- پیاپی 23 (زمستان 1396)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/09
- تعداد عناوین: 7
صفحات 8-30هدف پژوهش حاضر، آینده پژوهی و سناریو نگاری در توسعه و بهبود صنعت گردشگری شهر یاسوج بر پایه روش تحلیل اثرات متقاطع و CIB می باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی، از حیث روش پیمایشی در سطح اکتشافی و مبتنی بر رویکرد آینده پژوهی و سناریو نگاری صورت گرفته است. پژوهش در سه مرحله تعیین شاخص های کلیدی از طریق روش دلفی، شناسایی پیشران های حیاتی از طریق نرم افزار MicMac بر پایه روش تحلیل اثرات متقاطع و تدوین سناریو بر پایه Scenario Wizard مبتنی بر روش سایب انجام گرفته است. جامعه آماری در مرحله اول 30 نفر از متخصصان جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، متخصصان گردشگری و کارشناسان خبره اجرایی استان، در مرحله دوم به صورت هدفمند هیئت 15 نفری و در مرحله سوم به صوت متمرکز انتخاب شدند. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش از میان 37 عامل کلیدی، 8 پیشران حیاتی از جمله؛ شرایط آب و هوایی و اقلیم، طرح جامع گردشگری، تاسیسات زیربنایی، رسانه ها، خدمات رفاهی، آداب و رسوم، بخش خصوصی و امنیت را به عنوان عوامل و پیشران های کلیدی توسعه صنعت گردشگری شهر یاسوج مشخص کرد. در نهایت پیشران های حیاتی در80 حالت با سه وضعیت تدوین و 80 درصد وضعیت ها نشان از مطلوبیت و 20 درصد نشان از ثبات و بحران سازمان فضایی صنعت گردشگری داشتند. مطلوب ترین سناریو، سناریوی شماره یک پیشنهاد گردیده که مبتنی بر حفظ، تدوین، افزایش، تعامل، توسعه، رشد کمی و کیفی، افزایش و بهبود امنیت خواهد بود.کلیدواژگان: صنعت گردشگری، تحلیل اثرات متقاطع، CIB، شهر یاسوج
صفحات 31-58در دهه های گذشته با توجه به افزایش نقش گردشگری، کشورها به مدیریت و تدوین سیاست های مناسب برای توسعه پایدار گردشگری پرداختند. هدف این مقاله مقایسه ساختار مدیریت و برنامه ریزی گردشگری خانه های دوم در کشور های منتخب می باشد و تلاش می شود نقاط قوت و ضعف نظام برنامه ریزی گردشگری خانه های دوم ایران در مقایسه با این کشورها (کشور های پرتغال، آفریقا جنوبی، ترکیه و برزیل که بر اساس معیار های مبتنی بر نظریه فایول مقایسه شده است) مشخص شود. نتایج این تحقیق که با استفاده از روش تطبیقی با تحلیل کیفی با شیوه تحلیل محتوا، انجام شده مشخص نموده است که در ایران دو دسته مشکلات عام (مربوط به سطح کلان برنامه ریزی درکشور، مانند: نگرش برنامه ریزی جامع، بخشی بودن و...) و مشکلات درسطح منطقه ای (ساختار برنامه ریزی و مدیریتی در سطح مجموعه مناطق روستایی، مانند: عدم و یا مشارکت کم محلی، عدم وجود الگوی بومی و...) در زمینه گردشگری روستایی و خانه های دوم وجود دارد.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت برنامه ریزی، خانه های دوم، گردشگری روستایی
صفحات 59-76در این مقاله یک سیستم آگاه به زمینه جهت پیشنهاد مکان به گروهی از گردشگران ارائه شده است. سیستم پیشنهادی فاکتورهای علاقه ی گردشگران و مسافت طی شده را لحاظ می کند و به دنبال حداکثرسازی میزان رضایت آنها است. به این منظور به خوشه بندی اشخاص متناسب با علایق آن ها پرداخته می شود و با استفاده از الگوریتم هوش تکاملی PSO به پیشنهاد بهترین مکان ها برای هر روز گردشگران در مدت اقامت آن ها می پردازد. در نهایت با استفاده از فرمول های پیشنهاد شده در منابع قبل، رضایت کاربران برای سیستم پیشنهادی و همچنین روش های قبلی کمی سازی و مقایسه گردیده است. نتایج پیاده سازی و شبیه سازی نشان دهنده ی افزایش قابل توجه رضایت گردشگران از سیستم پیشنهادی در مقایسه با روش های سنتی پیشنهاد مسیر، روش تصادفی و همچنین ارائه ی مسیر با الگوی مشخص برای حالت مطالعه شهر اصفهان می باشد.کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، راهنمای تور، تور گروهی، الگوریتم تکاملی PSO
