعه چگونه است؟ و کدام شاخص های اقتصادی در تحولات کارکرد مسکن روستایی تاثیرگذار بوده اند؟ تحقیق حاضر از نظر نوع کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات شامل روش های کتابخانه ای و میدانی (پرسشنامه و مصاحبه) است. جامعه آماری تحقیق حاضر شامل خانوارهای روستاهای دهستان غنی بیگلو، بخش زنجان رود پایین، استان زنجان است. این دهستان طبق سرشماری سال 1390 دارای 31 روستای دارای سکنه، 2358 خانوار و 8413 جمعیت است. بر اساس فرمول کوکران از 2358 خانوار، تعداد 330 خانوار به عنوان حجم نمونه جهت تکمیل پرسشنامه انتخاب شدند. جهت بررسی کارکردهای مسکن روستایی از 43 شاخص در 5 بعد معیشتی، تدارکاتی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زنان و برای بررسی شاخص های اقتصادی موثر در مسکن روستایی از 14 شاخص و به صورت طیف لیکرت استفاده شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی انجام شده است. نتایج توصیفی تحقیق نشان می دهد بالاترین میانگین کارکرد مسکن مربوط به کارکرد زنان با میانگین 2.62 و کمترین میانگین مربوط به شاخص تدارکاتی مسکن با میانگین 1.46 است. همچنین نتایج استنباطی نشان می دهد شاخص های اقتصادی متراژ مسکن، وسیله نقلیه، تعداد دام، مالکیت باغ، سابقه دریافت اعتبارات، نوع شغل و درآمد و درصد درآمد به دست آمده از بخش غیر کشاورزی در تحولات کارکرد مسکن روستایی دارای رابطه معنادار و موثر است. بنابراین روند کنونی تحولات کارکردی مسکن روستایی کاهش تولیدات مرتبط با مسکن در این نواحی را به همراه خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه روستایی، کارکرد مسکن، مسکن روستایی
  • حسن فریدون زاده *، مهسا تقی زاده هیر صفحات 45-58
    هدف از این پژوهش معرفی عوامل کلی تاثیر گذار در مکان گزینی و استقرار اولیه روستاها است. مکان گزینی اولیه یک روستا نقش مهم و اساسی در سکونت اهالی آن روستا دارد . اگر مکان گزینی به صورت اصولی صورت گیرد، شکل گیری روستا روندی صعودی داشته، بنابراین ساکنین از هر لحاظ دارای آسایش خواهند بود. در شکل گیری هسته اولیه یک روستا عوامل متعددی دخیل هستند. این عوامل باید به حدی تاثیر گذار باشند که انگیزه ایجاد سکونتگاه های جدید و توسعه و گسترش کالبد روستا را برای توسعه آن فراهم آورند.
    در راستای بررسی عوامل مکان گزینی با بررسی نمونه های موردی دو روستای کزج و کلور در شهرستان خلخال، با برخورداری از بافتی تاریخی-مذهبی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. بنابراین روستاهایی که در بافت خود اماکن مذهبی دارند و به واسطه آن شاخص تر گشته اند روستاهای با بافت مذهبی نامیده می شوند. حضور امام زاده در یک بافت روستایی، نقش بسزایی در شکل گیری سکونتگاه ها در اطراف آن خواهد داشت که ریشه در اعتقادات مذهبی آن مردم را نشان می دهد. لذا در این مقاله تلاش گردید به این سوالات پاسخ داده شود که عبارتند از : چه عواملی در مکان گزینی اولیه روستاهای با بافت تاریخی- مذهبی موثر بوده و وزن کدام عامل بیشتر است؟ نقش منظرین امامزاده ها در بافت روستاهای استان اردبیل چگونه است و در این راستا با بهره گیری از اطلاعات و منابع موجود در کتابخانه ها، مراجعه به روستاهای مورد بررسی، مصاحبه حضوری با اهالی، انجام کروکی های موثر و با استفاده از روش تحقیق تحلیلی- پیمایشی و شیوه قیاسی به ارائه عوامل تاثیر گذار در مکان گزینی و شکل گیری بافت این دو روستا می پردازد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی ها نشان می دهد که عواملی همچون وجود توپوگرافی(امنیت)، منابع آبی، وجود پتانسیل اقتصادی زمین به لحاظ خاک غنی و آب و هوای مناسب، نمادهای مذهبی(امام زاده)، تاثیر چشمگیری در مکان گزینی و شکل گیری هسته اولیه روستا دارند اما طبق یافته های تحقیق در روستاهای مورد مطالعه، عامل نمادهای مذهبی (امام زاده) با تدقیق بر سابقه حضور آن ها در این روستاها نسبت به دیگر عوامل بررسی شده از وزن بالایی برخوردار است که آن هم نشان از ریشه های اعتقادی و مذهبی ساکنین در این آبادی هاست. فاصله قرارگیری امام زاده ها در روستای کلور بافتی خطی را در خزش روستایی سبب شده است و تمرکز وجود امام زاده در مرکز روستای کزج بافتی متمرکز را برای این روستا شکل داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان گزینی، روستاهای کزج و کلور، بافت تاریخی، مذهبی، هنجار
  • امین محمدی استادکلایه *، محمد امین خراسانی، مهندس حمیده پهلوان زاده صفحات 59-70
