فهرست مطالب

Crop Protection - Volume:7 Issue:1, 2018
  • Volume:7 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Salimeh Saedi, Mohammad Reza Damavandian *, Hemmat Dadpour Pages 1-11
    Acute toxicity of the field recommended concentration of three conventional insecticides (Diazinon, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos) and mineral oil was evaluated on 3rd and 4th instar larvae and adults of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. The mortalities caused by the insecticides and mineral oil were significantly different. Diazinon and Malathion with 100% mortality showed the highest toxicity to the different stages of the ladybird. Chlorpyrifos and mineral oil caused less than 30% mortality, while mineral oil had the lowest harmful effect on this predator. Based on LC50 and LC90 values 24h after treatment, the male and female adults of C. montrouzieri were more susceptible to Diazinon (701 and 635; 1257 and 1194ppm) than to Chlorpyrifos (4238 and 4316, 5683 and 5480 ppm). Based on International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC) classification, Chlorpyrifos and mineral oil were classified as category 1 (harmless) and Diazinon and Malathion were placed in category 4 (harmful).
    Keywords: Acute toxicity, bioassay, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, organophosphate insecticide, mineral oil
  • Iran Mohammadpour, Majeed Askari Siahooei, Behjat Tajeddin, Fatemeh Koohpayma, Abdoolnabi Bagheri * Pages 13-22
    Piarom is considered as one of the most important semi-dried date fruits in Iran which has been highly affected by stored pests. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging (VAP) methods on storage pests control and date quality. To do so, Piarom variety were packaged in two package systems, including passive modified atmosphere and vacuum package system. The control samples were kept unpackaged. The packages were kept under two different storage conditions; at 4 °C and 55 ± 10% RH, and 25-27 °C and 70 ± 5% RH for 30, 60, 90 and 150 days. The experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design arranged in factorial with four replicates. The results showed that Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)and sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) are the most important storage pests with 87.5 and 12.5% contamination, respectively. The passive MAP and VAP reduced the pests infestation rate significantly compared to control. Also, they could better preserve pH (5.88 and 5.85 for MAP and VAP, respectively) than the control (5.78). Changes in water activity in MAP and VAP were almost the same at the two storage conditions i.e., ambient and at 4 °C and was significantly different from the control. The maximum water activity change was observed in control treatment.
    Keywords: date palm, Modified atmosphere, Storage pests, MAP, VAP
  • Parisa Jalalinasab, Ramin Heydari * Pages 23-38
    In order to identify plant-parasitic nematodes of eastern forests in Guilan province, soil and root samples were collected and the extracted nematodes were studied based on morphological and morphometric characters. Twenty eight species of plant parasitic nematodes were identified. A population of the genus Hoplotylus was recovered and identified as H. femina. The identification was also verified by partial sequencing of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In addition, two populations of the genus Malenchus were also recovered and based on morphological and morphometric characteristics were identified as M. solovjovae and M. acarayensis. The two species Hoplotylus femina and Malenchus solovjovae are new records for Iran.
    Keywords: Hoplotylus femina, Malenchus solovjovae, M. acarayensis, large subunit ribosomal DNA
  • Vahid Mahdavi, Hooshang Rafiee-Dastjerdi *, Asadollah Asadi, Jabraeil Razmjou, Bahram Fathi Achachlouei Pages 39-49
    The potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a major pest of potato, both in the field and storehouses. In this study, we have evaluated the lethal effects and persistence of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) pure (PEO) and nano-formulated essential oil (NFO) on different developmental stages (egg, male and female adults) of PTM. Essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique. The morphology of nanofibers was investigated by SEM. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the characteristic functional groups in the PEO, nanofiber and PEO/NFO scaffold. Bioassays were performed in 250 ml glass jars. The essential oil consisted of α-Zingiberene as the most abundant component (14.21%), followed by Ar-curcumene (12.58%), β-sesquiphellandrene (12.48%) and cis-α-bisabolene (10.29%). The results of FTIR spectra showed the establishment of the functional groups of PEO on the structure of the nanofiber. The images of SEM also demonstrated the establishment of PEO in the structure of the nanofiber. LC50 values of PEO and NFO were estimated 75.44 and 30.24µl/l air for eggs, 19.08 and 10.28µl/l air for female adults, and 17.76 and 9.56µl/l air for male adults, respectively. Persistence data showed that nano-formulated essential oil (49 days) in comparison with pure essential oil (15 day) had longer persistence. The results demonstrated that Z. officinale PEO and its nano-formulation could play an important role as natural pesticides for the management of PTM.