بررسی عوامل موثر بر رشد گردشگری با تاکید بر رقابت پذیری مقصد کاربردی از روش داده های تابلویی پویا و تخمین زن GMM-Sysصفحات 77-104رقابت پذیری از مهم ترین مسائل در اقتصاد کشورهاست. در حوزه ی گردشگری نیز افزایش توان رقابتی می تواند با حفظ و افزایش سهم بازار منجر به افزایش رشد این بخش و به تبع آن رفاه ملی شود. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل عوامل موثر بر رشد بخش گردشگری با تاکید بر رقابت پذیری مقصد برای 63 کشور منتخب، طی دوره زمانی 2016-2007 انجام شده است. روش در برآورد مبتنی بر داده های تابلویی پویا و تخمین زن گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته سیستمی می باشد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که در مجموع اثر رقابت پذیری مقصد بر رشد ارزش افزوده حقیقی بخش گردشگری، اثری مثبت می باشد. البته نوع و اندازه ی آن در گروه های مختلف کشوری متفاوت است. بدین شرح که در تفکیک کشورها براساس ویژگی هایی نظیر صادرکننده گی سوخت؛ سطح درآمد؛ قرار داشتن در سطح ده کشور برتر از حیث تعداد گردشگران و میزان مخارج صورت گرفته در بخش گردشگری؛ و سطح توسعه یافتگی تفاوت معناداری در علامت و اندازه ی اثرگذاری رقابت پذیری مقصد بر رشد گردشگری مشاهده می شود. همچنین اثرپذیری رشد بخش گردشگری از سهم گردشگری در تولید ناخالص داخلی، جمعیت و نرخ ارز حقیقی مثبت است.کلیدواژگان: رشد گردشگری، رقابت پذیری مقصد، داده های تابلویی پویا
صفحات 105-136مبنای برندسازی برای هر مقصد گردشگری، خصوصیات و ویژگی های منحصر به فرد محیطی است که تحت عنوان عوامل کیفیت محیطی از آن ها یاد می شود زیرا کیفیت محیطی مطلوب زمینه ساز شکل گیری حس مثبت به مقصدهای گردشگری و سرانجام توسه گردشگری است. تبیین کیفیت محیطی و به تبع آن برندسازی مقاصد گردشگری روستایی کمک شایانی به ایجاد یک تجربه لذت بخش و خاطره به یادماندنی در اذهان گردشگران می کند و وفاداری گردشگر به مقصد و نهایتا جذب بیشتر گردشگر و رونق گردشگری منطقه را به دنبال خواهد داشت؛ بنابراین شناسایی عوامل کیفیت محیطی و تبیین سهم هریک از آنها کمک زیادی به برندسازی و نهایتا بازاریابی و توسعه گردشگری این مقاصد می کند. با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع، در این تحقیق به تعیین سهم عوامل کیفیت محیطی منطقه قومی- فرهنگی اورامانات به منظور برندسازی برای مقصدهای گردشگری روستایی این منطقه، پرداخته شده است. در این تحقیق در ابتدا از روش کیفی تحلیل محتوا برای شناسایی عوامل کیفیت محیطی استفاده شد و سپس به کمک روش تحلیل مسیر به تعیین سهم هر یک از این عوامل و ارتباط آن با برندسازی پرداخته شد. براساس نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه های تکمیل شده و تحلیل همبستگی، رگرسیون چندمتغیره و تحلیل مسیر میان عوامل کیفیت محیطی به عنوان متغیر مستقل و برند مقصد گردشگری اورامانات به عنوان متغیر وابسته در نهایت عامل محیط اجتماعی- فرهنگی با 45/0 درصد بیشترین تاثیر(اعم از مستقیم و غیر مستقیم) را بر متغیر وابسته(برند مقصد گردشگری اورامانات) داشته و عامل محیط طبیعی با 12/0 درصد کمترین تاثیر را بر متغیر وابسته داشته است؛ عوامل محیط نهادی، کالبدی و اقتصادی نیز به ترتیب با 36/0، 32/0 و 16/0 در این میان قرار دارند.کلیدواژگان: کیفیت محیطی، برندسازی، مقصد گردشگری، تحلیل مسیر، منطقه قومی، فرهنگی اورامانات
صفحات 137-154هدف از این پژوهش بررسی رفتارهای متعاقب مصرف الکل توسط گردشگران خارجی غیر مسلمان در حقوق کیفری ایران از جهت جرم بودن یا نبودن آن و در صورت جرم بودن شناسائی عناصر مقوم آن است. در همین راستا به کنکاش در احادیث معصومین و واکاوی کلام فقها و تحلیل ماده 266 قانون مجازات اسلامی و تبصره آن پرداخته شد. بر این اساس مصرف الکل توسط گردشگر غیر مسلمان در قلمرو سرزمینی ایران جرم نمی باشد مگر آنکه این شخص در انظار عمومی تظاهر به مصرف الکل کند به طوری که دیگران را متوجه عمل خود گرداند یا در حال مستی در اماکن عمومی ظاهر شود هر چند توسط دیگران دیده نشود البته باید در نظر داشت در این جرایم اصل بر جهل غیر مسلمان خارجی از قوانین جزایی است در نتیجه علم وی باید اثبات گردد تا مجرم شناخته شود. اگر غیر مسلمان خارجی متاثر از مصرف الکل اعم از اینکه مست یا درحال مستی باشد هر رفتار مجرمانه دیگری مرتکب شود مسئول است مگر اینکه در زمان ارتکاب آن اختیار نداشته باشد که در اینصورت مسئولیت کیفری نخواهد داشت. مستندات و مباحث این تحقیق با استفاده از روش کتابخانه ای جمع آوری و تحلیل شده است.کلیدواژگان: الکل، تظاهر، مستی، گردشگر، غیر مسلمان