    همه ساله مخاطرات طبیعی ، خسارت های گسترده ای را به ویژه در کشورهای رو به توسعه باعث می شوند و شواهد موجود نیز حکایت از افزایش مداوم وقوع انواع بحران ها ی طبیعی از نظر شدت و فراوانی دارند. اسکان مجدد، یکی از رویکردهای اصلی برای بازسازی سکونتگاه های روستایی پس از وقوع سیلاب است. بارش باران ها ی شدید در مرداد 1384 در نواحی شرقی استان گلستان منجر به رخداد دو سیل ویرانگر گردید. به منظور جلوگیری از تکرار مجدد رویداد سیل در مناطق سیل زده، به جابه جایی محدود 3 روستا و جابه جایی توام با تجمیع یازده روستای شهرستان ها ی کلاله و مراوه تپه که در سیلاب های اخیر گرگانرود و سرشاخه های آن خسارات زیادی دیده بودند، به منطقه فراغی اقدام گردید. هدف از انجام تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تاثیرات جابه جایی روستاهای آسیب دیده از سیل بر میزان زیست پذیری ادراک شده توسط ساکنین محلی در منطقه مورد مطالعه است. زیست پذیری بر تجربه انسان از مکان تمرکز نموده و این تجارب را در ظرف زمانی و مکانی مشخص در نظر می گیرد. بدین منظور جهت مقایسه دو الگوی جابه جایی محدود و تجمیع از نظر میزان زیست پذیری، با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخته اقدام به سنجش زیست پذیری در منطقه مورد مطالعه گردید. با استفاده از آزمون t نمونه های مستقل مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد در الگوی تجمیع روستاها، در بین ابعاد سه گانه زیست پذیری، بهترین وضعیت متعلق به بعد اجتماعی است اما ابعاد زیست محیطی و اقتصادی در رتبه های بعد قرار دارند. در الگوی جابه جایی محدود، در بین ابعاد سه گانه زیست پذیری، بهترین وضعیت متعلق به بعد زیست محیطی بوده و پس از آن بعد اجتماعی و در انتها بعد اقتصادی قرار دارد. همچنین نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که بین الگوهای اسکان مجدد در زمینه میزان تغییرات زیست پذیری، تفاوت معنا داری وجود ندارد. مهم ترین یافته تحقیق بدین قرار است که فارغ از انتخاب هر الگویی برای اسکان مجدد، توجه به وجود شرایط زیستی در محل جدید جهت قرار گرفتن شرایط کار و زندگی مردم در یک سکونتگاه زیست پذیر از بیشترین اهمیت برخوردار است و باید تلاش برنامه ریزان بر فراهم ساختن کیفیت مناسب زندگی در سکونتگاه جدید – با هر الگویی از اسکان مجدد- باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان مجدد، زیست پذیری، بلایای طبیعی، استان گلستان
  • خانم شهین فرخی، مینو قره بگلو *، محمدتقی پیربابایی، رحمت محمدزاده صفحات 71-86
    روستای سرند از توابع شهرستان هریس در زلزله سال 1391 صد در صد تخریب و سپس بازسازی مساکن این روستا آغاز گردید. مقاله حاضر، درصدد ارزیابی میزان رضایت ساکنین این روستا از مساکن احداثی بعد از زلزله و ارائه راهبرد و راهکارهایی در راستای بهبود کیفی و ساختاری متناسب با آن می باشد. می توان گفت تامین مسکن مناسب روستایی بعد از زلزله با هدف کیفیت مطلوب تر به مولفه هایی در سه بعد کلان (روستا و محیط آن)، میانه (واحدهای همسایگی) و خرد (واحد مسکونی) بستگی دارد، ولی در بازسازی روستای سرند هیچ اقدامی در مقیاس کلان و میانه انجام نگرفته و تنها بعد خرد، مسئله اساسی طراحی بوده است. این مقاله نیز با علم به این موضوع که تمامی سطوح فوق در بحث رضایت از مسکن روستایی تاثیرگذار است، تمرکز اصلی را بر مقیاس خرد دارد که شامل شاخصه های کالبدی- عملکردی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی، فنی- زیست محیطی، اقتصادی و بصری- ادراکی می باشد.
    این تحقیق به روش پیمایشی بوده و جمع آوری اطلاعات و داده ها از طریق مشاهده، پرسشنامه، مصاحبه و در قسمتی نیز بر اساس برداشت های محلی صورت گرفته و معیارهای مورد ارزیابی به وسیله طیف لیکرت ارزیابی شده است. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد روستاییان در ساخت و سازهای جدید بعد از زلزله، به طور کلی از مولفه های کالبدی و عملکردی در مقیاس داخل بنا (عوامل محاطی) با امتیاز کل20 از 60، مولفه های کالبدی و عملکردی در مقیاس خارج بنا (عوامل محیطی) با امتیاز کل 23 از 55، مولفه اقتصادی با امتیاز کل 26 از 60 و مولفه ادارکی-بصری با امتیاز کل 25 از 65 رضایت ناچیزی دارند. همچنین از مولفه های اجتماعی-فرهنگی با امتیاز کل 31 از 55 و فنی و زیست محیطی با امتیاز کل 35 از 60 رضایت متوسطی دارند. بدین جهت راهکارهایی جهت بهبود مشکلات موجود از طریق مصاحبه عمیق با ساکنان روستا استخراج و سپس با تحلیل محتوا بر اساس شاخص های این تحقیق سازماندهی و ارائه گردیدند.
    کلیدواژگان: زلزله، مسکن روستایی، رضایت مندی روستاییان، روستای سرند
  • خانم نادیا معقولی، خانم معصومه احمدزاده * صفحات 87-102
    معماری بومی هر منطقه تحت تاثیر شرایط اقلیمی، جغرافیایی و فرهنگی آن منطقه به وجود می آید. خانه های بومی هر منطقه بیانگر قرن ها تجربه در استفاده بهینه از مصالح، روش های ساخت و ملاحظات اقلیمی و... می باشد و بی توجهی به این مسئله می تواند باعث از بین رفتن این نوع معماری و همچنین فراموشی تجربه های معماران بومی شود. بنا به اهمیت این موضوع در این پژوهش به بررسی گونه شناسی معماری و سازه مسکن روستایی شهرستان سوادکوه پرداخته شده است. از آنجا که منطقه سواد کوه دارای آب و هوای معتدل و مرطوب در دامنه و سرد وکوهستانی در کوه های اطراف آن است چنین به نظر می رسد که تفاوت در خرده اقلیم های این منطقه سبب به وجود آمدن گونه های مختلف مسکن های روستایی در منطقه مورد مطالعه شده است. بدین جهت در این مقاله به بررسی گونه های مختلف مسکن روستایی از نظر ترکیب فضایی (پلان) و سازه های بومی مورد استفاده درآن ها پرداخته شده و هدف نهایی، مستند سازی گونه های سازه و معماری مسکن بومی این شهرستان بوده است. این مقاله قصد دارد به سوالاتی چون شناسایی انواع پلان مسکونی و رابطه معناداری بین آن ها همچنین شناسایی مصالح غالب در ساخت و ساز خانه های روستایی و نوع سازه هایی که در این مناطق استفاده شده است، بپردازد.
