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پژوهش های مدیریت عمومی - پیاپی 38 (زمستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 38 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • زهرا رجایی، کرم الله دانش فرد*، ابوالحسن فقیهی صفحات 5-34
    آرمانهای دموکراسی و حکمرانی خوب نمی توانند بدون محیط امن و سالم میسر شوند. خط مشی گذاری در حوزه سلامت نظام اداری منجر به ایجاد بستر مناسبی در ایجاد محیط امن ارائه خدمات عمومی می گردد. هدف این تحقیق شناسایی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری خط مشی عمومی در حوزه سلامت نظام اداری می باشد. الگوی مفهومی پژوهش از مرور گسترده ادبیات تحقیق شکل گرفته است. پنل دلفی 21 عضو هیات علمی دکتری در رشته مدیریت دولتی بودند. لازم به ذکر است جهت اطمینان از کارآمدی مدل در دستگاه های دولتی 15نفر از خبرگان در دیوان محاسبات کشور که دارای پست کلیدی (معاونت، مدیرکل) بودند، در این تحقیق مشارکت داده شدند. در گام اول داده های تحقیق از طریق پرسشنامه حضوری بین پنل دلفی طی سه راند جمع آوری و غربالگری گردید، همچنین برای خوشه بندی مولفه ها و ارزیابی مدل اندازه گیری از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شده است. در گام بعدی برای تعیین وزن معیارها و شاخص های مدل از تکنیک تحلیل سلسله مراتبی استفاده شد که داده های تحقیق از طریق پرسشنامه حضوری بین 15 نفر از خبرگان که مدیران اجرایی دیوان محاسبات کشور شامل معاونت ها و مدیران کل بودند جمع آوری گردید. در گام سوم با کمک خبرگان علمی مدلسازی از شکل گیری مناسب خط مشی در حوزه سلامت نظام اداری صورت گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که مهم ترین مولفه های خط مشی گذاری موفقیت آمیز سلامت نظام اداری زیر ساختها و ظرفیت گروهای دخیل در خط مشی گذاری می باشد. همچنین33 مولفه پژوهش مورد تایید نهایی پنل دلفی قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: تاثیرات بین المللی، زیرساخت ها، ظرفیت گروه‏های دخیل در خط مشی گذاری، مشخصه های خط مشی، سلامت نظام اداری
  • کامران فیضی*، محمدتقی تقوی فرد، ایمان رئیسی وانانی، مهدی محمودصالحی صفحات 35-62
    فناوری اطلاعات یکی از توانمندسازهای مهم در کسب و کار است. سهم فناوری اطلاعات در سازمان به خصوص در بخش طراحی، تامین و تولید غیر قابل انکار بوده و نیاز به بررسی و اندازه گیری ارزش کسب و کار فناوری اطلاعات را دوچندان می کند. این تحقیق با هدف تدوین چارچوب علمی جهت تعیین و سنجش ارزش کسب و کار فناوری اطلاعات انجام گردید و تمرکز آن یافتن مبنای تئوریک جهت تبیین ارزش فناوری اطلاعات در کسب و کار و اندازه گیری سهم فناوری اطلاعات در عملکرد سازمان است. روش تحقیق با توجه به ماهیت موضوع تحقیق که علی رغم تحقیقات چندجانبه هنوز مورد مناقشه باقی مانده، روش فراترکیب انتخاب گردید. نمونه مورد بررسی از بین متون و مطالعات انجام شده در خصوص موضوع تحقیق بین سال های1990 تا 2017 میلادی و 1380تا 1395 شمسی انتخاب گردید. مطالعات متعدد پس از گردآوری از منابع علمی آنلاین و کتابخانه ای، بررسی، کنترل و ارزیابی گردید و پس از انتخاب نهایی نمونه مورد مطالعه، با رویکرد شش مرحله ای فراترکیب نتایج تحقیق استخراج و جهت تحلیل و کدگذاری آماده سازی شد. در نهایت یافته های تحقیق که نشان دهنده چارچوب علمی جهت تبیین ارزش کسب و کار فناوری اطلاعات است استخراج و به منظور اطمینان از تعمیم پذیری نتایج با پیشینه تحقیق مقایسه و از کفایت نظری چارچوب اکتشافی اطمینان حاصل گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزش فناوری اطلاعات، ارزش کسب و کار فناوری اطلاعات، سهم فناوری اطلاعات در کسب و کار، فراترکیب
  • سید فواد ظریفی، مرتضی موسی خانی*، عادل آذر، سید مهدی الوانی صفحات 63-88
    یکی از دلایل اصلی سرعت پیشرفت توسعه تکنولوژی در کشورهای صنعتی توجه به فرایند تجاری سازی نتایج تحقیقات داخلی آن کشورها بوده است. علیرغم اینکه تجاری سازی بر عهده دانشگاه ها نیست، اما در سال های اخیر دانشگاه ها برای راه اندازی کسب وکارهای نوپا مشتاق بوده اند و از آن ها حمایت می کنند. باید توجه داشت که دانشگاه ها سال ها به عنوان پشتیبان صنایع مطرح بودند، در حال حاضر خود به تجاری سازی ایده ها و نوآوری می پردازند. هدف از انجام این تحقیق ارائه مولفه های علمی و تجربی موثر بر تجاری سازی ایده های کارآفرینانه است که منجر به موفقیت درفروش محصولات جدید به بازار می شود. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی، مصاحبه می باشد که برای افزایش اعتبار درونی از روش های کثرت گرائی و بررسی های اعضا استفاده شد. همچنین در بخش کمی، برای سنجش پایائی ابزار پرسشنامه از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ باعدد 87/0 و برای سنجش روائی محتوا نیز از نظرات خبرگان استفاده شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق شرکت های فعال در مراکز رشد دانشگاهی در واحدهای دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی می باشد که بر این اساس در بخش کیفی با روش نمونه گیری نظری از ده نفرکارآفرین در مرکز رشد دانشگاه آزاد قزوین مصاحبه به عمل آمد و پس از کدگذاری و تعیین مقوله ها مدل مفهومی تدوین شد. سپس در بخش کمی گویه ها در قالب پرسشنامه، در نمونه ای متشکل از 153 نفر از کارآفرینان فعال در مراکز رشد واحدهای دانشگاهی تهران شمال، تهران جنوب و تهران غرب که با شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند، توزیع و نتایج مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که مقوله های ویژگی های بنیانگذاران، وجود مشتریان اولیه، تمایل و هیجان نسبت به کارآفرینی و بازار مناسب تحت عنوان شرایط علی با تاثیر بر مقوله اصلی و با بکارگیری راهبردهای توجه به نیاز و بازخورد مشتری، تبلیغات نوآورانه و گرایش به نوآوری در نهایت زمینه ساز موفقیت درفروش محصول تجاری سازی شده می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: تجاری سازی، ایده های کارآفرینانه، مرکز رشد، کارآفرینی، دانشگاه کارآفرین
  • علیرضا ذبیحی خرق، آذر کفاش پور *، محمدمهدی فراحی، فریبرز رحیم نیا صفحات 89-116
    هدف اصلی این تحقیق کشف عوامل اقتضایی مدیریت استراتژیک منابع انسانی و شناخت اقدامات اثربخش منابع انسانی براساس آن و هم چنین اولویت بندی عوامل و اقدامات شناسایی شده می باشد. این تحقیق از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی بوده و با اتخاذ رویکرد آمیخته اکتشافی و بهره گیری از استراتژی پدیدارشناسی صورت گرفته است. در بخش کیفی تحقیق تعداد 22 مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته با کارشناسان و خبرگان در جامعه مورد بررسی (سازمان امور مالیاتی کشور) انجام گردید، در بخش کمی نیز سه پرسشنامه طراحی شده در بین تعداد 300 نفر از کارشناسان منابع انسانی سطح سازمان توزیع و داده های لازم جمع آوری گردیدند. تحلیل یافته ها در بخش کیفی با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوا و بکارگیری نرم افزار تحلیل کیفی MAXQDA انجام شد. بخش کمی تحقیق با هدف اولویت بندی عوامل اقتضایی احصاء شده و اقدامات اثربخش منابع انسانی شناسایی شده و بهره گیری از روش فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و بکارگیری نرم افزار AHP SOLVER 2015 صورت گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق بیانگر وجود دو دسته از عوامل اقتضایی برون و درون سازمانی هستند. در مجموع تعداد 8 عامل اقتضایی برون سازمانی و تعداد 14 عامل اقتضایی درون سازمانی شناسایی شد. در بخش کمی تحقیق عوامل اقتضایی و اقدامات اثربخش منابع انسانی اولویت بندی گردیدند.