صفحات 155-170حقوق بین الملل هنوز فاقد مقررات الزام آور در حوزه گردشگری است اما می توان از قواعد عام و نرم مرتبط با حقوق بیگانگان و گردشگری، قواعد و اصولی را استخراج نمود که در حقوق گردشگری نیز قابل استناد باشد. پژوهش تحلیلی – توصیفی حاضر نشان می دهد مفهوم حق بر تفریح که در اسناد حقوق بشر شناسایی شده است؛ توسعه یافته و شامل حق بر گردشگری نیز می شود، اما ورود به سرزمین دولت غیرمتبوع، مستلزم رعایت ملاحظات داخلی آن کشور است که باید بدون هرگونه تبعیض اعمال شود. اصل رفتار متقابل تا جایی که به نقض حقوق بنیادین منجر نشود، اصل آزادی و استثنا تلقی شدن محدودیت ورود اتباع خارجی در چارچوب حق آزادی رفت و آمد، بر استدلال های مربوط به اثبات حق گردشگری افزوده است. نتیجه تحقیق حاضر نشان می دهد که حقوق بین الملل موجود گردشگر را به عنوان بیگانه و فارغ از معاهدات دوجانبه حمایتی، موضوع و مستحق حقوق بنیادین بشری می داند که با ابزارهایی چون دسترسی کنسولی و حمایت دیپلماتیک، تامین می گردد. برخی حقوق مرتبط با گردشگری نیز توسط دولت میزبان باید تضمین شود و موسسات خدمات مسافرتی نیز نقش مهمی در رعایت این حقوق دارند. این حقوق عمدتا در کد جهانی اخلاق گردشگری و پیش نویس کنوانسیون اخلاق گردشگری مورد حمایت قرار گرفته اند.کلیدواژگان: حق بر گردشگری، حقوق بنیادین، حقوق گردشگر خارجی، تبعه بیگانه، حاکمیت دولت میزبان
Pages 8-30The purpose of the current study is to investigate the scenario designing in the development and improvement of tourism industry in Yasuj, based on cross-effects and CIB. The present research is an applied research in terms of the purpose, a survey research at the survey level based in terms of the method conducted based on the future studies and scenario designing. The research was conducted in three stages including the determination of the key indexes through the Delphi method, identification of vital drivers through the MicMac software based on the cross-effects analysis method and scenario designing according to Scenario Wizard based on Cybe method. Statistical population is included 30 geographic and urban and regional planners, tourism specialists and executive experts of the province in the first stage. In the second stage, the statistical population was selected purposefully in 15-person group and in the third stage was selected centrally. The results of the research consist of 37 key factors, including eight critical factors such as climatic conditions, comprehensive tourism plan, infrastructures, media, welfare services, customs, private sector and security as key factors and drivers of the development of tourism industry in Yasuj city. Ultimately, vital drivers in 80 states with three development situations and 80% of the statuses indicate utility and 20% of the statuses indicate the stability and crisis of the spatial organization of the tourism industry. The scenario 1 is proposed the most desirable scenario, which will be based on maintaining, compiling, rising, interacting, developing, growth quantitatively and qualitatively, and improving security.IntroductionAt the beginning of the third millennium, future studies have transformed the scattered and inconsistent researched in the field of planning for the future into a disciplined science with rigorous principles and precise methods. By using it, in addition to analyzing the trends of the past, it was possible to discover, invent, and evaluate the possible future, and change, if necessary. One of these important issues, which plays a very important role in the economic development of cities and villages and can lead to improved economic growth and better quality of life through prospects and scenario design, is the development of the tourism industry. Today, tourism is becoming one of the main pillars of the world's commercial economy, and many planners are referred to as the main pillar of development. Tourism is one of the important activities enjoying a special status in the economic development of some countries in recent decades. Therefore, by considering the tourism potential of Yasuj city and taking advantage of strategic management approaches and futures studies and relying on planning models based on scenario, there is attempted to provide the growth and development of the tourism industry in Yasuj city.Materials And MethodsIn the present study, the expert Delphi model and the MIC MAC software and Scenario Wizard software, and strategic management approaches and future studies are used.