    روش مطالعه این مقاله به صورت کیفی بوده و اطلاعات بر اساس نظریه ای برخواسته از داده ها و مطالعه موردی و اسنادی، مصاحبه و مشاهده به دست آمده است. بدین لحاظ این مقاله عوامل متعددی چون اقلیم، مصالح و فنون ساخت و... را که موجب بوجود آمدن این نوع معماری شده است، مورد بررسی قرار می دهد.
    در پایان این تحقیق مشخص گردیده است که پلان های مسکونی به صورت خطی، U و L شکل و در جهت شرقی- غربی اجرا شده، مصالح مصرفی آن بوم آورد بوده و بیشتر از چوب، سنگ و خاک استفاده شده است. همچنین از نظر سازه به چهار گونه کلی، لارده ای، چینه ای و ترکیبی تقسیم بندی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: سوادکوه، گونه شناسی، مسکن روستایی، فضاهای معماری، سازه های بومی
  • علی امامی *، آقای امین الله ایمری، خانم عافیه مرادی صفحات 103-118
    این مطالعه با بررسی تاثیر دیوار حیاط در امنیت ساکنین واحدهای مسکونی ترکمن های قوم یموت در روستاهای شهرستان گنبد کاووس، به ارزیابی آسیب پذیری هر دو نوع، خانه هایی با دیوارهای شفاف و خانه هایی با دیوارهای صلب، نسبت به سرقت و تاثیر هر یک در میزان احساس امنیت و ترس از جرم در ساکنین آن ها می پردازد. بر این اساس بررسی های مقدماتی و مطالعات نظری به ساختن فرضیه هایی با مضامین امنیت بیشتر خانه هایی با دیوار های شفاف در حیاط نسبت به خانه هایی با دیوارهای صلب در حیاط و نیز
    افزایش ترس از جرم در ساکنان، متناسب با افزایش میزان صلبیت دیوار حیاط خانه ها انجامید. در بخش گرد آوری داده ها توامان از روش مشاهده و توزیع پرسشنامه استفاده گردید و پس از تکمیل و جمع آوری، مورد ارزیابی و استدلال منطقی و تحلیل های آماری قرار گرفت. تحلیل ها نشان دادند که نوع دیوار بر امنیت ساکنین واحدها و محلات مسکونی ترکمن های قوم یموت در روستاهای شهرستان گنبد کاووس تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد. به عبارتی دیگر با افزایش میزان گشودگی بصری دیوار حیاط خانه ها، امنیت خانه و احساس امنیت ساکنین آن افزایش می یابد. در گذشته، خانه های روستایی بدون حیاط امنیت بیشتری را برای ساکنین فراهم کرده و میزان وقوع جرم و جنایت در روستاها را به شدت کاهش می دادند. امروزه افزودن دیوارهای حیاط به خانه های روستایی به تقلید از شهرها صورت گرفته و روستاها دچار نا امنی شده اند. در این میان نوع دیوار احداث شده بر حسب میزان شفافیت نیز بر میزان امنیت خانه ها و ساکنین آن ها تاثیر گذار می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، فضای قابل دفاع، دیوار حیاط، رویت پذیری
  • نسیم ایزدی *، وحید علی آبادی، حشمت الله سعدی صفحات 119-132
    در کشورهای جهان سوم و در حال توسعه که ایران نیز یکی از آن ها محسوب می شود، هرگاه از توسعه و پیشرفت بحث می شود، اصولا توجه به ویژگی ها و عوامل انسانی، پراکندگی جمعیتی و نیز بافت روستایی این قبیل کشورها، اهمیت فراوانی دارد. تحقیق حاضر با هدف ارزیابی تاثیر فضای کالبدی روستاها بر سرمایه اجتماعی، اقدامات کارآفرینانه و خرده فرهنگ های راجرز با رویکردی مقایسه ای در بین چهار روستای شهرستان کنگاور صورت گرفته است. جامعه آماری این بررسی389 نفر از ساکنین چهار روستای شهرستان کنگاور است که براساس جدول مورگان و به روش تصادفی 185 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار اصلی تحقیق پرسشنامه بود که روایی آن با نظر برخی از مدیران سازمان کشاورزی استان کرمانشاه و اعضای هیئت علمی دانشگاه تعیین شد. به منظور برآورد پایایی پرسشنامه از روش آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که به ترتیب 86/0 و 88/0 و 85/0 به دست آمد. همچنین مدل رگرسیونی توام به منظور بررسی اثر مولفه های سرمایه اجتماعی بر اقدامات کارآفرینانه اثرات مثبت و معنا داری را نشان داد. در نهایت با توجه به یافته های پژوهش پیشنهادهای کاربردی ارائه گردید از جمله: تقویت همدلی و پیوندهای کاری و همسایگی در روستاها جهت آبادانی بیشتر و کاهش مهاجرت به شهر در روستاهای کشور.
    کلیدواژگان: خرده فرهنگ دهقانی، نهادهای اجتماعی، مکتب نوسازی، نوآوری، کالبد روستا
  • حسین مهدوی پور، علی اکبر شریفی مهرجردی، مریم اسلامی نصرت آبادی * صفحات 133-149
    یکی از عناصر کیفیت دهنده به فضاهای سکونتی در دوره های مختلف تزیینات بوده، که به اشکال متفاوتی تجلی یافته است. معماری در ادوار گوناگون محملی جهت حضور هنرهای گوناگونی مانند خوشنویسی، گچبری، آینه کاری، نقاشی و... بوده است. این هنرها نقش مهمی در کیفیت دهی به فضای های مسکونی داشته اند. بر این اساس است که امروزه آثار بسیاری از هنرمندان بنام کشور در بدنه بناهای تاریخی به یادگار مانده است. امروزه رویکردهای مختلف معماری و تزیینات باعث جدا شدن این هنرها شده و درنتیجه نقش هرکدام از آن ها در کیفیت دهی به فضا از یکدیگر تفکیک و کم رنگ گردیده است. در این رابطه سوالی که مطرح می شود این است که تزیینات در گذشته چه نقشی در کیفیت دهی به فضاهای سکونتی ایفا می نموده است؟ و پیرو این سوال، سوال دیگری مطرح است که آیا می توان رابطه ای بین تزیینات و معماری جستجو کرد؟
    پژوهش حاضر با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی، تحلیلی و پیمایشی با بررسی جایگاه تزیینات در یک مصداق معماری گذشته تلاش دارد رابطه تزیینات و کیفیت فضای معماری را شناخته و معرفی نماید. این امر مهم با مطالعه میدانی و در نظر گرفتن خانه شفیع پور یزد به عنوان یک مصداق ارزشمند، به مطالعه نقش تزیینات به خصوص نقاشی در کیفیت فضاها و شیوه حضور این هنرها در فضاهای مختلف آن پرداخته و در ادامه با بررسی تزیینات موجود در فضاهای این خانه به دسته بندی انواع تزیینات به کار رفته در آن و توصیف هر کدام می پردازد.