    کلیدواژگان: رویکردهای مدیریت منابع انسانی، رویکرد اقتضایی، شناسایی عوامل اقتضایی، مدیریت استراتژیک منابع انسانی، اقدامات اثربخش منابع انسانی
  • وحید پورشهابی، مسعود پورکیانی *، محسن زاینده رودی، ایوب شیخی صفحات 117-143
    یکی از آرمان های تمامی ملت ها و جوامع را توسعه و دستیابی به سطح بهتری از زندگی تشکیل می دهد. لذا، امروزه کاهش نابرابری های منطقه ای، به عنوان چالشی اساسی در مسیر توسعه، مورد توجه دولت ها است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارائه مدل بومی برای ارتقاء سطح توسعه یافتگی استان سیستان و بلوچستان با رویکرد توسعه پایدار، انجام شده است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی و توسعه ای، و از نظر روش، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی و ترکیبی از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش در روش دلفی، خبرگان آگاه به موضوع بوده اند که از میان آنها تعداد 8 0 خبره با روش نمونه برداری گلوله برفی انتخاب شده است. برای آزمون مدل ارائه شده نیز، جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه شاغلان دارای تحصیلات عالی در استان سیستان و بلوچستان بوده اند که با استفاده از روش نمونه برداری قضاوتی، تعداد 3 8 2 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شده و داده های مورد نیاز به وسیله پرسشنامه محقق ساخته جمع آوری گردیده است. روایی سازه، به وسیله تحلیل عاملی تاییدی ارزیابی گردیده است. پایایی ابزار تحقیق با روش آلفای کرونباخ برابر 0 ٫ 9 6 8 به دست آمده است که نشان دهنده قابلیت اعتماد قابل قبول پرسش نامه می باشد. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری مناسب و با کمک نرم افزارهای SPSS و آموس منجر به ارائه مدل و نشان دهنده برازش مطلوب مدل ارائه شده می باشد. همچنین، مشخص شده است که متغیرهای اجتماعی، اقتصادی، و زیست محیطی، با توسعه پایدار در استان همبستگی معنادار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه، توسعه پایدار، استان سیستان و بلوچستان، مدل بومی
  • نجمه مهدی بیگی*، اسماعیل یعقوبی، سید مسلم سیدالحسینی صفحات 145-170
    برنامه جانشین پروری به وجود آورنده چارچوبی است که از طریق آن، سازمان ها می توانند به چالش مهم خلا افراد متخصص و شایسته و افزایش نیاز به مدیران توانمند در سال های آینده پاسخ دهند. با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع و همچنین روند مسیر شغلی افراد و توجه اندک سازمان ها به مربی گری جهت تقویت منابع انسانی، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش تعدیل گر فرهنگ مربی گری در رابطه بین مدیریت مسیر شغلی و جانشین پروری انجام شد. روش انجام پژوهش توصیفی- پیمایشی و از نوع مقطعی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را 218 نفر از سرپرستان و مدیران دستگاه های اجرایی شهرستان شیراز تشکیل دادند که با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای– طبقه ای، 136 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. داده های مورنیاز توسط پرسشنامه جمع آوری و با استفاده از روش الگویابی معادلات ساختاری در محیط نرم افزاری SmartPLS 3 تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که مدیریت مسیر شغلی و فرهنگ مربی گری با جانشین پروری رابطه ای مستقیم و معنادار داشته و با حضور فرهنگ مربی گری رابطه بین مدیریت مسیر شغلی و جانشین پروری تقویت می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت مسیر شغلی، جانشین پروری، فرهنگ مربی گری
  • محمدرضا آهنچیان*، پروانه یزدانی، سمانه صادقیان صفحات 171-196
    رهبری اخلاقی به عنوان رویکرد نوینی در چشم انداز رهبری پا به عرصه ظهور گذاشته و با اولویت دادن به اخلاقیات در سازمان، زمینه ایجاد و ارتقای اثربخشی فردی و سازمانی را فراهم نموده است. با استفاده از روش پیمایشی، تحقیق حاضر با هدف مدل یابی تاثیر رهبری اخلاقی بر رضایت از زندگی و شادکامی ذهنی با نقش میانجی رضایت شغلی در میان پرستاران بیمارستان های خصوصی شهر مشهد در سال 1394 انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه 730 پرستار بیمارستان های خصوصی شهر مشهد بودند که با بهره گیری از شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده، 166 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسش نامه یانگ (2013) بود که روایی و پایایی آن، بررسی و تایید شد. داده ها با روش مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر رهبری اخلاقی بر رضایت از زندگی معنادار است ولی با شادکامی ذهنی معنادار نمی باشد. همچنین رضایت شغلی نقش میانجی در تاثیر رهبری اخلاقی بر رضایت از زندگی دارد. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، رهبری اخلاقی به صورت مستقیم و با واسطه رضایت شغلی بر رضایت از زندگی پرستاران تاثیرگذار بود. بنابراین اخلاقیات و رهبری اخلاق مدار در بیمارستان، ضمن بهبود محیط و بستر سازمانی، باعث افزایش رضایت از زندگی پرستاران می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری اخلاقی، رضایت از زندگی، رضایت شغلی، شادکامی ذهنی
  • محمد حقیقی*، مهدی دهقانی سلطانی، حسین فارسی زاده صفحات 197-223
    امروزه ارائه بهترین عملکرد توسعه محصولات جدید، به اساسی ترین دغدغه مدیران شرکت های دانش بنیان مبدل شده و می کوشند تا با بهره گیری از تکنیک های مختلف، به عملکرد برتر دست یابند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر فرهنگ نوآور و حافظه سازمانی بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید با تبیین نقش میانجی دوسوتوانی سازمانی می باشد. پژوهش حاضر بر اساس هدف، یک تحقیق کاربردی و براساس چگونگی به دست آوردن داده های مورد نیاز، از نوع پژوهش‏های توصیفی می‏باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شرکت های دانش بنیان مستقر در پارک علم و فناوری دانشگاه تهران بود. برای به دست آوردن حجم نمونه از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای و فرمول کوکران استفاده شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها نیز از 5 پرسشنامه محقق ساخته و با اقتباس از پژوهش های لی و همکاران (2016 و 2017) ، دونهام و بورت (2014) ، هاروی (2012) ، چن و همکاران (2015) و پارکر و بری (2015) استفاده شد که روایی آن از طریق روایی صوری و پایایی آن نیز با آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری و نرم افزار LISREL استفاده شده است. یافته ها نشان داد که فرهنگ نوآور و حافظه سازمانی به صورت مستقیم و غیر مستقیم (از طریق دوسوتوانی سازمانی) بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید تاثیر معناداری دارد و فرهنگ نوآور بر حافظه سازمانی تاثیر مثبت دارد. علاوه بر این، یافته ها موید آن است که فرهنگ نوآور و حافظه سازمانی می توانند از طریق اکتشاف و بهره برداری به بهبود عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید در شرکت های دانش بنیان بیانجامند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ طرفدار نوآوری، حافظه سازمانی، عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید، دوسوتوانی سازمانی، شرکت های دانش بنیان
  • محمد قاسمی *، الهام بیگی راد، علی مارگیر، محسن شیخیانی صفحات 225-249
    پژوهش حاضر شرکت های تولیدی و خدماتی را به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین انواع شرکت ها از نظر فعالیت مورد مطالعه قرارداده است، و به نقش نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز بر عملکرد شرکت های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر پرداخته است. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه های نوآوری باز رانگوس (2014) ، نوآوری استراتژیک جعفری (2013) و عملکرد شرکت محقق ساخته استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق را مدیران و کارکنان 30 شرکت تولیدی و خدماتی فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر تشکیل می‏دهند. روش نمونه‏گیری در این تحقیق از نوع احتمالی و تصادفی ساده می‏باشد. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از جدول مورگان استفاده شده است؛ به این صورت که برای جامعه 440 نفری کارکنان شرکت های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر، تعداد نمونه 205 نفر می باشد که تعداد 202 پرسشنامه جمع آوری شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش آزمون تحلیل مسیر و آزمون تی استفاده شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان داد که نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز تاثیر معناداری بر عملکرد شرکت ها دارند. در میان ابعاد نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز، سه بعد نوآوری ارزشی، نوآوری ورود به بازار و اشتراک دانش و تکنولوژی جدید بر عملکرد شرکت های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر تاثیر مثبت و معناداری داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: نوآوری باز، نوآوری استراتژیک، عملکرد شرکت ها، بوشهر