Discussion andResultKey indicators play both an influential and effective role in the growth and development of the Yasuj tourism industry including climate, comprehensive tourism plan, infrastructure facilities, media, welfare services, customs, private sector and security. And also the best possible scenario for developing the tourism industry in Yasuj city was obtained by CIB method.ConclusionsFinally, the results of the research showed that among the scenarios, the final 10 final scenarios were refined and selected and 60% of the statues with favorable future and 20% of statues had a poor status. The best scenario from all scenarios was Scenario 1, which the climate based on conservation, comprehensive tourism plan based on codification, development- based facilities, rise- based services, interactions-based media, quality/quantity-based customs and quantity- based and rise-based security.Keywords: Tourism, Cross, Impact Analysis, CIB, City of Yasouj
Pages 31-58IntroductionToday, a managing issue in rural areas is how to take a proper advantage of beautiful rural lands and landscapes. The utilization of rural lands has several dimensions, but one of the most important and developing usages of these lands is the tourism and entertainment dimension. This type of usage has a great influence on the stability of rural lands and regions through the establishment of the second homes in rural areas and the tourists longer residence, compared to other types of tourism. In the procedure of managing and planning of developing the second homes in many countries, the governments try their best to face with the least environmental side effects and therefore, every land usage is determined based on the sustainable development plans. Hence, precise study of managing experiences and second-home planning in other countries can provide the required experiential instructions bases to establish the sustainable managing structure with Irans situation.Materials And MethodsThis paper is one of those comparative studies with qualitative analysis and content-analysis method. The aim of this paper is to reveal the shortcomings and strengths of the management framework and rural tourism planning (second homes), and to achieve this objective, the rural tourism plannings structure (second homes) of Iran is compared to Turkey, South Africa, Portugal and Brazil. The selection of these countries is due to the existence of management and planning for second homes in them.
Discussion andResultsThe government has a directorial role in tourism planning (second homes) in Portugal and Brazil. In South Africa, the role of local participation has increased. In Turkey and Iran, this planning is centralized and done by the government. The relationship between the different levels of planning in aforementioned countries is based on their planning framework. Plans are done in Iran and Turkey in a concentrated way, but in Portugal, the relationship between the planning levels is based on the Federal system. In South Africa, the planning framework is adapting the local management to the higher levels of management. The level of local management in managing structure of Brazil is also determined. The four aforementioned countries (Brazil, Turkey, Portugal and South Africa) have a native paradigm to plan for second homes in tourism.ConclusionAccording to the study of the planning for rural tourism and second homes in aforementioned countries and comparing such thing to the studies and programs that are formulated in managing and tourism planning of second homes in Iran, we will face with two types of issues in our country: general issues related to substantial level of planning in this country (comprehensive planning view, being sectional, lack of a proper position for rural tourism and second home in development plans and ) and regional issues (low level of participation of locals and NGOs in rural tourism planning (second homes) defect in infrastructural facilities the up-down relationship of management with higher levels and ). Considering the existing issues of management and proper planning for the second homes in Iran, the following strategies are suggested in order to reach to a stable development of second-home tourism: The levels of planning: national (determining a strategy for rural and tourism problems determining the position of rural and tourism plans in national plans), regional (the interrelation of governmental and private organizations in rural issues performing implementation actions for rural and tourism projects prioritizing the rural and tourism actions), local (providing the required actions for tourism and rural projects motivating the local tourism in rural institutions the interrelation of local management with higher levels); designing a native paradigm (considering to the social, cultural, and economical stability in . constructing a number of parks to develop the second homes establishing security, environmental and framework rules); the role of the government (directorial and motivational role for tourism in local level); organizational interrelation (performing the tourism problems in an organization or a ministry).Keywords: Planning, Management, Second Homes, Rural Tourism
Pages 59-76In this paper, a context-aware system is proposed to offer places for visit to a group of tourists. The proposed system takes into account the factors of the tourist's interests as well as the travelled distance and seeks to maximize their satisfaction. To this end, clustering of individuals is performed according to their interests. Therefore, by using the PSO algorithm, the proposed system offers the best places for tourists during their stay. The simulation and implementation results of the proposed system show that tourists are more quantitatively satisfied in comparison with three previous methods for a case study of the city of Isfahan.IntroductionOne of the ways for tourists to visit unfamiliar places is to use the tourist guide systems so that the they can get better suggestions. These systems often have a great deal of influence on the decisions they make by providing information about attractions that are relevant to the needs of the tourists (Samany, 2012).
Today, people are interested in group trips. Nonetheless, most of the tour-guide applications seek support for a tourist and do not include services for social tourism (Buriano, 2006). On the other hand, tourists expect that if they want to travel with a group of people they can use the technology available in the tour-guide systems (Groh, 2015). In this paper, the subject of group tourism has been studied and a system is proposed that can support group of tourists.Materials And MethodsContext-aware systems provide intelligent services by knowing the information of user situation and environment. These systems are used to remove unnecessary information by doing some sort of content filtering (Pessemier, 2014). "The context refers to any kind of information that describes the situation of an entity. An entity can be considered as a person, a place, or any object that interacts with the system" (Dey, 2001). In many cases, different tourists have different needs and preferences, so the use of contextual information plays an important role in providing special offers to them (Adomavicius, 2016).
In group tours, there is a shared desire for people to visit a place. To meet this goal, the proposed system has been designed to cluster people according to their interests. Placing people with similar interests in a group will allow the satisfaction of all members of the group to be met with a proposal tailored to the interests of the group. For this purpose, a DBSCAN-based clustering algorithm has been proposed. The proposed algorithm clusters people based on their interest dispersion.