    پژوهش حاضر یک نظام از شکل مواجه شدن با تزیینات جهت طراحی فضا را بیان کرده و جایگاه تزیینات در فضای معماری را تبیین می کند. نتیجه پژوهش نشان می دهد که تزیینات در کیفیت فضای معماری نقش مهمی داشته که مهمترین نقش آن بالا بردن صفات کیفی فضاست. همچنین دارای مولفه های مهمی است که در مسیر فرایند طراحی معماری جهت خوانایی و هویت دهی به فضاها نقش اساسی دارند و طراحان باید به نوع تزیینات و میزان آن متناسب با فضا توجه نمایند. امید است نتایج حاصل از این مقاله مورد استفاده طراحان و هنرمندان قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تزیینات، کیفیت، فضای سکونتی، ادراک فضا، خانه شفیع پور یزد
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  • Azadeh Lak, Eftekhar Azizkhani Pages 3-18
    Population growth has always brought about the need for settlement developments and new constructions in recent years. Contemporary settlement developments, being too hasty and commensurate with western urban pattern, have been formed highly different from the local settlement context and urban pattern .As, they have turned the integration of newborn settlement components with old textures into a serious challenge in design sciences especially urban designing. Qehi village as one of the historic rural settlements with hundreds years of antiquity and organic settlement pattern, like many of the human settlements has been exposed to these kinds of new development. The rural development has been implemented based on urban development plans in the form of contemporary urban grid pattern which is at odds with the organic pattern of the village. Practically, in terms of the form, the integration of the old and new fabrics and the historic identity and characteristics of the Qehi village has been destroyed in a way that the physical segregation between the old and new textures is clear.
    Considering the historic nature and the perceptions of local inhabitants of the Qehi village, this research tries to design a model of influencing features on the cohesion experience and settlement integration of the residents between the old and new fabric of human settlements by emphasizing on the level of resident's experience about integration and effective aspects of integration of development plan of valuable settlements fabrics. Qualitative methods and content analysis were used in this study. Data collection in site study was done through direct site observation by trained observers and also through implementing mass-space, space, place, and Roger Trancik connection techniques by urban designers in the rural context. . Interviews were transcribed and done for research themes extraction analyzing through content analysis method and finally the existing concepts and themes were extracted to a conceptual model. In the final stage, the analysis of the field observations was conducted. Furthermore, 10 of the original residents from both old and new rural fabrics have been interviewed regarding their experiences of integration. The data collection procedure was continuous until the theoretical saturation to be reliable for next step steps especially data analyzing.
    Data analysis reveals that resident's experience of settlement form integration and the physical cohesion of the old and new settlements can be achieved through some themes such as “distinctiveness of borders”, “connectivity”, “anchor points continuity”, “contemporization in architectural style”, “belonging to place”, “the continuity of the place identity”, and “the quality of life”. in other word, according to interviewees’ opinions these factors plays the most paramount role in promoting the integration between two mentioned parts of village. The results explored from the resident's experience in the settlement cohesion of new and old fabrics help these features be utilized in the levels of settlement intervention and social interaction enhancement of the residents. Additionally, these results provide opportunity for being applied in the two aspects of procedural and substantial.
    Keywords: settlement cohesion, Mass, Space theory, connection theory, Place theory, Qehi village
  • Farzin Haqparast *, Maziar Asefi, Seyed Mahdi Mirhashemi Pages 19-34
    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) tools play an important role in standardization and monitoring of environmental consequences of developments. Nowadays EIA have significance in environmental management and decision making systems in developed societies. Among EIA tools, Ecological Footprint approach has been vastly used in various areas of economy and industry, including housing and construction. Ecological Footprint approach is a complement for other methods such as Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint. This approach can shows results of such methods in more tangible shape, i.e. the amount of productive land that is available for communities. Connection of EF account to material and energy life cycle lead to a new understanding of the environmental friendly materials And make builders sensitive to the process of production and demolition of materials.
    Ecological footprint can be estimated for world population, a district or a country or for an individual and can be expressed in similar terms or per capita. Nowadays a global organization – global footprint network– release EF of word and nations annually. As follows all environmental impacts of a population are expressed in a tangible unit, therefore Society and public opinion easily accepts that the amount of productive land worldwide is limited. This restriction is expressed in terms of the biological capacity or the available productive land. Biological capacity is equal to an available land (land or sea) to supply specific needs, which reflects the ability of the biosphere to provide resources and waste assimilation. This amount is considered on annual basis.
    Objective of This research is to account ecological footprint of tow case of residential buildings, in exact word the EF of housing. The connection between home and building has seen in construction and operation. But in this study the furniture and other facilities that are not integrated to building have ignored. EF of building comprised of impact of construction, operation and demolition of building. In this study after investigating developed methods in EF account, and evaluation and consolidation of suggested methodology, the EF of two case studies had accounted. These two cases are the Representative of two approach of construction, the traditional and contemporary approach. Two structures, that comparison of them can bring information about environmental results of construction methods. One of the two buildings has a much higher density from the other, the first building has a steel structure, and on the other hand the second building has a brick vault system, bearing walls and concrete collar beams. Residents of These two building experience specific unique places and live in different spaces from another.