  • سیدعلی داودی، نورمحمد یعقوبی*، عبدالمجید ایمانی صفحات 251-276
    نظام آموزش عالی به عنوان یک مرجع ایدئولوژیک وتمدن ساز، وظیفه حساس و تعیین کننده ای در توانمندسازی جوامع در ابعاد مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی دارد. لازمه ایفای چنین نقش حساسی، برخورداری از مدیران و رهبرانی شایسته می باشد. لذا دغدغه اصلی نظام آموزش عالی در هزاره سوم، شناسایی، انتخاب و به کارگیری مدیران کارآمد، توانمند و شایسته است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف طراحی مدل جامع استعداد‏یابی و جانشین پروری در نظام آموزش عالی بارویکرد پژوهش آمیخته انجام گرفت. برای این منظور در گام اول عوامل اولیه تشکیل دهنده مدل با بررسی گسترده ادبیات نظری (به روش مرور نظامند) و مصاحبه با خبرگان (اساتید دانشگاهی صاحبنظر در حوزه مدیریت و همچنین مدیران ارشد دانشگاه و موسسات آموزش عالی) که به صورت نمونه گیری هدفمند و قضاوتی انتخاب شده اند و با رویکرد تحلیل محتوا تلخیصی و جهت دار و تکنیک دلفی در قالب 91 مولفه شناسایی گردید. سپس با استفاده از تکنیک دلفی، 15 مولفه فرعی تعیین و نهایی گردید. در گام بعدی به منظور برقراری ارتباط و توالی بین ابعاد و ارائه مدل ساختاری آنها، از روش مدلسازی ساختاری-تفسیری (ISM) بهره گرفته شد. در نهایت و براساس نظرات خبرگان و تجزیه وتحلیل های صورت گرفته، مدل جامع استعداد یابی و جانشین پروری در5 سطح (سطح اول شامل مولفه های ساختار و فرایند، پست‏های کلیدی و مدل شایستگی، سطح دوم شامل جبران عملکرد، ارزیابی مدون، آموزش و پرورش، شناخت آینده نگرانه، ارزیابی قابلیت ها و سازگاری فرهنگی، سطح سوم رهبری تحول گرا و خزانه جانشنی، سطح چهارم ایجاد انگیزش مشارکتی و سطح پنجم تعیین مسیر شغلی چند بعدی و جذب) برای نظام آموزش عالی احصا گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: استعداد یابی، جانشین پروری، نظام آموزش عالی، مدل سازی ساختاری -تفسیری
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  • Zahra Rajaei, Kramollah Daneshfard *, Abolhasan Faghihi Pages 5-34
    The ideals of democracy and good governance cannot be achieved without a safe and healthy environment. Administrative integrity system is an important factor to create a safe environment for public services delivery.This artical mainly aims to identify public policy formation model in administrative integrity system(Iran) .Here, so that the research strategy was quantitative at 3 steps at the first step, after recognition of a set of public policy formation indicators in administrative integrity system based on the research literature, history and experiences of other countries, the identified elements were screened over three rounds using the Delphi technique. The experts in first step were the faculty members with executive experience and graduated by Ph.D. in public administration. Also, the questionnaire was used for data collection in this step while confirmatory factor analysis was used for clustering the elements and the measurement model was evaluated by partial least squares technique and the software Smart PLS.
    At next step, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determine weight of criteria and the model indicators. The experts in this step included chief executives in Iranian Supreme Audit Court including the deputies and managers.at next step using the software MATLAB, sound policy formation was modeled in administrative integrity system. The results indicate that the most important components for successful policy making in administrative integrity system include infrastructures and capacity of the groups involved in the policy making. Also, 33 components of the study were finally approved by the experts
    Introduction Democracy and Good governance objectives would be fulfilled in a safe and sound environment. Administrative integrity system is a precondition for good governance which is a prerequisite for citizens’ trust in public sphere (Lewis and Gilman, 2005). Therefore, the main objective of this study is determining an appropriate model for policy formation in administrative integrity system which is related to the new and modern policy making.
    Research Methodology The current study’s research methodology regarding its objective is exploratory, regarding the addressee is basic and regarding the methods of data collection is survey research. In this study Delphi technique was 21 PhD faculty members in the field of public administration of which 91% had administrative records. 14.2% were full professors, 14.2 % were associate professors and 71.4% were assistant professors. It is noteworthy that for assuring of the efficiency of the model in public organizations, 15 members of the Supreme Audit Court of Iran were attended in this study for ranking and determining dimensions and factors priorities. They had at least 15 years work experiences in the Supreme Audit Court of Iran and they had key positions (Deputy, director general) at least for five years. For providing the questionnaire used in this study the following researches were used (Harmon, 1998; Cuadrado, R. C. and Arce, J. L. A., 2005; Pope, J, 2000; O’Keefe, 2000; Eigen, P, 1998; Atwood, 1998; Jayawickrama, 2001; Hill Michael and Peter Hupe , 2002; Hoogwod and Gun, 1984; Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980; schimmelpfennig, 2002; Finnemore and Sikkink, 1998; Cortel and Davis, 2000; Schnell, 2014; Baumgartner, F. R., and Jones, 2009; Pressman and Wildavsky, 1974; Brinkerhoff, D. W., and Crosby, B., 2002; Baumgartner, F. R., and Jones, 2009; Kingdon, 2003; Berlinder; Baron and Gilardy, 2006; Rose, 2005) and content validity, Divergent and Convergent validity were used for confirming the validity of measuring tools and for measuring content-related validity a questionnaire was given to the supervisors and advisors and after considering their opinions and using the literature and research reviews, the questionnaires were edited and distributed. Convergent validity was studied using PLS software in two levels, factor (latent variable) and reference (questions or obvious variable). 24 questions were omitted due to having factor loading less than 4% and not having appropriate convergent validity. For evaluating convergent validity in latent variable level, after omitting the questions with low factor loading, average and variance were determined for the research variables that the results of AVE analysis show the existence of convergent validity for research structures. For evaluating index reliability two criteria of Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability was used. In each round Delphi, indices which had average lower than 3, were omitted of the model. in second step, in finalized questionnaire, paired comparisons (according to Saaty 9 grade spectrum), we have used the final questionnaire with Triangular fuzzy numbers of Lee and etal (2008, 101). in the third step, upon assistance of modeling experts, of appropriate formation of policy in the area of administrative integrity system extracted from the final dimensions ad factors in two previous levels was collected in the said spectrums, the questionnaire spectrum in this step has been collected considering one outcome I.e. policy formation (“Effective”, “Relatively Effective” and “not Effective”) and four entrances: 1- roles of external changes (“Strong”, “Average”, “Weak”), 2- structural institutional Capacity (“Enough and developing”, “not enough and developing” and “not enough and not developing”), 3- policy features (“Clear”, “relatively clear” and “vague”), 4- internal substructures (“Strong”, “Average”, “Weak”).