In each day, the proposed system offers seven places with the highest personal and group priority to each tourist group. Given that the number of tourist attractions in a city may be high, the PSO particle swarm algorithm, which is one of the evolutionary intelligence algorithms for large space search, has been used. Each particle represents a selection of tourist attractions. Finally, due to the lack of familiarity with the important places such as hospital, pharmacy or restaurant in the city, there is a mechanism to suggest at any moment the nearest restaurant, hospital or pharmacy.
Discussion andResultsThe implementation of the proposed system is based on the C # programming language and MySQL database. In order to evaluate the results, the proposed system is compared with the previous three methods. The comparison results show that the proposed system has greatly succeeded in satisfying the groups of tourists.ConclusionsThe proposed system has been instrumental in targeting the satisfaction of group of tourists through their categorization as well as the context-aware suggestions. The system could be extended by considering other types of context elements as well as specifying the groups with more details (e.g. Family, friendly or colleague's groups).Keywords: Tourism, Tour Guide, Group Tour, PSO Algorithm
An Investigation of Effective Factors in the Growth of the Tourism with an Emphasis on Destination Competitiveness (Application of DPDM and GMM-Sys Estimator)Pages 77-104Competitiveness is one of the most important issues in the economy of countries. In the field of tourism, the increase in competitive ability can lead to an increase in the growth of this sector and, consequently, on national welfare by maintaining and increasing market share. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the growth of tourism sector with an emphasis on destination competitiveness for 63 selected countries during the period 2016-2007. The method was based on dynamic panel data and system generalized method of moment (GMM-Sys) estimator. The results indicated that destination competitiveness has a positive effect on the growth of the real value added of the tourism sector. Of course, its type and size vary from country to country. Thus, in the differentiation of countries based on features such as fuel exports, income levels; being in the top ten countries in terms of the number of tourists and the amount of expenditure in the tourism sector; and the level of development, there is a significant difference in the sign and size of the impact of destination competitiveness on tourism growth. Also, the growth of the tourism sector is positively related to the share of tourism in GDP, population and real exchange rate.IntroductionToday, the tourism industry is considered as one of the most important industries in the world and its increasing importance has led to the recognition of not only as an industry but also as a productive industry, with many potential in growth, development and positive economic effects. Accordingly, attention to the growth of the tourism sector and the factors that improve it are important. Competition is one of the issues that can affect this industry. The competitive environment created in the international tourism industry has revealed the need for attention to the competitive ability of tourism destinations. The competitiveness of a destination is attributed to its ability to compete effectively and profitable in the tourism market and refers to the amount of attraction of tourists in order to increase the prosperity of the destination. In other words, destination competitiveness is an economic concept that influences the sustainable development of the tourism industry. Regarding the importance of tourism and the growing competition between the countries of destination, the present study first seeks to answer the question of what factors affect the growth of the tourism sector in a select group of countries that are composed of different groups? Among the various factors, the main focus is on the destination competitiveness. On the other hand, different groups of the countries, due to their specific characteristics, can be different in type and size of the impact of destination competitiveness on tourism growth; and have a different role in attracting tourists. Therefore, the other goal of the present research is to answer the second question, which is essentially whether differences between different groups of countries have a significant difference in the type and size of the impact of destination competitiveness? In other words, if the differences such as the degree of development, the level of income, export of fuel, and the ranking of countries in the top (among the ten first countries in terms of tourism or the number of tourists entering or expenditure (investment) for the tourism sector) creates a kind of relationship between destination competitiveness and the growth of the tourism sector?Materials And MethodsIn this study, according to previous studies and especially according to Webster and Ivanov (2014), the research model is as follows: (1) The relation (1) corresponds to the beta conditional convergence equation in which ΔLnTGDP as a dependent variable represents the change in the logarithm of the real value added of the tourism sector. Represents the logarithm of first lag in the real value added of the tourism sector. The TTCI represents the destination competitiveness. TTCI have been extracted from reports published by the World Economic Forum (WEF). Tour Share is the share of tourism in GDP. POP is population size and RExR is the real exchange rate.
Index of represents the time period of the research, covering the period from 2007 to 2016. also represents 63 countries, including China, Germany, Japan, the USA, France, India, Italy, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Turkey, Thailand, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Philippines, Switzerland, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Argentina, Sweden, UAE, Malaysia, Netherlands, Greece, Portugal, Norway, New Zealand, Iran, Singapore, South Africa, Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Poland, Finland, Nigeria, Peru, Egypt, Pakistan, Morocco, Venezuela, Vietnam, Ireland, Colombia, Qatar, Czech Republic, Hungary, Botswana, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Albania, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Romania, Panama, Kazakhstan Jordan, Costa Rica, Kuwait and Kenya. In order to answer the questions in the introduction section, the relationship (1) as the main model of research was redefined in six scenarios.ConclusionsThe results indicate that the share of tourism in GDP, population and real exchange rate have a positive effect on the growth of the tourism sector. In addition, the effect of the destination competitiveness on the growth of the value added of the tourism sector is positive. Of course, the type and size of the effect of this variable is different in the groups of the country. The growth of tourism in the fuel exporting countries has a different impact (both in size and in terms of sign) of the target competitiveness indicator. In fuel exporting countries, unlike other countries, destination competitiveness has a negative impact on tourism growth. In the high income countries, the impact of destination competitiveness on the growth is positive, while in the middle income countries, the effect is negative. Also in the countries which are among the first ten countries, both in terms of the number of tourists and in terms of expenditures (for the tourism sector), the impact of destination competitiveness on the growth of tourism is different from the other countries. So that, in this group of countries, the destination competitiveness influences the growth of the tourism sector more intensively. The level of development has also been effective in terms of size and sign of influence. As in developed countries and economies in transition, destination competitiveness has led to a decline in the growth of the tourism sector, while in developing countries; this has been accompanied by an increase in the growth of the tourism.Keywords: Growth of the tTourism Sector, Destination Competitiveness, Dynamic Panel Data
Analysis of Factors of Environmental Quality Effective in Branding Rural Tourism Destinations (Case Study: Ethno-Cultural Region of Avramanat in Provinces of Kurdistan and Kermanshah)Pages 105-136Extended Abstract: The branding basis for all tourist destinations includes unique environmental characteristics which are also known as Factors of Environmental Quality. The reason why these features are called so is because the optimal quality of such environments will inevitably result in a better appreciation of such destinations which, in turn, will help develop tourism.