    Findings show that overall environmental Impact of steel structure case is a little more than the brick one, but comparing environmental impact of cases Per Area Unit shows absolute advantage of metal structure sample. Result shows that use of traditional construction methods is likely suitable, but with some Considerations. Builders must consider the context that traditional buildings formed and developed, Conditions that increase the efficiency of traditional buildings. But today the traditional forms of buildings are erected with materials that produced and shipped by heavy consumption of Fossil Fuels. In fact we see buildings that built with combination of traditional and modern techniques, for example masonry buildings that widely use machinery, modern transportation and electricity. As a side finding, evaluating footprint of these cases in square meter of built area, support the idea of compact residences or municipalities, however the negative impact of compulsory activities may compensate the advantage of compact form of residences.
    Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Ecological Footprint, Embodied Energy, Building Construction, Housing
  • Behrooz Mohammadi Yeganeh *, Mehdi Cheraghi, Mohammad Kazem Jamshidi, Maeda Emami Pages 35-44
    Housing which is influenced by natural and human factors considered as the main factor contributing rural texture. Therefore, any types of transformation in natural and human circumstances will appear in housing as well. Nowadays, incompatibility among physical transformation and socio-cultural attitude in rural areas, culminates in Socio-economic disparities and change in the functioning of these living spaces, especially rural housing. During recent years the studied villages encountered transformation of function of housing and formation of novel function of housing. This transformation resulted by various economic factors. Now following questions will be raised: 1- What is the status of housing functions within the scope of the study?
    2- Which economic indicators have influenced the transformation of functioning in rural housing?
    This study is applied research and the approach is descriptive- analytical. Data collection is through secondary data, questionnaires and interviews. Statistical population consists of households of GhaniBeigloo county and lower Zanjan river district of Zanjan Province. According to 2011 census, there are 31 inhabited villages, 2358 households and 8413 of people in this county. Based on Cochran formula, we applied 330 out of 2358 households as a sample to fill the questionnaire. In order to study the functions of rural housing, 43 indices have been utilized in five dimensions of livelihood, logistical, economic, social, and women. Moreover, in order to examine the effective economic indicators of rural housing, 14 indices has been used as Likert scale. The descriptive findings obtained from the review of the individual characteristics of respondents demonstrate that, 96.4% of the respondents are male and 3.6% are female. The age group range mostly from 30 to 40 years old. The maximum frequency percentage of literacy level belong to elementary school with 40.6%. . The maximum frequency percentage of household's head occupation belong to agricultural and horticultural jobs with 37.5%. The monthly income mean of households is 748,000 Tomans. The maximum frequency percentage for sizes of houses, land area and building area are respectively, 200-150 meters, 100-50 meters and 150-100 meters. 31.3% of respondents constructed their properties with a loan. The descriptive results of the study show that, the highest mean of housing function is related to women's function with an average of 2.62 and the minimum average is the housing logistic index with an average of 1.46. By analyzing numerical mean derived from rural housing function of studied village, it can be illustrated that, rural housing function is below optimum point. Based on sample T-Test and Likert scale with range of 1-5, the fluctuated amount for whole housing function is less than average (3). This difference is significant at 0.01 alpha level and difference compered to optimum is shown as negative number. Also, the inferential results demonstrate that the economic indices of housing, vehicle, number of livestock, garden ownership, annals of credit allocation, type of occupation and income, and the income received from the non-agricultural sector, have a significant and meaningful effect on the changes in the function of rural housing.
    By increasing the so-called urban tendency into rural environments, some of the structural components of the functions of rural houses have been transformed fundamentally. By moving away indigenous patterns and acquiring new patterns, the heterogeneity of housing patterns with living and livelihood needs, and increasing the use of instrument technology, not only the physical structure but also setting and design of rural houses is influenced. Such changes can be checked in interior design, appliance and layout of houses.
    According to the results of the "Analysis of the economic factors affecting rural housing function transformations" the following suggestions has been offered: 1. attention to livelihood, production, crafts, etc. in the form of rural housing
    2. Separation of rural and urban housing policy implementation model for rural housing
    3. Construction of new housing due to geographical and environmental characteristics of each area
    4. Using local area experiences in rural housing
    Keywords: rural development, housing function, adequate accommodation, township of Zanjan
  • Hassan Feridonzadeh *, Mahsa Taghizadeh Pages 45-58
    The purpose of this research is to introduce the general factors influencing the initial location of villages. The initial location of a village has a critical role in its habitation. If location is made in principle, the formation of the village has a rising trend. So, residents be comforted in every respect. Several factors are involved in the formation of the core of a village. These factors must have been so influential that they provide incentives for new settlements and the development of the village body. For the location selecting purposes, the two Kalur and Kazaj regions located in Khalkhal city those are carrying historical-religious rural texture, has been studied. Villages that have religious sites on their texture and more prominent call villages with religious texture. The existence of a shrine in the villages also shows a long history and a long history of living in it. Therefore, the existence of an Imam Zadeh in the rural context, solely, takes the account for the village to fall in the religious and historical category. The presence of Imam Zadeh in rural texture will have a significant role in the formation of settlements which is rooted in the religious beliefs of the people of the inhabitants.
    The apparent appearance of the two villages of Kazj and Koolar in the city of Khalkhal has been viewed from two aspects of the external landscape and internal perspective. In a glimpse of both villages, they represent the introverted form, houses of stairs in the center of the village, surrounded by mountains, creating a veil between themselves and the surrounding areas, with a religious center, which in both villages of the center religious places (Imam Zadeh, Mosque) are dedicated. A quick look at the walls of the streets, domes and minarets, the tradition of covering the people, the voice of the "Azan" distributed from the mosques, the presence of people for pilgrimage in the shrines, etc., in the wider view of the external view of the villages to their audience are immediately catching the attention. Therefore, in this paper, we tried to answer these research questions, which are: What factors influence the initial location of villages with historical-religious rural texture and which factors are more important? Is the existence of religious symbols (Imam Zadeh) influenced the development of tissue of studied villages? So, In this regard, using the information and resources available in the libraries, referring to the examined villages, interviews with people, make effective cabriolet, and using the Analytical-survey research method and deductive method, it presents the factors influencing the location and texture of these two villages. Results of this study showed that factors such as the existence of topography (security), water resources, the potential economic potential of land in terms of rich soil and suitable climate, religious symbols (Imam Zadeh), considering their history in these villages, they have high weight compared with other factors which also shows the religious roots of the residents in these villages. In a way that the distance between the Imam Zadeh in the village of Kalur has caused a linear texture in the rural creep and has shaped the focus of the Imam Zadeh in the center of the Kazaj village of centralized culture tissue in the village. However, the lack of Imam Zadeh in the context of these villages, according to the studies and documents presented during the study, would not undoubtedly create the initial core and such a developmental direction for the studied villages.
