فهرست مطالب

گیاهان دارویی - پیاپی 65 (زمستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 65 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Akhondzadeh S. (Phd) Page 1
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric
    disorders in children and adolescents with a worldwide prevalence of 5%. It is characterized by symptoms of attention deficit and/or hyperactivity/impulsiveness that is maintained for at least six months. ADHD is a neural disorder with structural and functional abnormalities in some areas of the brain. Pharmacotherapy is the most prevalent treatment for all age groups of ADHD patients. ADHD is amenable to drugs that affect the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter pathways among which stimulants stand out. In spite of the fact that stimulants are the most used drugs among current standard treatments and are generally safe and highly effective, they could be associated with unresponsiveness and significant side effects such as sleep disturbances, decreased appetite and mood lability in some children. Sleep problems are suggested to be not only a side effect for current standard treatments but also a common finding in patients with ADHD. Moreover, there is growing interest regarding herbal medicine in the treatment of ADHD. This review focuses on some herbal medicines in ADHD.
    Keywords: Alternative Medicine, Attention, Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder, Herbal Medicine
  • Ahvazi M. (Phd) Student), Balali Gr (Phd), Jamzad Z. (Phd), Saeidi H. (Phd) Page 7
    Marrubium vulgare L. (common name: Horehound, hoarhound) is one of the medicinal plants which has been used in the treatment of stomach, arrhythmia, asthma, jaundice, lung diseases and liver disorders in Iranian traditional medicine. Other properties are expectorant, antispasmodic, tonic, anti-infective agent and externally, it has been used in ulcers and wounds. Flowers in M. vulgare generally appear in early spring and regularly visited by readily nectar gathering bees. The plant is a good candidate for phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soils. Previous phytochemical studies showed the presence of alkaloids, lactones, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenylpropanoid esters, and diterpenoids in M. vulgare. In this review we focused on the several aspects of taxonomy, morphology, chemical composition and traditional medicine of horehound.
    Keywords: Ethnobotany, Marrubium vulgare, Medicinal plant, Phytochemistry, Taxonomy
  • Hatefi A, Sadeghi T, Emtiazy M Page 25
    Background

    Constipation is a common problem among the elderly which would decrease their quality of life. One of the solutions for improving this problem is using medicinal plants.

    Objective

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of Golghand and Psyllium on constipation among the elderly.

    Methods

    In this clinical trial, 70 older adults with constipation were selected and randomly allocated into two groups on Golghand and Psyllium. The Golghand group, consumed one tablespoon of Golghand potion three times a day half an hour after meals. The Psyllium group consumed a sachet of Psyllium powder with a glass of water three times a day after meals. The intervention lasted for two weeks. Data gathering tools were demographic questionnaire and a researcher-made checklist about bowel habits. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.

    Results

    According to the results, there was a significant difference between the mean numbers of defecation in each group before and after the intervention (paired t-test, P 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Results of the present study showed that both medications could be used as supplementary non-medicinal methods for treating constipation among the elderly.