Delineating environmental quality as well as branding for rural tourist destinations helps in creating an enjoyable and memorable experience for the tourists. Other consequences which follow include the tourists loyalty to a certain destination and, ultimately, the attraction of even more tourists which will lead to a boom in the tourism industry of the region.
Given the importance of this issue, the researchers of this study have endeavored to determine the role of environmental factors in the ethno-cultural area of Oramanat. First, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify environmental factors; then, through correlation analysis, multivariate regression and path analysis, the contribution of each of these factors and its relationship with branding have been determined. Based on the results, the factor of socio-cultural environment has the highest impact of 0.45% (Including direct and indirect), and the natural environment factor had the least effect, i.e. only 0.26%, on the dependent variable (Oramanat tourist destination brand); the institutional, physical and economic factors are also 36/0, 32/0 and 16/0 respectively.ObjectivesNowadays, tourist destinations have to compete with other international, national, regional, provincial, municipal and local tourist destinations. The factors of environmental quality, including environmental education, cultural heritage attractions, the infrastructure of tourism and natural resources, have an important contribution to strengthening the competitiveness of the tourist destination. If goods and services are not as optimal in quality as tourists expect them to be, then tourists will visit other centers which provide them with better services.
Human habitats can be the most desirable factor in fulfilling the expectations of people. In other words, if the above-mentioned factors do not have optimal qualities in a certain persons living environment, then their low qualities will negatively influence that persons perception of space and his or her ultimate satisfaction with their living environment.
The important issue in planning for rural areas is the improvement of the environmental quality of tourist destinations within the context and framework of sustainable development goals because suitable environments are one of the most important factors for the selection of a tourist destination. These factors can be explained with the help of certain indices. For instance, tourism plans for rural areas should also take into account such other goals as sustainable development of the rural areas as well as the preservation of their natural environments.
The branding basis for all tourist destinations includes unique environmental characteristics which are also known as Factors of Environmental Quality. The reason why these features are called so is because the optimal quality of such environments will inevitably result in a better appreciation of such destinations which, in turn, will help develop tourism.
Delineating environmental quality as well as branding for rural tourist destinations helps in creating an enjoyable and memorable experience for the tourists. Other consequences which follow include the tourists loyalty to a certain destination and, ultimately, the attraction of even more tourists which will lead to a boom in the tourism industry of the region.
Unfortunately, the quality of services in rural tourism has often been considered as a hindering issue, and this is not just for tourists, stakeholders or customers; scientists and researchers have also been concerned with this issue and that is why 143 researches have been conducted on this issue between 2005 and 2016.
The concept of quality is closely and inevitably associated with satisfaction. This concept influences and is at the same time influenced by the loyalty of tourists/consumers. The findings of a large number of researchers confirm that this is an important issue. Thus, identifying factors of environmental quality greatly contributes to branding and as well as the marketing and ultimate development of tourism in these destinations.
Keeping this principle in mind that solving any problem requires a comprehensive understanding of the current situation, in this study, we endeavor to contribute to the development of rural tourism as well as its marketing and branding through the assessment of environmental quality factors, and the capabilities and attractions of the villages within study area. Therefore, the researchers of this study sought to identify and validate the factors of environmental quality of the ethno-cultural region of Oramanat in order to help the branding processes for the attractions of this rural area.MethodsSince the present research is originally the continuation of the research processes of the first paper (Published in the Journal of Rural Studies, in the Summer 96), the same content analysis methodology will also be used in this research for the identification as well as the validation processes of the factors and indices of effective environmental quality which are important for the branding of rural tourist destinations.
Due to the nature of the subject matter of this research, its methodology is a combination of several methods which are based on observations, interviews, surveys and statistical data which are taken from the Statistical Center of Iran.