    Findings In this study 33 factors for 7 dimensions of policy formation concept in administrative integrity system were identified. Kendall coefficient in the third round of Delphi technique was 0.609 that shows there are consensus among the experts’ opinions. For assuring of the correct clustering of the factors, structural equations and PLS Software were used. Of course with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the second phase Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used for evaluation of relationship between main dimensions and the main concept i. e. administrative integrity system. Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) in this study is 0.632, therefore, the model has desirable fit. Also there was significant difference between dimensions of policy formation in the area of administrative integrity system from the expert’s point of view. Inconsistency rate of the performed comparisons was 0.023 which are smaller than 0.1, therefore, the comparisons are reliable and substructure dimension with weight of 0.259 has the most importance and the dimension of groups involved in policy is in the second priority.
    Discussion and Results Considering the results of Delphi technique, substructures are of effective dimensions on policy formation in administrative integrity system and with the weight of 0.259 has the most importance from the experts’ point of view. The achieved results are consistent with the findings of (Kafman, 2003; Doig, A. and Riley, 1998; Glisp and Akralic, 1996; Doig, A. and Riley, 1998; Eigen, P., 1998; Aras, 2003; Hassan, 2004; Lorenzo Jr., H. C, 2000; Habtemichael, Faniel Sahle, 2009; Billy, 2000; Maro, 1995; and Fox, 1994). In the next step of modeling of appropriate formation of policy in the area of administrative integrity system, the subject was provided using software and the final results of modeling using software are consistent with Harmon (1968) findings about policy formation network.
    Keywords: infrastructures, capacity of involved groups in policy making, policy specifications, administrative integrity system
  • Kamran Feizi *, Mohammad Taqi Taqavi Fard, Iman Raeisi Vanani, Mahdi Mahmoudsalehi Pages 35-62
    This study aimed to develop a scientific framework to identify and measure the IT business value. Focus on finding a basis for determining the value of IT in business and to measure the performance of IT in the organization. According to the nature of the subject that still remains in dispute despite multiple studies, the meta-synthesis method was selected. After collecting scientific resources, the researcher observed, controlled and evaluated Several studies. In the end, information technology business value framework was extracted and to ensure the generalization of the results were compared with literature.
    Introduction Measuring Information technology business value is about valuing the contribution of information technology towards organization success. Although there are several studies on Information technology business value (Chang and King 2005; Pitt, et. Al., 1995; Scott, 1995; Seddon, et. al, 2002; Gacenga, 2013), but it is still considered as one challenge which needs more research.
    Given the importance of information technology to realize organization’s purposes, the present research aims to find answers for following questions:
    · What are scientific requirements and theoretical framework to identify and to measure information technology business value?
    · What are situations and contexts to form information technology business value?
    · What are aspects and components of information technology business value?
    This study aimed to develop a scientific framework to identify and measure the information technology business value.
    Case study According to the nature of the subject that still remains in dispute despite multiple studies, the meta-synthesis method was selected. The sample of literature and studies on the subject was chosen between 1990 to 2017 AD and 1380 to 1395 Persian date.
    Materials and Methods The present research has an exploratory and qualitative nature, and has done via a meta-synthesis strategy. After collecting scientific resources, the researcher observed, controlled and evaluated Several studies. After the final selection of the sample, 6-stage meta-synthesis approach was conducted.
    Discussion and Results The importance of information technology has been emphasized as a strategic obligation among other technologies. According to this viewpoint, information technology is considered as a strategic answer and its successful practice can alert the organization competitive procedure to increase the industry’s attractions (Porter and Millar, 1985). In some previous studies, business processes and capabilities as the context and environment for making information technology value have a great importance and they can rise the contribution of information technology in the business (Moller and Chaudhry, 2012; wang, et al.,2015; Pan et. Al., 2015; Bardhan, et al., 2005). There are several evidences on alignment. Accordingly, the existence of alignement in information technology and business will strategically lead to value improvement (Brocke and Rosemann, 2015; Paul and Kenneth, 2003; Henderson and Venkatraman, 1999). Expenditures of information technology are identified as costs and expending for investment in the field of information technology. Some researchers are considered, the costs into two groups include operational and investment costs. For instance, communication and coordination costs, substructure development costs as well as application development could be mentioned (Fuchs and Otto, 2015).
    Information technology assets include all resources applying to establish a business in the organization such as hardware, media and components of communicative networks like internet and web (Kouns and Minoli, 2010). Managing, conducting and organizing resources and capitals of information technology will lead to information technology results. If information technology resources are managed successfully, they will have a significant influence over the business performance (Brocke and Rosemann, 2015). The role of information technology and its subdivisions as empowering items for making value in the organization have been emphasized in the literature review. For instance, applying electronic commerce in the value chain leads to improve customer services, processes performance and activity of the provision network (Fuchs and Otto, 2015). Again, information systems relevant to internal and external logistics could improve the performance; accordingly, logistics costs, inventory turnover, the capacity of ordering coverage, flexibility in orders, flexibility in delivery and customer satisfaction will be optimized (Fuchs and Otto, 2015). Decision making is one of the most important roles of managers. In various levels of management, managers need information for decision making. The information technology ought to contribute managers so as to share and to facilitate the availability of information. The supportive role of information technology to managers’ decision making will make value (Harris, Herron, and Iwanicki, 2008; Cundius and Alt, 2017; Andersen et al., 2015). The basis and environment for implementation of information technology includes a business context which ensures the successful accomplishment of information technology projects. Alignment between information technology and business, leads to increase value of information technology. The competitive situation of a company doesn’t entirely achieve from information technology substructures. But if the substructures combine with other company’s skills and competencies, they will have significant influences on the company’s performance (Cao, 2010; Cao et al., 2016 ; Pang, Lee, & DeLone, 2014; Brynjolfsson, Hitt, Yang , Baily and Hall, 2002). Identifying information technology risks and pursuing an appropriate strategy indicates maturity of business processes and consequently it guarantees a successful investment in the field of information technology (Kouns and Minoli, 2010; Keyes, 2016).
    Conclusion Focus on finding a basis for determining the information technology business value and to measure the performance of information technology in the organization. Research findings include framework of information technology business value with 13 categories such as: Strategic perspective of information technology, stakeholders’ perspective, information technology expenditures, information technology assets, information technology impacts, presentable value, decision making, measurement, contextual and environmental conditions, alignment, business processes, business skills and competencies and risk management. Organization survival in the competitive environment entails a strategic perspective to organization’s sources and flow of value in the organization. If information technology is considered as one of organizational resource, the strategic perspective to organization will contribute it to organize and to make value through information technology.
    Keywords: Information technology value, Information technology business value, Information technology contribution to business value, Meta synthesis
  • Seyed Foad Zarifi, Morteza Mousa Khani *, Adel Azar, Mehdi Alvani Pages 63-88
    The purpose of this research is to provide the scientific and empirical components that influence the commercialization of entrepreneurial ideas that lead to success in selling these products to the market. For this aim quantitative and qualitative methods are used interchangeably. The information gathering tool in the qualitative section is an interview, which was used to increase the internal validity of pluralistic methods and member surveys. Also, in a quantitative part of the research, a questionnaire was used, and for measuring reliability, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used with allowable level of 0.87. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, expert review of the content was applied. The research shown that the main impact on building a successful commercial product and sales effectiveness was caused by needs and customer feedback, innovative advertising, market trends and product innovations.