    Keywords: Fumigant bioassay, ginger essential oil, nanotechnology, persistence, potato tuber moth
  • Seied Saeid Modarres Najafabadi *, Abdoolnabi Bagheri, Majeed Askari Siahooei, Hoda Zamani, Azadeh Goodarzi Pages 51-63
    The effect of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. androsemary Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oils on life table parameters of red rose aphid Macrosiphum rosae (L.) oncut flower rose Rosa hybrida L. were investigated in laboratory conditions (27 ± 2 oC, 70 ± 5% humidity and a photoperiod of 16L:8Dh), during 2014-2015. The results on the basis of LC50 values showed that the M. rosae was significantly more sensitive to the oil of T. vulgaris (LC50 = 36621 ppm) than R. officinalis (LC50 = 57565 ppm). Also, Investigation of the thyme essential oil on life table parameters of M. rosae showed that the net reproductive rate (R0) values changed from 16.62 ± 2.31 to 29.10 ± 1.97 female offspring, the intrinsic rate of increase (r) values ranged from 0.177 ± 0.01 to 0.229 ± 0.13 day-1, the mean generation time (T) was 13.92 ± 0.22 to 15.88 ± 0.19 days, the DT values ranged from 3.01 ± 0.05 to 3.90 ± 0.007 days and the finite rate of increase (λ) values was 1.19 ± 0.003 to 1.26 ± 0.06 day-1. Also, the rosemary essential oil on life table parameters of red rose aphid revealed that the R0 values ranged from 17.87 ± 1.97 to 31.97 ± 1.98 female offspring,the r values ranged from 0.185 ± 0.02 to 0.237 ± 0.001 day-1, the mean generation time (T) was 14.45 ± 0.23 to 15.99 ± 0.21 days, the DT ranged from 2.85 ± 0.14 to 3.71 ± 0.14 days and the λ values was 1.20 ± 0.01 to 1.27 ± 0.02 day-1.The results revealed that the essential oils of rosemary and thyme used in this research had a significant difference on population parameters of rose aphid. The maximum mortality percent of M. rosae population registered 86.12 ± 1.02% and 90.21 ± 1.12% for rosemary and thyme essential oils, respectively. Hence, T. vulgaris had higher insecticidal effect than R. officinalis essential oil on rose aphid population.
    Keywords: Life table, Macrosiphum rosae, Population growth parameters, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris
  • Usman Zakka, Luke Chinaru Nwosu *, Lemea Peace Nkue Pages 65-72
    A field trial was carried out during the rainy season of 2015 at the Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of maize Zea mays L. as an intercrop in managing the pests of okra Abelmoschus esculentum L. There were five treatments namely 1: 1, 2: 1, 3: 1 (okra to maize intercrop ratios), farmers’ practice (random intercrop) and control plot (sole okra). The treatments were assigned one to a plot and arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. Data were taken on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, 50% flowering and 50% fruiting, number of holes in the leaf damage, number of fruits, weight of undamaged fruits, weight of damaged fruit and population density of insect pests. The sole okra had the highest leaf damage and number of insect pests. Podagrica uniforma Jacoby (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was the most important insect pest of okra in terms of population density. Okra intercropped with maize in the ratio of 1:1 was the most effective intercrop system in insect pest management. The intercrop pattern should be promoted while random intercrop pattern practiced by farmers should be discouraged.
    Keywords: Intercrop, okra, Abelmoschus esculentum, maize, Podagrica uniforma
  • Ali Nasir Hussein, Saeed Abbasi *, Rouhallah Sharifi, Samad Jamali Pages 73-85
    In recent years, biological control has become a promising and ecologically friendly alternative to chemical control in the management of soil-borne plant diseases and several biological control agents have been introduced as potential bio-fungicides. The aim of this study was to investigate different biological control agent consortia against Rhizoctonia solani root rot disease of common bean. Bacillus pumilus INR7, Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizophagus intraradices were used individually or in combination. There were two application
    Methods
    simultaneous application of biocontrol agents with the plant pathogen, and pre-inoculation of biocontrol agents one month before the pathogen. Treatments containing B.pumilus INR7 were the best treatments for suppression of the disease in the simultaneous application method, where B. pumilus INR7 T. harzianumreduced the disease up to 54%. However, in pre-inoculation method T. harzianum alone was the only treatment that reduced disease severity up to 49% compared to the infected control; other treatments did not haveany significant effect on disease severity. In current study, combination of T. harzianum and R. intraradices was unable to decrease disease severity and improve plant growth. This phenomenon was common in both simultaneous and pre-inoculation experiments. However, results showed that B. pumilus INR7 and R. intraradices were compatible with each other. Their combination not only decreased the disease, but also improved the dry weight of common bean in both application methods. Our results revealed that B. pumilus INR7 had positive interaction with T. harzianum. This combination increased their ability to suppress root rot disease and improve plant health, significantly. Overall, combinations of biocontrol agents have good potential to be applied in modern agriculture, but such combinations need to be checkedin advance for their compatibility in greenhouse and field experiments.
    Keywords: Bean, Biocontrol, Rhizoctonia solani, Root rot