    Keywords: Location, Kajaz, Kalur villages, historical, religious context, development
  • Amin Mohammadi Ostadkelayeh *, Mohammadamin Khorasani, Hamideh Pahlavan Zadeh Pages 59-70
    Iran is prone to disasters and it ranks as one of the most disaster prone country in the world with floods, drought and earthquakes being the most frequent natural disasters. Rural areas with unconventional structures and structure-weak have high vulnerability to natural disasters. This is necessary for displacement and resettlement for villages against natural disasters such as floods, earth-quakes, landslides. Although exact statistics of vulnerable villages in countries is not provided, we can say with confidence that a considerable percentage of rural areas are at a high risk and should be staggered. Resettlement policy is one of the policies in the planning of rural settlements raised for rural development and provides optimal distribution of services to the villagers. In general, rural resettlement more after natural disasters in rural areas could help to solve the problems of rural people. Resettlement of rural people, although in times of crisis is essential, but must be tailored to local and socio-economic conditions and being implemented in form of projects. The overall objective of the rural resettlement is to pave the way for the establishment of villages located in high-risk zones and villages that for various reasons should be displace in order to improve the livelihoods and well-being of residents in different aspects. Accordingly, it is necessary for resettlement and optimal geographical location of villages to be based on comprehensive methods and in accordance with the environmental characteristics. Weber believes that the most important outcome of resettlement of rural settlements is in economic aspect and displacement causes the country's economic transformation and betterment in the economic situation of residents. Comparing the pattern of limited displacement and displacement combined with the integration of villages in the study area, showed that each of the studied patterns have advantages and disadvantages. Four patterns are, the pattern of continuous development, the pattern of movement and, assembly and integration pattern for the reconstruction of villages damaged or destroyed by natural disasters should be adopted. Heavy rainfalls in August 2005 in the eastern regions of Golestan province, lead to the occurrence of two devastating floods were included in amongst the most devastating floods occurred in the country. In order to prevent a recurrence flood consequences in these regions limited movement of 3 villages and movement accompanied with merge of 11 villages damaged in recent flood of Gorganrood to Faraghi region have been done.
    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of floods in these villages on livability by considering psychological indices. Livability is an overall concept which is connected with a number of concepts such as sustainability, quality of life, quality of place, and healthy communities. Livability often used to define various aspects of a community and common experiences that shaped it. Livability focuses on the human cognition of space and put them in a specific time and place form. So, Eight realm of employment and, income, housing, public education, participation and social cohesion and continuity, sense of belonging to place, personal and social security, quantity of green spaces, quality of landscape in the study area were selected for the study. In livable villages there is ground for cooperation, participation in decision making and decision taking. Also standard facilities and services has been provided for living in these villages. Livable rural settlements which have decent living conditions could be provided to creating hope and vitality among its residents. Livability patterns vary from one area to another and may be different from one point to another, because now after decades many villages suffer from the risks. The sample of the study are local families residing in villages using Cochran formula sample size was determined by 118 of heads of household. To compare two limited movement and aggregation patterns, the “Independent t test“ was used. Surveys indicate the average situation of livability in most of the parameters studied in both models of displacement and aggregation. In the aggregate pattern, social indices perform better than the pattern of displacement, while the success rate of displacement in the environmental index is better than the aggregate pattern. The results show that in the aggregation pattern, in three dimensions of livability, the highest score is for the social dimension. But the economic dimension and finally environmental dimension have the lowest scores. In Limited movement pattern, among the three dimensions of livability, the highest score is for the environmental dimension. But after the environmental, is the social aspect following by the economic aspect is at the end. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between the patterns of resettlement. Regardless of the choice of a model for resettlement, attention to environmental conditions at the new location to get working and living conditions of people in a residence habitable have utmost importance and planners should to provide a good quality of living in the settlement of the new settlement with any pattern of resettlement.
    Keywords: Resettlement, livability, natural disasters, Golestan Province
  • Shahin Farrokhi, Minou Gharehbaglou *, Mohammadtagi Pirbabaei, Rahmat Mohammadzadeh Pages 71-86
    Due to its location on the Alpine-Himalayan belt, Iran is one of the five earthquake-prone countries in the world. The statistics show that a severe earthquake occurs in the country every four years on average which destroys about 97 percent of rural residential units in the affected region. Every year, more than 3 million people are left homeless because of natural disasters; 80% of whom are those affected by earthquakes. One of the most striking consequences of earthquakes is the collapse of buildings and therefore the people who are left homeless.
    Most rural dwellings form in response to identity and climatic, cultural, social and functional needs and develop a homogeneous complex with unique identity from the perspective of functional nature, human needs, people's activities, construction elements, and the environment. In addition to providing shelter, safety, comfort and privacy, rural dwelling is part of the production supply chain in rural areas. The existing rural dwellings are examples of this feature. The focus of the present study on rural housing is important because the new housing built for rural inhabitants affected by earthquakes often works against the surrounding environment and life due to their disregard for the concept of dwelling in rural areas. In the best cases, these housing units suffer from many defects and shortcomings. It is therefore essential to consider rural housing design principles and local patterns in post-earthquake rehabilitation. Otherwise, the new construction will be at odds with its surrounding and would lead to physical, social, and technical consequences.