    Introduction One of the main reasons for the pace of technology development in industrialized countries is to pay attention to the commercialization process of the internal investigations results. It has been identified that, the lack of ability to commercialize and implement research achievements in new products and processes and supply them to the market presents one of the major weaknesses of the industrialization process in developing countries. However, the universities’ growth centers seem to be one of the most useful mechanisms for encouraging, consulting, and networking new startups (Carletto, Corral, Guelfi, 2017).
    In this research, we study the commercialization of ideas in the growth center of Islamic Azad University by interviewing corporate executives and studying the behavior of companies that are active in this center. Also we provide the scientific and empirical components that influence the commercialization of entrepreneurial ideas that lead to success in selling these products to the market.
    One of the main challenges of innovators in the technology development process, is how to transform new technologies into products and services that bring economic returns to their founders and investors. In the other words, the main problem in this process is not invention, but its commercialization. Therefore, the choice of a commercialization strategy is at the heart of the innovation and commercialization process, and it refers to the choice of the path that an organization intends to make from an innovation and products derived from it (Yadollahi Farsi, Jahangir, kalatehaei,2013) The missions of the university in the past were education and research. Today, due to the changes in the global environment and the change in the relationship between the three main operators in the national innovation systems (industry, government, and university), the third mission has been assigned to the university and that is university-based entrepreneurship and participation in the economic and social development of societies (Aronowitz, 2000).
    In the entire commercialization process, the role of university and academic research can be supported as an up-to-date scientific model for entrepreneurs. Academic entrepreneurship can include all the entrepreneurial behaviors of academics, such as the creation of new companies in the university, the creation of centers for joint research with the industry, measures for the protection of intellectual property and the assignment of the results of research conducted at the university (Nikfarjam, Kiani Mavi, 2013).
    Case Study The statistical population of the research is the companies that are actives in the centers of university development in the Islamic Azad Universities. Accordingly, in the qualitative section, a theoretical sampling method was used to survey the ten employees at the growth center of Azad University of Qazvin. After coding and determining the categories a conceptual model was developed. Then, in a 2013 distributed in a sample of 153 entrepreneurs active in the growth centers of university units in north, south and west Tehran, and the results were analyzed.
    Materials and Methods In this paper, with the aim of developing a paradigm of commercialization of entrepreneurial ideas, a quantitative and qualitative methods are used interchangeably. Data gathering tools in the qualitative section include interviews and in the quantitative section is based on questionnaire. The reason for using the mixed research method is that in some past researches, only a few aspects of the commercialization phenomenon of entrepreneurial ideas have been considered, and others have been less investigated. In order to overcome these shortcomings, in the first stage, deep interviews were conducted with the growth center of the Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, and the commercialized entrepreneurial idea has been modeled with a qualitative approach and by using the data theory method with the help of the Strauss and Corbin model. Grounded theory is a qualitative research method that develops a theory using a data set. Then, in the second stage, with a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was distributed among the subspecialist companies of the Islamic Azad University growth centers, and after analyzing the data, suggestions were made for the success of the commercialization of ideas.
    Discussion and Results According to the final research model, the success of the commercialization of entrepreneurial ideas and the entry of innovative and entrepreneurial organizations into the centers of academic growth must first provide the conditions for the emergence of such investments. One of the indicators of the causal conditions is the presence of the first customers and the presence of the market. If an entrepreneur has a proper market research before marketing, he can take more confidence in marketing his idea. To do this, entrepreneurs must identify target markets and attractive and growing markets for their ideas and then commercialize them. With regard to early-stage entrepreneurs, the university can support the commercialization of the initial idea as a primary customer, or by communicating with industrial environments, it can transmit the industry’s needs to these entrepreneurs to ensure that the customer exists for the product.
    Conclusion As a summary of the research, it should be said that by offering value to customers in the form of a new idea, one can accept the demand market for a prestigious idea and, by providing appropriate pricing and offering discounts, somehow encourages customers to use the idea. This requires researches and developments at all stages of commercialization by taking into account the life span of the idea, and also considering the time, make fundamental changes to current ideas should be done in order to benefit from mutual benefits for the market as well as entrepreneurs.
    Also, entrepreneurial teams can interact with the industry and the university in order to select new ideas among other ideas and after ensuring the product's functional strength to commercialize it. Of course, paying attention to the financial and technical feasibility and also the success in the laboratory conditions is one of the prerequisite of the new idea that is more important and more sensitive in the field of innovative ideas.
    Keywords: Commercialization, Entrepreneurial Ideas, Incubator, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial University
  • Ali Reza Zabihi Khargh, Azar Kaffashpoor *, Mohammad Mehdi Farahi, Fariborz Rahimnia Pages 89-116
    The main objective of this study was to explore the contingency factors of strategic human resource management and identify effective practices of human resource based on and prioritization of factors and practices are identified. The research purpose of applied and exploratory mixed approach and utilizes the strategy has been phenomenology. In the qualitative study section, semi-structured interviews with 22 experts in the study population was conducted in state tax organization, In the quantitative study section also designed three questionnaires and distributed among 300 experts in human resources organization and necessary data were collected. The analysis findings in the qualitative section done with using content analysis and using software MAXQDA. Quantitative study section to prioritize contingency factors have been recognized and identified effective practices of human resource and utilizes method analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and using software AHP SOLVER 2015. The findings suggest the existence of two sets of contingency factors are external and internal organizational. In total, 8 contingency factors external organizational and 14 contingency factors internal organizational identified. In quantitative study section of the research, the factors of contingency and effective practices of human resources were prioritized.
    Introduction Contingency theory states that there is no method and theory that can be applied in all situations. In other words, there is no best method for designing, leading or managing an organization, because most of the business life is a situation and is influenced by a wide range of environmental variables. During the 1980s and 1990s, there was a fundamental change in human resource management. This change has led to the development and focus of human resource management research on the attitude of the research-micro level that dominated this area to a macro and strategic perspective. The strategic view of human resources, known as strategic human resource management, has grown beyond the expectations of researchers and has been able to highlight the importance of human resources for achieving organizational goals. In recent years, public sector organizations have also come to the conclusion that they cannot continue to exist as an open system, regardless of the dynamic and complex environment of today, and the need for survival and organizational growth depends on the perception and attention to the internal environment and outside organization and formulation of effective strategies for the organization, however, they found that it was not necessary to design new models for developing a strategy, but it was imperative that in some key dimensions these models considered, including goals, stakeholders, stakeholders, and its internal and external factors, and factors such as this, and tailor them to their organizations.
    Case study State Tax Organization
    Materials and Methods The research purpose of applied and exploratory mixed approach and utilizes the strategy has been phenomenology. In the qualitative study section, semi-structured interviews with 22 experts in the study population was conducted in state tax organization, In the quantitative study section also designed a questionnaire distributed among experts in human resources organization and necessary data were collected.
    Discussion and Results The analysis findings in the qualitative section done with using content analysis and using software MAXQDA. Quantitative study section to prioritize contingency factors have been recognized and identified effective practices of human resource and utilizes method analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and using software AHP SOLVER 2015. The findings suggest the existence of two sets of contingency factors are external and internal organizational. In total, 8 contingency factors external organizational and 14 contingency factors internal organizational identified. In quantitative study section, 14 effective practices of human resource were identified. In total contingency factors were classified into two general categories of external factors and internal factors. External organizational contingency factors refer to the set of influencing factors that exist in the context and the overall structure of society. Internal organizational factors include factors that the organization encompasses and controls directly and is influenced by the performance of all agents of the tax organization and how the organization functions in this section can have a significant impact on the improvement of the external entities expressed.