    Keywords: Constipation, Elderly, Golghand, Psyllium
  • Ahmadi Ashtiani Hr (Phd), Salehinia F. (Msc), Rastegar H. (Phd), Allameh Aa (Phd), Rezazadeh Sh (Phd) Page 35
    Background
    One of the key questions in biochemistry is why cell becomes aged and what are the involved factors? Why cell growth is stopped after some divisions and cells become senescent? This occurs in a greater frame in the whole body and cells dye after a while. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a loss or decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem cells. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop novel therapies to increase hair follicle stem cells viability and proliferation.
    Objective
    In this study, we examined the effects of bFGF and aqueous Rosemary leaf and Marshmallow root extracts on human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) proliferation in order to identify their potential for hair growth.
    Methods
    hHF-MSCs were isolated from hair follicle tissues and their mesenchymal nature confirmed by detecting cell surface antigens via flow cytometry. Bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) incorporation assay was used to study the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in hHF-MSCs.
    Results
    Human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF -MSCs) were obtained by organ culture. They exhibited surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells as shown by positive staining for CD44, CD90 and CD105. Herbal extracts and bFGF were found to induce significant proliferation of human hHF-MSCs at concentrations ranging from 10 to 20 μl/ml and 15 to 25μl/ml.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that herbal extract may produce positive effects on the hair growth promotion of hHF-MSCs and suggesting that herbal extracts may be a good candidate for helping hair growth promotion.
    Keywords: Hair follicle, Herbal extracts, Proliferation, Stem cell
  • Zangeneh Mm (D.V.M.) Page 47
    Background
    Certainly, the trend in the treatment of diabetes by ethnomedicinal plants which have fewer side effects than chemical drugs has enhanced. Anthemis odontostephana Boiss has been recently known as an antioxidant, antiflammatory, and antimicrobial agent.
    Objective
    hematoprotective and nephroprotective properties of Anthemis odontostephana Boiss ethanolic extract (AOEE) on diabetic mice has been evaluated in the present study.
    Methods
    In this study, 70 mice were used. Diabetes was experimentally induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in 60 mice. After three days, they were divided randomly into 7 groups. Group I and II served as non-diabetic and untreated diabetic controls, respectively. Group III received 30 mg/kg glibenclamide orally. Groups IV, V, VI and VII were given 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg, respectively of AOEE for 20 days orally. At 20th day, the mice were dissected and blood and Kidney samples of them collected for hematological and pathological parameters analysis.
    Results
    Daily treatment of diabetic mice with several doses of AOEE especially AOEE270 significantly declined FBG levels and improved RBC, platelet and WBC parameters in comparison of untreated diabetic control. Also kidney of the treated diabetic mice with AOEE especially AOEE270 indicated significant improvement of the renal tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic mice.
    Conclusion
    According to the obtained results, all doses of AOEE especially AOEE270 can improve hematological parameters and FBG changes and inhibits from kidney damages in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. It appears that AOEE can be utilized for treatment of diabetic as an antidiabetic drug.
    Keywords: Anthemis odontostephana Boiss, Ethanolic extract, Hematoprotective, nephroprotective properties
  • Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi S. (Phd), Rezaei A. (Phd) Page 61
    Background
    Nitric oxide is a free radical that recently has emerged as a key signaling molecule in regulating important physiological processes in plants.
    Objective
    In this work, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was utilized as the donor of nitric oxide to investigate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide on essential oil, rosmarinic acid and antioxidant activity of in vitro-cultured Melissa officinalis plants.
    Methods
    The Plantlets were treated with different concentrations of SNP (0, 5, 10 and 20 mM) at eight leaf stages.
    Results
    The results showed that SNP decreased trans-caryophyllene and other selected essential oils in M. officinalis plants, while increased most of major components of essential oils. The highest content for linalool, neral and thymol was achieved at 5, 5 and 20 mM of SNP respectively. The highest monoterpene (56.17 % v/w) and sesquiterpene content (76.01 % v/w) were achieved by 5 and 20 mM SNP, respectively. In addition, the class of essential oil compounds varied depending on the SNP concentration. Application of SNP on culture media increased rosmarinic acid production and phenolic levels, which in turn improved the antioxidant properties of the extracts.
    Conclusion
    It seems that nitric oxide elicited M. officinalis culture and increased the secondary metabolite production. This current finding open new opportunities for obtaining valuable natural antioxidants for commercial exploitation by using tissue culture systems.
    Keywords: Melissa officinalis, Antioxidant activity, Essential oils, Nitric oxide, Rosmarinic acid
  • Qavami N. (Phd) Student), Azizi M. (Phd), Yazdian F. (Phd), Qaderi A. (Phd), Nemati H. (Phd) Page 73
    Background
    Papaver bracteatum Lindl. Commonly known as Iranian poppy is an important medicinal plant due to the presence of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.
    Objective
    To evaluate the hairy root culture as a novel method for thebaine production.
    Methods
    To optimize the hairy root culture of P. bracteatum, five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (ATCC15834, C318, A13, 9453 and A4) were used by means of Sonication-Assisted Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation (SAAT).
    Results
    Strain C318 proved to be more efficient than the other strains to hairy root induction ability. Among different experimental conditions, the highest transformation rate (28.5 %) was observed 4 weeks after inoculation, once the explants were subjected to sonication (45 s) following a heat treatment of 41°C for 5 min. Transgenic status of the hairy roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers.
    Conclusion
    Strain C318 proved to be more efficient than the other strains to hairy root induction ability. Among different experimental conditions, the highest transformation rate (28.5 %) was observed 4 weeks after inoculation, once the explants were subjected to sonication (45 s) following a heat treatment of 41°C for 5 min. Transgenic status of the hairy roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers.
    Keywords: Papaver bracteatum Lindl. Hairy root, Sonication, assisted Agrobacterium, mediated transformation, Thebaine
  • Gholaman M. (Msc), Gholami M. (Phd) Page 83
    Background
    Physical activity combined with some herbal supplementations can affect body energy metabolism, blood lipids and physical fitness levels. However, the effect of exercise training combined with fenugreek on lipid metabolism and body composition in patients with type2 diabetes is unknown.
    Objective
    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks’ endurance training along with fenugreek seed supplement on lipid profile, body composition, insulin resistance and VO2max in obese women with type2 diabetes.
    Methods
    For conducting present study, 40 obese women with type2 diabetes and mean age 44.2 ± 2.5 years and body mass index (BMI) 32.58±1.67 kg/m2 assigned in four groups (each group 10 person) include Placebo, Fenugreek, Exercise training and Exercise trainingᗩ랞 groups. Running endurance training program performed for eight weeks, three sessions in a week and 30- 55 minutes in each session. Training intensity increased from %45 reserve heart rate in the first week to %65 reserve heart rate in the last week. Subjects in Fenugreek and Exercise training Fenugreek groups consumed daily 15g fenugreek seeds mixed with yogurt in three meals (each meal
    five g) include morning, noon and night.
    Results
    results indicate a significant decrease of percent body fat and significant increase of VO2max in both trained groups (P
    Conclusion
    Fenugreek consumption increases the endurance training induced adaptations in obese women afflicted with type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords: Body composition, Diabetes mellitus, Endurance training, Fenugreek seeds