فهرست مطالب

ترویج علم - سال هفتم شماره 11 (پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • سال هفتم شماره 11 (پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
|
|
  • Zahra Maher Page 5
    Penetration and diffusion of ideas and scientific rules among the public develops slowly. A new constructed scientific idea by experts, even when is accepted in the special scientific community, takes a long time to reach to the public. It took almost 100 years that simple scientific data such as ground rotation, which is considered obvious today, become an accepted truth among the public. However, the speed of information and ideas diffusion is very various in different parts of the world. This article aims to present a method for measuring the cultural distance between the public thinking and the concepts of astronomy. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is measuring the distance between the scientific concepts of astronomy and the public awareness. The main question which is examined in the present article is “how much is the cultural distance
    regarding different scientific concepts of astronomy and how long it take a scientific idea accepted by the public and become universal?” The population aged from 15 to 79 years old in 15 districts of Isfahan in 2016 has been addressed in this study. The method of sampling is quota sampling which categorized the population based on the indicators such as “gender”, “age” and “district”, and 630 questionnaires were distributed among the participants. The data analysis was done using SPSS and a method was offered for measuring the distance scientific idea and the public perception of that idea. The distance is measured based on years of formal education. It seems that factors such as complexity of a scientific phenomenon, the duration of life cycle of that phenomenon and the influence of it on the citizens daily life impacts the cultural distance between scientific idea and the public perception.
    Keywords: Public perception of science, Cultural distance, Science, The public
  • Seyedeh Zahra Ojagh Page 23
    Media are the main actors in public communication of science (PCS) that they could change awareness, cognition, attitude, and behavior. Lewenstein (2003) described four common models of PCS which included Deficit model, Contextual model, Lay-public model, and Public participation model. The main objective of the first two models is increasing the level of individual science literacy, and public understanding. The goal of the other two models is empowering public and local groups, i.e. they try to improve
    interaction between scientific knowledge and other types of the knowledge, and participation in order to offer solutions for issues and problems that science seeks to resolve them. In the last two models, the issue of public understanding is related to social
    communications. None of these four models are superior to the other, and all of them have their strengths and weaknesses. So, according to the intention of PCS, it may apply one of the models. This paper describes attributes of the two first models by reviewing theoretical and experimental works, and puts forward an analysis for domination of deficit model on how to inform about Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.
    Keywords: Public communication of science, Deficit model, Contextual model, Science literacy, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Masoud Ariannejad Page 31
    One of the main concerns and issues in all levels of education in Iran is the possibility of curriculums diversity as an alternative better way for replacing by central unique curriculums development. In other words we usually expose with a central unique curriculum for each part of the national and general education and prohibiting curriculum diversity. The problem is because of these unique centralized curriculums may lose their live flexibility for encountering the new necessities and situations. This encourages curriculums experts or specialists to propose for extending more freedom in presenting new and up to date curriculums depending the social and economic requests. Sure this may be done by national and well known centers such as high ranked universities and institutes to provide dynamic curriculums so as to admit new horizons of knowledge, new needed skills and economy demands. In this article we address these notions and ideas and try to provide an introductory content for to encourage a scientific national dialogue in this respect.
    Keywords: Curriculum Development, University, Knowledge, Education
  • Nasser Ali Azimi Page 47
    Today’s press contents can easily guide the intellectual and ideological orientation of the society. Given the circumstances, the discussion about how to deal with the content of newspapers is of particular importance. One of the most important challenges in the country’s press industry is the lack of attention paid to scientific approaches which can lead to providing the intended articles without a systematic form and based on principles of propaganda rather than logic for the audience. This paper attempts to address the above-mentioned challenge. In this research content analysis methodology was adapted to analyze the processes and scientific orientations of newspapers’ articles. The sampling
    was carried out by the classification method and a statistical sample was established in the four newspapers Shargh, Kayhan, Hambestegi and Jomhori .Given the large amount of information, according to Stempl’s theory 24 title headings were chosen from each newspaper. A total of 94 title headings have been reviewed and analyzed. The findings show that, when there is a scientific approach, Joumhourie newspaper had the highest
    percentage at 71 percent followed by Shargh at 71 percent, Hambastegi at 67 percent and Kayhan at 64 percent.
    Keywords: Content analysis, the press, Scientific approaches, Critical, Scientific orientation
  • Navid Behrouz Page 65
    Undoubtedly, people’s participation is a contributing factor in the process of urban renewal. Rehabilitation and improvement to run-down urban areas will not be entirely possible if residents of such areas are not engaged or even involved in decision-making processes and executive affairs by creating trust and reliance. Hereupon, increasing rate of exhaustion and lack of quality in the urban areas- central part of Khalkhal City in particularleads into migration of well-off locals and being replaced by less well-off
    people. Thus taking public contribution into consideration shall play a crucial role in fixing dilapidated urban areas. Given the issues raised, this article tries to find out the amount of citizen’s participation in restored central areas of Khalkhal City and the efficiency of this contribution in enhancement of quality and stability of studied areas through utilizing
    different methods of research and study such as documentary, observational, interviewing and data analysis. Based on study results, taking people’s participation in the process of urban renewal into account, will have a conclusive importance in succession of amelioration projects.
    Keywords: Improvement, people's participation, sustainable development, central areas of Khalkhal City
  • Sepideh Babania, Mohammad Hasan Vakilpoor Page 75
    Given the importance of productive resources in cultivation of agricultural products, planning and management for optimum resource utilization is of great improtance and in this regard appropriate policies are required. One of the policies that have been proposed in recent years in the field is targeted subsidies policy.Initiate limited resources in agriculture and the need to increase agricultural production in response to high consumer demand cause to strain on the environment and harming it. Critical limit this pressure is
    mainly for the widespread use of chemical inputs, accordingly most important aspect of environmental disturbing agricultural practices is usage of agricultural inputs especially chemical inputs. The study is a reviewing method through the existing data on reputable sources related to agriculture, such as books, magazines and other scientific research published and Internet was used. So examines the importance of implement productive
    resources, especially chemical resources in agricultural products, the concept of subsidy inputs is also examined. Finally for getting better results, it was recommended to establish free extension- education Methods for farmers in the previous context.
    Keywords: Chemical inputs, Policy advocacy, Environmental, Agricultural products
  • A Review and Critique of the Culture Industry in Frankfurt School / (With an Emphasis on Theories of Horkheimer and Adorno)
    Amir Farokhvandi, Fateme Parsi Page 85
    The critical theory of the Frankfurt school is the product of those German neo-Marxists who criticize the economic determinism of Marxist theory and its one-dimensional emphasis on economic factors. Instead of economic factors, their discussions were mainly focused on the cultural level. And its theorists to believe that in the modern world, the origin of the domination has moved from the economy into the realm of culture. The term of ‘Culture industry’ has been named by Adorno and Horkheimer. In which a standard culture of top-down production and through the media, such as consumer goods, to be given to the masses and with the unification of the masses and generate false needs, serves the dominant hegemony. Adorno's solution is turning to pure art that causes failure to follow similar patterns and thus boost the creative mind and true individuality and rationality. The research methodology adopted in the present study is analyticaldescriptive method. The paper attempts to review the issue of cultural industry in the Frankfurt School with an emphasis on theories of Horkheimer and Adorno. Finally, this theory will be criticized from various aspects. Keywords: Culture industry, Mass culture, Media and Publicity, Control and Surveillance, Formal rationality, Awareness and Freedom of Activists.