    Conclusion The contingency theory is rooted in the assumption that organizations whose internal aspects are best suited to the demands of their environment will best be reconciled. Based on this attitude, the discovery and identification of contingency factors of strategic human resources management in the organization of state tax organization was targeted. After the research process, contingency factors affecting the strategic human resources management of strategies discovered in two categories including external and internal factors of division have become. In total, 8 contingency factors external organizational and 14 contingency factors internal organizational identified. Contingency factors external organizational are including: governmental macroeconomic policies in human resources, the culture of cooperation and social participation with the organization, the determination of the authorities towards the organization, type of organization interactions with the community, growth awareness of public institutions, human resource policymaking in other organizations, change in the expectations and demands of people and People's desire for the organization. Contingency factors internal organizational are including: organization tax rules and regulations, staff expectations for equity and external justice, commitment to organizational work, qualitative development of human resource, disciplinary decisions and fighting with corruption, organization earnings(Incomes), the progress of the organization's operational technologies, implementing e-government, strategies of the organization, work sensitivity, expectations of external stakeholders, the nature of the duties and working conditions, diversity and volume of work and informal relationships and political behaviors of managers.
    Keywords: Human Resource Management Approaches, Contingency Perspective, Identification Contingency Factors, Strategic Human Resource Management, Human Resource Effective Practices
  • Vahid Pourshahabi, Masoud Pourkiani *, Mohsen Zayandeh Roodi, Ayoub Sheikhi Pages 117-143
    Today, the governments attention is to reducing regional disparities as a major challenge in the development. This study has been done with aims to provide local model to promote the development of the Sistan and Baluchestan province with sustainable development approach.
    Introduction Over the past half century, many efforts have been made to reach a satisfactory level of development that has been accompanied by relative successes and failures (Akhondi et al., 2014: 69). Since today the world and the life of the earth are in real danger due to improper exploitation of nature, destruction, pollution and, principally "uncertainty" (Aghayi, 2004: 11); in response to the deficiencies of the conventional concepts of development, the paradigm of "sustainable development" was presented to solve these problems (Maleki Nia et al., 2015: 2). Considering the fact that according to the research, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, as one of the border provinces in the south-east of Iran, is in terms of the level of development among the provinces of the country in the last ranks (Pour Asghar Sangachin and et al., 2013; Sheikh Beigloo and et al., 2013; Taghvai et al., 2012; Nasr Elahi et al., 2012), and need to pay enough attention and make special decisions to eliminate the deprivation. Therefore, the main problem of this research is that: What are the development indicators of Sistan and Baluchestan province with sustainable development approach?
    Case study The main objective of this paper is to provide a native model for promoting the development level of Sistan and Baluchestan province with a sustainable development approach.
    Materials and Methods This research is applied and developmental in terms of purpose and it is a descriptive correlation method. Also, this research is a combination of library and field studies and Delphi technique is used to implement the field method. The data gathering tool in this research is a researcher-made questionnaire, which is based on five-choice Likert scale with a scale of 1 to5.
    Discussion and Results Several indices can be used to fit the model. One of the most important indicators is the RMSEA index. According to the results of the analysis of the research data, the RMSEA = 0.074. Since the RMSEA index is less than 0.1, so fitting the model is desirable. Models whose RMSEA is 0.1 or more are poorly fitted (Houman, 2015: 245). According to the findings of the analysis of the data of this research, the native model has three dimensions for promoting the development level of Sistan and Baluchestan Province with a sustainable development approach. These dimensions are 1- social, 2- economics, and 3- environmental. This model includes 23 indicators.
    Conclusion The relative priority given to different dimensions of sustainable development is different in each country, society, culture, and even in any situation and over time. For this reason, while sustainable development is a global challenge, studies have shown that practical responses can only be defined nationally and locally. This research was conducted in seven stages, seeking to provide a native model for promoting the development level of Sistan and Baluchestan province with a sustainable development approach. As the research findings show, the proposed model has been approved after various stages of this research. Therefore, in order to promote the development level of Sistan and Baluchestan province with sustainable development approach, according to the model obtained from this research, suggestions are presented.
    Keywords: Development, Sustainable Development, Sistan, Baluchestan province, local model
  • Najme Mehdibeigi *, Esmaeil Yaghoubi, Seyed Moslem Seyedalhoseni Pages 145-170
    It is important for organizations to maintain the efficient and valuable forces of the organization in the current era; for this reason, attention to the planning and human resources management and also career path planning in organizations are growing. This topic has turned managing and planning of the career path to one of the most advanced topic of human resource management.
    Introduction Succession is a process through which powerful and talented forces are prepared for enterprise and key posts through planning and programs in line with the organization's overall strategy (Amin et al., 2017:4). In the modern perspectives of succession, Organizations have become more aware of the importance of the outlook for this process. They not only have a choice at the managerial level, but also a choice at all levels of organization, preparation, development and maintenance of future-oriented leaders (Heinein & OˈNeill, 2004:70). The issue of succession in recent decades has attracted many managers and decision makers, for this reason, it is necessary to obtain appropriate and adequate information on the factors affecting the succession in managing organizations. Preparing and developing human resources for future positions and succession is possible through learning (yaghoubi et al., 2014: 39) Coaching is one of the most Considered ways in learning through which a supportive relationship is established between coach and person under his coaching. In this way, a wide range of behavioral skills and effective ways to help a person to achieve the goals set for the development of professional performance, personal satisfaction and ultimately organizational effectiveness (Mooghali et al., 2013: 162). In the last decade, the creation of a culture of coaching and its application in the organization has attracted many managers and employees. Therefore, in this study, according to the career path and the process of succession in the government executive agencies to accommodate people in jobs and approved posts, researchers are seeking to answer this question: “does the coaching culture play a moderator role in the relationship between career path management and succession?”
    Case Stady The statistical population of this research included Supervisors and managers of executive agencies in Shiraz (218 people). The sample size was estimated 136 people and cluster - stratified sampling method was used.
    Materials and Methods In terms of purpose, this is an “applied” research and due to the nature and the method of the research, is “descriptive - correlation survey”. Data collection tool was Career Path Management questionnaire of Delong (1982), succession Planning questionnaire of Kim (2006), Coaching culture Researcher made questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability that the coefficient for Career Path Management questionnaire was 0.88, for Succession Planning questionnaire was 0.85 and for Coaching Culture questionnaire was 0.81. Also, Face Validity was used to determine the validity. Structural equation modeling using SmartPLS 3 software was used to analyze data and confirm or reject hypotheses.
    Discussion and Results The main Hypothesis - Coaching culture has a moderating role in the relationship between Career Path Management and succession planning.
    Sub-hypotheses
    - Career Path Management has the role in succession planning.
    - Coaching culture has the role in succession planning.
    According to results Career Path Management has a positive and significant effect on the succession planning. Also, the moderating role of coaching culture in the relationship between Career Path Management and succession planning is approved and coaching culture is a positive and incremental modifier on the above relationship, so that with the presence of coaching culture the relationship between Career Path Management and succession planning is strengthened.