Documentary and survey methods have been used in order to collect information in this research. Qualitative thematic analysis method was initially used in this study. This method is a useful way for the determination, analysis, and reporting of certain patterns in qualitative data. Moreover, this method includes a process through which scattered and divergent data are converted into rich and detailed data. This method used purposeful sampling which included 29 interviews (12 interviews with beneficiary local people and 17 interviews with tourists). The obtained results were then analyzed with MAXQDA software. The researchers then continued to validate the results and increase their reliability with the help of a quantitative method also known as Exploratory factor analysis.
Moreover, the sample population, i.e. people who were asked to complete the questionnaires which were designed based on the results of the analysis of interviews in the previous stages of the study, was considered to include 300 members for each group of participants, i.e. local people and tourists. Needless to say, researchers also took into consideration the fact that some of the questionnaires would probably not be returned to them. That is why the total number of questionnaires distributed among participants was 650. Ultimately, the sample was calculated with the use of the Cochran formula and the result was 372.
In order to evaluate the contribution of factors and environmental quality indicators effective in the branding of rural tourism destinations in Oramanat, the results of the completed questionnaires completed by the respondents were summarized in two steps: First stage - two-variable analysis: In this step, in order to test the research hypotheses, each of the independent variables is two-to-two with the dependent variable (branding for the destination); these variables have been analyzed based on the Pearson correlation coefficient (with respect to the distance of their measurement).
Second Stage - In this step, data analysis is performed as multivariate analysis; the following methods were used: 1. Regression analysis: regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of each independent variable to the dependent variable without considering the priority and delay between them.
2. Route analysis: Route analysis was used to determine the contribution of each of the independent variables to the dependent variable by considering the priority and the delay between them, which means an analysis to determine to what extent each of the independent variables, directly and indirectly, affects the dependent variable of the research.Results and DiscussionThe branding basis for all tourist destinations includes unique environmental characteristics which are also known as Factors of Environmental Quality. The reason why these features are called so is because the optimal quality of such environments will inevitably result in a better appreciation of such destinations which, in turn, will help develop tourism. Delineating environmental quality as well as branding for rural tourist destinations helps in creating an enjoyable and memorable experience for the tourists. Other consequences which follow include the tourists loyalty to a certain destination and, ultimately, the attraction of even more tourists which will lead to a boom in the tourism industry of the region.
Given the importance of this issue, the researchers of this study have endeavored to determine the role of environmental factors in the ethno-cultural area of Oramanat. First, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify environmental factors; then, through correlation analysis, multivariate regression and path analysis, the contribution of each of these factors and its relationship with branding have been determined. Based on the results, the factor of socio-cultural environment has the highest impact of 0.45% (Including direct and indirect), and the natural environment factor had the least effect, i.e. only 0.26%, on the dependent variable (Oramanat tourist destination brand); the institutional, physical and economic factors are also 36/0, 32/0 and 16/0 respectively.Keywords: Environmental Quality, Branding, Tourism Destination, Path Analysis, Ethno, Cultural Region of Avramanat
Pages 137-154Extended Abstract : The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of alcohol by non-Muslim foreign tourists in Iran's criminal law for being or not being guilty of crime and recognizing its constituent elements as crimes. In this regard, the study of the infallible's hadiths and the interpretation of the words of the jurists and the analysis of Article 266 of the Islamic Penal Code and its emphasis were discussed. Accordingly, the use of alcohol by a non-Muslim tourist in the territory of Iran is not a crime unless a person appears to be in public use to drink alcohol in such a way as to bring others to action or to appear drunk in public places, although seen by others. However, it should be kept in mind that in crimes such as Khmer drinking and crimes related to that ignorance principle, he is committing criminal laws, so that his knowledge must be proven to be responsible and guilty. This research has been collected and analyzed using a library method.IntroductionSurfing on the land and recreation and recreation in other areas of the ancient Alayyam have been of interest to the people of the world, which is also accompanied by goals. For example, you can see the historical attractions and places of worship, as well as the familiarity with the customs of different nations. By studying the Quranic verses it is found that Allah Almighty has also ordered people to travel to all parts of the world, for example, "Verse 20 of the Spider-Man". Nowadays, with the increase of communication means and consequently the expansion of communication between people of different countries of the world, tourism has become a modern industry in the sense of tourism in particular, which is expected to be enjoyed by Iran. Entry of foreign tourists to the country causes the assignment of his duties and the reciprocal creation of privileges and privileges for the individual, as a result, foreign tourists are obliged to comply with those assignments and the host country is also required to comply with those rights. One of the most important tasks of foreign tourists is to observe the laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which emphasizes article 3 of the Islamic Penal Code of 1392. It is also one of the most important rights of foreign tourists to travel freely in the host country and also to determine the free housing status in that country. Along with the rights mentioned above, one of the other privileges that the legislator attaches to the tradition of the infallible Imams, as well as the word of jurists for non-Muslims, is the use of deliberate consumption for non-Muslims, despite the forbiddenness of drinking for Muslims, which is referred to in Article 266 of the law Islamic punishment has also been mentioned, the existential philosophy of this ruling can be sought in respect of the customs of other religions, as emphasized by the Quran.Materials And MethodsThe research methodology for this article is analytic, meaning that some principles and rules, especially non-denial laws and regulations, are unacceptable as the underlying basis, and discussions are analyzed and answered on the basis of these rules and principles. The library documentation collection documentation is then collected, then the documentation of the analysis and response of the issues and challenges presented as the findings of the data is provided.