    A village located on the outskirts of Heris in East Azerbaijan province of Iran, Sarand was hundred percent destroyed in the earthquake of 2012, followed by a rehabilitation effort. The present study assesses post-earthquake housing resident satisfaction and presents proper strategies and solutions for quality and structural improvement. The study will be conducted using a survey-based methodology in which data are collected using questionnaires, observations, and interviews and the criteria are rated on based on the Likert scale. The results show the post-earthquake housing residents have low satisfaction with the indoor scale criteria (33%), outdoor scale criteria (38.5%), Economic criteria (43%) and Perceptual and visual criteria (41%) and moderate satisfaction with the social-cultural criteria (54%) and Technical and environmental criteria (64%).The results also show that the satisfaction can be improved at architecture and design scale by increasing the floor area, increasing the number and floor area of bedrooms, proper separation of guest room from other spaces, creating storage spaces at home or setbacks in the walls for placement of furniture and handicrafts, providing the possibility of future extensions, adding other needed spaces including stable, barn, etc., considering large back yards as well as spaces for storage of agricultural products, paving and improving sanitation, landscaping of the backyard, admission of sunlight to the stable and barn, considering a space for disposal of animal waste, adding porch to the yard, at the social scale by using highly skilled labor in the construction, participation of residents in design, construction, and material specification of residential housing, and at technical level by improving natural ventilation, adding corridor to conserve energy.
    Keywords: earthquake, rural housing, resident satisfaction, rehabilitation
  • Nadiya Maghuly, Masumeh Ahmadzadeh * Pages 87-102
    The unique geographical and cultural conditions of Iran bring the diversity in architectural aspects of cities and villages around the country. Following the climatic matters, the contexture of rural settlements are different which leads to create uniqueness in housing styles in these regions.
    Also, Since the local architecture of each area affected by its climatic conditions, geographical and cultural matters there; and that the local area housings represent a century of experience in the efficient use of materials, manufacturing methods and climate considerations, etc., thus neglecting this issue (these considerations) could cause the loss of these types of architecture intrinsic values of the local architecture in addition to several years of local engineering experiences.
    It seems that the differences in climate around the area of study led to the creation of various kinds of rural housing in the study area. The author of this article examines the different species of rural housing in terms of spatial composition and local structures utilized by indigenous people, with the aim of documentation of species of city's native housing structure and architecture. The methodology of this paper is qualitative and based on theory and case studies arising from data and documents, interviews and observations that had been obtained. Many factors such as climate, materials and construction techniques, etc., which leads to the creation of this type of architecture, are also considered.
    Architectural diversity in a limited area is clearly visible. In terms of climate, the contexture of rural settlements are different and this leads to the creation of unique housing species in these areas. And the typology is a way for assortment of rural houses based on forms and spatial correlation plans and the understanding of the forms and plans of the created spaces.
    After carrying out investigations on residential houses and drawing out architectural plan of the houses with more than 40 years old, the author concludes that the form of the so called regional houses is following a linear format and were performed in three different plans. The first form rooms are arranged side by side where the Ivan placed in the south side of the building connecting the rooms. The second and third forms were made in "L" shape and "U" shape, respectively. In these two forms, also, an Ivan, which it could been located in west or east direction too, connects the rooms.
    Materials used in this region are also native and will be chosen have been chosen considering the climate of the area. Wood is the main material of buildings on slopes and plane areas on mountains and higher altitudes areas the common materials are rocks and soil. The wall's width varies according to the temperature; in which in mild and humid regions it has less width, and on the other side, mountainous and areas highland, it reaches to more than one meter width.
    The building structure type’s fall into four groups: Adobe houses, Lardeees, Cheaneees, and combined forms.
    At last, the author suggests that by considering the utilization of native local houses even more than before, that consume recyclable native construction materials which do not require any specific foreigner expert to actually construct the house with. By doing so, the harmony of the environment is also being kept sustained. Therefore, it is recommended to regulate policies in order to avoid interruption of the region architectural culture.
    Keywords: Savadkuh, Typology, rural housing, architectural spaces, native structures
  • Ali Emami *, Aminollah Eimery, Afieh Moradi Pages 103-118
    The role of design in ensuring safety and security in the residential environment is more than ever before. This means that the necessary tools should be provided to create some self-surveillance capabilities in the environment. The physical environment should be designed in such a way that opportunities for residents have improved monitoring and in turn, reduce the opportunities for criminal acts. But sometimes due to inappropriate use of architectural elements and ignorance designers from the effects of these elements on the environment, such features taken from the environment or are weakened.
    This study examines the impact of security on the courtyard walls of the inhabitants of the villages of Turkmen folk in Gonbad-e Kavus. Based on preliminary studies and theoretical frameworks to make the content more secure homes with transparent walls around the courtyard with solid walls courtyards, led increase resident's fear of crime in proportion to the increase of wall rigidity. The following hypotheses were considered for this study: It seems that the visual openness wall has an impact on the security perceived by residents. It also increases the rigidity of the wall of the yard. A sense of isolation and vulnerability of the residents and houses increase fear of crime inside them. In this study, one of the villages in the Turkmen city of Gonbad-e Kavus has been chosen as the study sample. The research methodology is Non-interference observation and a questionnaire package. Since the independent variable is continuous and quantitative, we could record it at the location. Some of the physical characteristics of the study area are needed to conduct a research on. Observation and records of the condition of the walls of the courtyard are done. On the other hand, the security (both physical and mental) and on related issues such as crime rate, resident's sense of security, spatial and temporal characteristics of the crime and so on, are not measurable through observation, hence closed questionnaire has been prepared for this purpose. The research method is descriptive analysis, correlating and considering the objectives applicable
    The vulnerability of both types of houses with transparent walls and homes with rigid walls and the impact of each on the rate of sense of security and the fear of crime in their residents were evaluated. Both the data gathered from observation and questionnaires were distributed and collected after completion, logical reasoning and statistical analysis were evaluated. The analysis showed that the existence of a type of the security wall for units and residential of neighborhoods in the villages of Turkmen in Gonbad-e Kavus has a significant positive impact. In other words, with increasing visual openness of courtyard wall of rural house, security and safety of house resident’s increases. In the past, rural house without the yard has provided more security for residents and the rate of occurrence of crime in the countryside to reduce the intensity. Today, adding the walls of the courtyard to rural houses as an imitation of cities and villages have been experiencing insecurity. The type of constructed wall based on the amount of transparency effect on affect the rate of home security not to mention their resident security.
    The results showed that not always building tall rigid walls around the rural houses in a naturally virgin environment comes with security. Otherwise, in places where self-surveillance is less natural and more difficult, their high walls attractive to thieves and thus constituting a threat to the security of the houses and its residents. Also, most importantly than security is a sense of security that people feel relaxed and free from all fear and anxiety caused by the state.