    Conclusion The results of this study showed that coaching culture strengthens the relationship between career path management and succession; therefore, it is desirable for executive agencies to pay special attention to the creation of this kind of culture in the organization and if there is a coaching culture in the organization, applied actions to improve and strengthen it should be done. In order to implement and execute the coaching culture in the organization, it is desirable to pay attention to coaching skills, including team building, interpersonal communication skills, and operational modeling, such as apprenticeship. Varied learning methods, such as 360-degree feedback, self-learning learning methods, the use of various and up-to-date technologies in teaching and learning should be considered and most importantly, the coach should have an active and special presence in all the stages
    Keywords: Career Path Management, Succession Planning, Coaching culture
  • Mohammad Reza Ahanchian *, Parvane Yazdani, Samane Sadeghian Pages 171-196
    In recent years, organizations have shown a growing interest in creating and promoting ethical leadership and leader’s effectiveness (Elci et al, 2012: 291). The reason for the recent time increasing importance of ethical leadership was the valuable results it produced for the followers, of which enhanced job satisfaction and organizational commitment, more willingness for reporting problems to superiors, increased health and wellbeing, and higher levels of performance are the examples (Chughtai, 2015: 93; Kim and Brymer, 2011: 1021).Ethical leadership as a modern approach in arena gives priority to ethics in the organization and proposes to impact improving individual and organizational effectiveness. Over the past several years, there has been a growing tendency in organizations to development and promotion of ethical leadership and leader’s effectiveness. The unique importance of ethical leadership is for the impact the leaders may have on the conduct of organization and ultimately on its performance. Ethical leadership is believed to direct and guide organizational members towards goals and objectives which benefit the organization, its members, other stakeholders, and society (Elci et al, 2012, p. 291) Ethical leadership and its behavioral dimensions are linked to various attitudes and behaviors of followers, including organizational commitment, content with leader, trust in management, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior (Kalshoven and Den-Hartog, 2009: 104). Corporate directors and managers should learn to recognize the value and significance of ethical leadership in a firm, an area that has been receiving increasing attention in the corporate world. They should integrate ethical leadership into the core values and visions of the firm, as well as the basic norms of the business. As well as opening endorsing and communicating throughout the whole firm the value and meaning of ethical leadership, directors and the top management themselves should be actively engaging in learning the meaning and practices of good ethical leadership, as well as good ethical management in general (Ip., 2011: 693). Achieving a state of inner wellbeing is among the ultimate purposes of human life, which is also sought in career and professional life (Lee et al, 2016: 1). In fact, enjoying high levels of wellbeing is one of the major indicators of people’s social progress (Valickas and Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, 2014: 2740). Wellbeing is a mixture of motivation and agreeable feeling and indicates an emotional state, suggesting that a low level of wellbeing negatively affects organization (Kalshoven and Boon, 2012: 60); since workers experiencing poor health and wellbeing in the workplace may be less productive, make lower quality decisions, be more prone to be absent from work, and make consistently diminishing overall contributions to the organization (Danna and Griffin, 1999: 35). In organizations, research on job satisfaction represents the hedonic approach to understanding psychological wellbeing: job satisfaction is defined in terms of employees’ subjective judgments about their work situations (Grant et al, 2007: 53). Job-specific wellbeing signifies people’s feeling about themselves in relation to their work (Honkaniemi et al, 2015: 395). In some studies, salient components of job wellbeing, such as job involvement and job satisfaction, are considered as the key factors in shaping the subjective wellbeing that includes life satisfaction (Lee et al, 2016: 2). This study, consistent with the mainline research on subjective wellbeing, assuming a connection between ethical leadership style and employee’s subjective wellbeing, seeks to find out whether in the understudy organization ethical leadership does impact the employee’s wellbeing and job satisfaction, while the mediating role of job satisfaction is taken into account. The current survey is aimed at investigating the relationships between ethical leadership and life satisfaction and well-being by considering the mediating role of job satisfaction amongst the nurses of private hospitals in Mashhad city. This is an applied research conducted based on a descriptive-correlational survey design in which data analysis was performed by covariance matrix using structural equation modeling (DEM) technique.
    Case study The statistical population was comprised of 730 nurses of Mashhad private hospitals (i.e. Bent-ol-Hoda, Mehr, Sina and Razavi hospitals)where 166 ones were selected randomly.
    Materials and Methods Hence, given the limited number of the population, the sample size was determined using Cochran formula for finite population. In this sampling procedure, first, a preliminary sample of 30 questionnaires of representatives were pretested and then, by replacing its error level for 5% in Cochran formula, the sample size was accurately estimated at 95 percent confidence interval and significance level of 5 percent, giving a sample size of 157 persons. But, anticipating that a certain number of the questionnaires may not return, 200 questionnaires were actually distributed among the nurses. Of these questionnaires, 166 soundly completed questionnaires were eventually used in the analysis process. The standard measures in Yang (2013) were used to measure the variables. In order to apply the measures to the Iranian society, they were adapted using translation – back – translation method. The face and content validity of the final questionnaire was verified using experts’ views. Job satisfaction, ethical leadership, and subjective wellbeing were measured with 4, 9, and 4 questions, respectively. In addition, using the content-face validity method, construct validity of the questionnaire’s items was examined and confirmed by a number of management professors and some of the nurses working in private hospitals of Mashhad. In examining the construct validity, it was made use of confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire’s reliability (internal consistency) was tested using Cronbach’s alpha. The calculated alpha for the questionnaire was 0.81 which confirms its adequate reliability. In table 1, calculated Cronbach’s alphas are presented per variable, and in table 2, the results of the confirmatory factor analysis are presented. It should be noted that all questionnaire’s items were designed on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Data analysis, such as Pearson correlation for calculation of zero order correlation coefficients, SEM technique, goodness of fit test for structural equations with the collected data, and test of job satisfaction mediating effect were all performed in AMOS v.20 and SPSS v.19 environments.
    Discussion and Results Hypothesis 1 – The direct superior’s ethical leadership has a significant effect on subjective wellbeing of the nurses.
    Hypothesis 2 – The direct superior’s ethical leadership has significant effect on job satisfaction of the nurses.
    Hypothesis 3 – The direct job satisfaction of the nurses has significant effect on subjective wellbeing of the nurses
    Hypothesis 4 – Job satisfaction significantly mediates the effect of ethical leadership on subjective wellbeing among the nurses.
    Hypothesis 5 – The direct superior’s ethical leadership has significant effect on life satisfaction of the nurses.
    Hypothesis 6 – Job satisfaction significantly mediates the effect of ethical leadership on life satisfaction of the nurses
    Hypothesis 7 – Job satisfaction significantly mediates the effect of ethical leadership on life satisfaction of the nurses.
    conclusion Results indicated that the relationships between ethical leadership and life satisfaction and well-being are significant. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the effect of ethical leadership on job satisfaction and well-being. According to obtain the results, ethical leadership directly and indirectly (through job satisfaction) affected the nurse's life satisfaction and well-being. Thus, relying on ethics and ethical leadership in hospitals increases the mental well-being and life satisfaction of nurses as well as improving the environment and organizational context.
    Keywords: ethical leadership, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, well-being
  • Mohammad Haghighi *, Mahdi Dehghani Soltani, Hossein Farsizadeh Pages 197-223
    Today, offering the best new product development performance has become the most important concern of the managers of the knowledge-based companies and they are trying to achieve superior performance by using different techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of organizational memory on new product development performance in knowledge-based companies: by explaining the role of organizational ambidexterity, technological turbulence and organizational Innovation.
    Introduction Today, the life of the product market is declining and anticipated that will double the rate of product development in every five years (Wu et al, 2017; Awwad & Akroush, 2011). New product development is a strategic and key activity for many companies through which new products will have a significant share in sales and profits (Khasmafkan Nezam et al, 2014). As a result, new products that fix the needs and demands of customers are the key factor in maintaining and improving the competitive advantage (Manian et al, 2011). It is anticipated that innovation gains more importance in achieving competitive advantage and its maintenance as the organization environment becomes more complex and dynamic (Nasre Esfahani et al, 2013). On the other hand, today, the rapid fluctuations in science and technology and the economic turmoil caused by the lack of capital in product innovation have always been a problem, especially in developing countries (Mahmoudzadeh et al, 2015), And has persuaded the organizations to direct their objectives and tendencies towards organizational ambidexterity and innovation (Mortazavi et al, 2015; Booshehri, 2016). Considering the importance of knowledge-based companies in scientific and technological progress, and the complexities and changing conditions governing their business environment in the country, and given the success in offering new products, one of the most challenging management topics specially in knowledge-based companies, The present study aims at showing the impact of innovative culture and organizational memory on new product development performance with explaining the mediating role of organizational ambidexterity in knowledge-based companies and seeks to answer the question of how innovative culture and organizational memory improves achieving exploration and exploitation? And finally, how does organizational ambidexterity affect the new product development performance?