Discussion andResultsBased on the analysis of this study, the following findings were made: the mere pretending to use alcohol by non-Muslim foreign tourists without anyone seeing him does not lead to the realization of the crime. The result showed that in order to realize the consumption of alcohol, the manifestation of the person's appearance should be seen with the intent and the person should be seen by others. Another thing that is sufficient to punish a non-Muslim foreign tourist who has been drinking alcohol is to visit public places to commit a crime, and there is no need to see a person by anyone. "The result showed that in order to realize the crime of appearing in Now the drunk is not necessarily to be seen by someone else in public places, and his mere presence in a public place causes the crime to occur. The next finding is that foreign non-Muslim tourists should be punished according to the law of the country in case of drinking alcohol. "Was investigated. The findings suggest that personal punishment in the territory of the territorial sovereignty of Iran is committed in accordance with accepted fundamental rules and legal logic. In the end, the lack of awareness of the foreign tourist to the rules of the law causes him not to be punished. "The findings show that the punishment of the ignorant person is against the principles of human rights and jurisprudential doctrines. As a result, in the amount of crime such as drinking Khmer, science He is recognized by the Islamic Penal Code.ConclusionsIn conclusion, it can be concluded that: Although alcohol consumption is not a crime by foreign tourists, the legislator has criminalized the practice of preserving the sanctity of Muslims and the values of the Islamic society. 1. Non-Muslim foreign tourists pretending to Consumption consuming. 2. Pretending to be used by others. 2. Non-Muslim foreign tourists appear after drinking alcohol in public places and places. This is not unimportant in contrast to the pretending to be seen by others.Keywords: Alcohol, Pretense, Drunk, Tourist, Non, Muslim
Pages 155-170Though international law has not benefited from binding regulations in tourism yet, there exists applicable rules related to the aliens and tourists rights among general and soft law. The present descriptive-analytic research indicates that the right to leisure as an already affirmed human right in the international documents can be generalized to the tourism. International tourists should obey the internal obligatory rules of the host countries without any discrimination. From the international law perspective the principle of counter measure to the extent that does not violate the fundamental rights (as being erga omnes in nature) is an important principle related to the international tourists rights. The right of freedom of travel is a further principle which is an affirmative right to tourism. This papers result shows that according to the present international law view, at first, tourists deserve to benefit from the fundamental rights such as the right to live and the right of access to fair judge that can be achieved through consular support, regardless of necessarily any mutual contract. Secondly, there are more specific rights that host governments and travel agencies should assure, among these are: the right to have access to information (including of travel and possible risks), official, judicial, and health services, and foreign exchanges, which are supported in the global code of ethics for tourism.IntroductionFor meeting efficient development in tourism, paying attention to legal aspects is a crucial fact and requires a systematic and complex programming in this regard.
As UNWTO defines:" Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited." Alongside with other fundamental human rights such as the right to live and freedom of movement the right to travel is also essential and intrinsic to human nature. Foreign tourists as aliens with various aims such as visiting, fun, treatment or else travel to a country and bring the benefit of foreign exchange to the host country. Tourism relates to travel and leisure and requires a systematic net of protection services, among these a systematic law system is a prerequisite.Materials And MethodsThis project through an analytical-descriptive method tries to discuss about the existing law principles and rules in tourism field in a regular conceptual frame according to international law. The results extracted logically from binding or unbinding legal documents. For this purpose by presenting different views about foreign tourist rights, the relation between this right, the sovereignty of governments and other related legal international principles are discussed in a human right perspective. Finally a foreign tourist right as an alien versus a tourist is compared
Discussion andResultsInternational law as a regulatory system over the international actors behavior provides special guidelines and standard rules in relation to aliens and nationals. Not in violation with sovereignty of governments in controlling arrivals and departures, the principle of freedom without discrimination, the right of movement, the right for leisure including tourism as an essential right for safeguarding human health and dignity promotes the nations to regulate and obey the standard rules. On the other hand some of the international law doctrines like countermeasures, proportionality and the necessity of protection of fundamental rights are applicable.
International human right recognizes a foreign tourist as an alien who should benefit from fundamental rights, except some of the political and social rights such as voting, or acting as a candidate. There are also some rights listed as unbinding documents that have to be made as binding contracts or recognized and written as citizenship rights or domestic law by nations otherwise may bring them international responsibility.
International law society may induce those common practiced regulations of individual nations in tourism for integrating them in to the international potentially binding regulations.ConclusionsAs far as our country-Iran is concerned, there is a need to regulate and adapt the rules in such a way that confirm to UNWTO paradigms especially The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. For example in the cases of articles 6 and 8 in providing for foreign tourists the possibility of access to available forms of communication; easy access to local and administrative, legal and health services. They also should be free to contact their consular representatives, and have access to places of transit and stay and to tourism and cultural sites without being subject to excessive formalities or discrimination.Keywords: Right to Tourism, Fundamental Rights, International Tourists Rights, Aliens, Host Government's Sovereignty