    Keywords: Security, defensible space, courtyard wall, visibility
  • Nasim Izadi *, Vahid Aliabadi, Heshmat Allah Saadi Pages 119-132
    Principally different cultures and societies, in terms of characteristics, uniqueness and areas of development programs vary. Also in this context, they are of great diversity because development is included in many cases, even on habits, customs and beliefs of the people. The main problem issues discussed in this article are factors in the culture of the peasant community in addition to the correlations of these factors. One of the important and basic theories in Rogers's modernization theory is on the peasant culture. The definition should be noting that differences in culture and special features of each culture and subculture called cultural theory. According to Rodgers, in case the social changes program does not being built on the society values, the local farmer’s motivation will be banished as a consequence. The operators of rural development programs should carefully consider cultural characteristics of the population. He is pointing to peasant culture characteristics such as these: lack of trust in personal relations, lack of innovation, fatalism, low aspirations and desires, not to ignore the immediate interests for the sake of future benefits, less the factor of time, family-oriented, dependence on government power, localism and lack of empathy. In the third-world and developing countries like Iran, when speaking of the development, it means that characteristics and human factors, population distribution and the rural texture are of great importance. Such communities that face multiple problems of backwardness and underdevelopment, are trying to reduce the ravages caused and to improve the living conditions of people by implementation of various development programs. A large number of experts in rural development literature, particularly the theories of school modernization, are considered as rural development social and cultural barriers. In recent decades, scientists from different fields of sociology, especially in the areas of economic development, cited a wide variety of theories in search of reasons for the difference in the economic development of various countries. Among these factors, the set of theory, based on economic variables such as consumption, savings and investment, infrastructure and physical infrastructure and natural resources, geographical and other groups of theory, along with economic factors related to human resources and social institutions, and finally, the issue of the impact of beliefs and customs in the society is taken into consideration. The present study aimed to assess the impact of rural texture on the physical, social capital, entrepreneurial activities and Rogers's subculture with comparative approach between 4 villages of Kangavar city. This study is applied and cross-correlation survey has been held. The population of the study, was 389 people in four villages of Kangavar city that 185 people was selected as sample based on Morgan table and randomly sampling. The main instrument of data collection method in survey was questionnaires. In order to ensure the content validity of the questionnaire, some of the leaders of agricultural organizations and faculty members of Kermanshah province, evaluate the questions and questionnaire items deeply and gave corrective feedbacks that authors reformed questionnaire after interviews and discussed about the subjects. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate reliability. The rate of this index in principle, determines the degree of reliability for different parts of the questionnaire, varies respectively from 0.86, 0.88 and 0.85. In order to analyze the data the SPSS20 software was used. To investigate the opinions of the villagers in different villages that are different in rural texture with respect to the components of social capital, Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Also, the combined regression model showed the positive and significant effects of social capital indicators on entrepreneurial activities. Finally, according to the findings of the research, practical suggestions were presented, including: Enhancing empathy, networks among rural people for further development and reduction of migration to the city in the country's villages.
    Keywords: Peasant subculture, social institutions, modernization theory, innovation, rural texture
  • Hosein Mahdavipour, Ali Akbar Sharifi Mehrjerdi, Maryam Eslami Nosratabadi * Pages 133-149
    One of the factors that gives quality to residential spaces in different periods, is decoration which is appearing in various kinds. In diverse periods, architecture provides a decent foundations for several other arts. Such as Calligraphy, Plaster molding, mirror decoration, Paintings and etc. These kinds of art have an important role by giving quality to the architectural spaces. According to this fact, lots of relics from Iranian famous artists are left as a memorial in historical places. Nowadays, different approaches of architecture and decoration disunites these arts, consequently, the role of each one in giving quality to space, is separated from each other and become less important. In this regard, a relevant question is "What was the role of decoration in giving quality to residential space?" and another question related to it, is; "Is there any relationship between decoration and architecture?" the other question is also, "Was there any system or organization for the presence of decoration in the residential space?"
    To answer these kind of questions this paper investigates the state of decoration in past architecture. The authors had been using descriptive, analyzing and measurement methods in order to present the relation of decoration and architecture quality. On the other hand, evaluating the role of decoration especially wall-painting in the quality of residential space is the main purpose of this article. To achieve this goal, Yazd Shafipour house is chosen as a worthwhile case study. The authors have been used questionnaires, conducted interviews and documented their observations in order to obtain a precise investigation. Investigate the role of these decoration especially paintings in the quality of spaces and describes how these various “Art” is an uncountable noun. Replace “kinds of art” to make it countable. Appear in different spaces of Yazd Shafipour house. After that, by considering the decoration of this house, this paper classifies and describes all kinds of decoration that is used in Yazd Shafipour house. At the next step to evaluate the role of Yazd Shafipour house's decoration in the terms of its spaces, some questionnaires has been prepared and given to architecture students. Finally an analytical strategy has been has been employed and the result of these studies presents in the form of charts and tables. These results indicate that decorations have had a significant impact on the quality of the spaces in this house.
    This article presents the order of facing with decoration for space designing. It also determines the importance of decoration in residential spaces. The final result indicates that decoration has a significant role in residential spaces. The most important role of decoration, especially wall-painting, is improving the quality of architectural space. It also has important components that play a fundamental role in the design process of architecture design for legibility and identity to the spaces, and designers must pay attention to the type of decorating and its amount proportional to space. The results of the studies showed that decoration have at least three different roles in the quality of a residential spaces: 1. Decoration promote the qualitative characteristics of space
    With the advent of decorations, many qualitative features of space, such as artistic, imagination, complexity and diversity, are promoted.
    2. Decoration moderate and then promote the qualitative characteristics of space
    Decoration in the first stage acts as a moderator of qualitative characteristics of space, and in the second stage it improves the quality of space. The traits included in this category are: dignity, beauty and perfection.
    3. Decoration moderate the qualitative characteristics of space
    Decoration actually moderate some qualitative traits of space, and with increasing decorations the definite traits do not change. Traits that are balanced by decorations are: order, unity, calmness and greatness.
    The results of this article will be used by designers and artists to give quality to the spaces they create.
    Keywords: Decoration, Quality, Residential space, Space Perception, Yazd Shafipour house