    Case study Research population includes Knowledge-based Firms located in the science and technology Park of Tehran University. 155 companies are located in this Park, among these parks, 90 companies are development, 40 companies are growth and 25 are technology core companies.
    Materials and Methods In the present study, a researcher-made questionnaire which estimates the effect of innovative culture and organizational memory on the new product development performance was used and includes 25 questions. For validity purpose, face validity and for reliability purpose Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used. For ambidexterity and organizational memory scales, Lee et al. (2017) measurement and Dunham and Burt (2014) and Harvey (2012) with 4 questions were used. In this study, the definition of innovative culture by Lee et al. (2016) with 5 questions was used. Also, the scale of new product development performance by Chen et al. (2015) and Parker and Brey (2015) with 4 questions was used as the basis of the questionnaire. Structural equation modeling and LISREL software were used to test the hypothesis.
    Discussion and Results Findings show that the conceptual model has overall validity and all key paths in the model are statistically significant. The results indicate that while innovative culture and organizational memory can lead to higher new product development performance, organizational ambidexterity caused by innovative culture plays the mediating role. Findings show that innovative culture and organizational memory have a positive effect of exploration and exploitation; the results also show that innovative culture and organizational memory have a positive effect on ambidexterity. The results show that organizational ambidexterity (exploration and exploitation) has a positive impact on the new product development performance. The obtained results from the analyses showed that the effect of the increase in exploitation and exploration in the new product development performance is dependent on amount and direction of imbalance and can contribute to matching the ambidexterity mixed and balanced views. The results indicate that organizational memory improves organizational ambidexterity and in addition to having a direct effect on new product development performance, it indirectly affects it.
    Conclusion Findings showed pro-innovation culture and organizational memory have directly and indirectly (through organizational ambidexterity) effect on the new product development performance. The results also showed that pro-innovation culture and organizational memory through exploration and exploitation will help to better utilizing organizational memory to increase the new product development performance in Knowledge-based Firms.
    Keywords: Pro-innovation culture, Organizational Memory, New Product Development Performance, Organizational Ambidexterity, Knowledge-based Firms
  • Mohammad Ghasemi *, Elham Beygi Rad, Ali Margir, Mohsen Shykhyany Pages 225-249
    This study manufacturing and service companies as one of the most important types of firms the activity is studied and the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of firms operating in the zone special economic bushehr. To collect information from questionnaire open innovation Rangus (2014), strategic innovation of jafari (2013) and has been the company's performance as developed . The population of the study consisted of 30 manufacturing and Service Company operating in the zone special economic bushehr. The sampling in this research possible and random . Morgan table was used to determine the sample size. this means that the community had 440 active employees at the zone special economic bushehr. 205 of which 202 samples were collected. And for data analysis used path analysis and was used of test Tvalue. The results showed that strategic innovation and open innovation have a significant impact on corporate performance.Among the strategic innovation and open innovation dimensions, three dimensions of value innovation , innovation market market entry and sharing of knowledge and new technologies on the performance of companies operating in the zone special economic bushehr had appositive and significant effect.
    Introduction Innovation The process of getting ideas through customers is satisfactory. Also, turning knowledge into new products and services is also an innovation. One of the results of innovation is value creation and productivity, and thus the growth of commerce. Strategic innovation is the concept of existing industry competition in a completely different way that redefines and upgrades customer values. Contrary to traditional innovation, this different method of competition does not just include product innovation. Such innovation may be related to the concept of product, production or marketing of related products and products (Speed ​​Ashtiani, 2008: 143). Innovators can improve the outcomes of the company and assume that companies, in addition to internal organization ideas, also benefit from ideas outside the organization, and the boundaries between companies and environments Its permeability is permeable (Atuahene-Gima, 2005). It also encourages the effective use of less-used resources and thus improves performance (Chesbrough, 2006). The confrontation with the tidal wave of global-social, technological, and economic change is one of the reasons that, in a rapidly changing, progressive and globalized economy, can not be solved only through a kind of innovation, for example, technological innovation, Here, we need some kind of innovation that, by employing appropriate forms of innovation, will help organizations or business firms adapt themselves to the changing business environment as quickly as possible (Hejazi & Diasalar, 2011). The power of innovation is the most important determinant of performance. Companies with high capacity of innovation can achieve high performance by adapting the environment and developing new capabilities (Motaifi et al., 2010: 61). Production and service companies play an important role in the development of a community. Improvement in the quality and innovation of production will stimulate the growth of these companies (Sanchez, 1995). An organization that does not have creativity and innovation can not survive and disappear over time. Hence, organizations are continuously looking for ways to strengthen creativity and innovation and remove barriers in the organization. In many industries, companies are under pressure to improve their innovation abilities (Mirfakhredini et al., 2015). For manufacturing and service organizations, there is nothing but more efficient and attractive to customers, because if manufacturing organizations or services have the necessary effectiveness in attracting customers, in addition to increasing customer satisfaction (people), they reduce costs. Organizational and, in fact, increasing organizational efficiency. Given the widespread and diverse needs of people in the service sector, innovation in such organizations is urgent and necessary. Innovations in companies leave the repetition cycle and drown in the daily routine (Tide & Bustent, 2012:7). Strategic innovation and open innovation approaches can create a change in the performance of companies and address the weaknesses and bottlenecks of traditional approaches. The combination of these two variables is associated with the underlying function of companies that use firms to achieve high performance and compete with competitors and survive innovation, to look at innovation as an indispensable strategy, along with the changing environmental changes Organizations that are influential in identifying innovations and responding to these changes are the most appropriate. In the present research, we seek to answer the question that strategic innovation and open innovation have an impact on the performance of companies active in the special economic zone of Bushehr.
    Case study This study manufacturing and service companies as one of the most important types of firms the activity is studied and the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of firms operating in the zone special economic bushehr.
    Materials and Methods The present paper is based on the purpose of the application. The research method is descriptive correlational and data gathering method is a survey method. The purpose of the research is to investigate the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of companies using the Balanced Scorecard method. The statistical population of the study consists of managers and experts of 30 manufacturing companies and services in the special economic zone of Bushehr. The total number of these people is 440 people. Sampling in this research is a simple random probability that is selected among the employees of the companies active in the special economic zone of Bushehr. Morgan table is used to determine the sample size. So, for the 440 community of employees of the company active in the special economic zone of Bushehr, referring to the Morgan table, the sample number is 205 people.
    Discussion and Results The dramatic increase in global competition, along with a change in knowledge-based economy, creates a renewed emphasis on innovation. Rapid changes in the competitive environment create a new world of competition. This new economy is driven faster by other innovators by those who are innovative (creative, creating knowledge, or transforming it into new products and services). Innovation is at the head of everything supported by entrepreneurial action and aims to create value through the use of knowledge. Therefore, the superior value for the customer is transferred through innovation in organizations. Therefore, attention to innovative and strategic improvement of the performance of the companies.
    Conclusion Innovating market entry makes strategic innovators distract from the previous approach they serve their customers. For example, the advent of the Internet created a lot of opportunities for customers who used non-traditional methods. Therefore, market entry innovation is not limited to the use of new technologies for market access, but could include any new approach to marketing a company's products or services that are different from those of other competitors. Future researchers can examine the relationship between types of innovation with sustainable competitive advantage, different dimensions of business performance, or enterprise entrepreneurship in organizations or companies.
    Keywords: Open innovation, strategic innovation, corporate performance, Bushehr
  • Seyed Ali Davoudi, Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi *, Abdolmajid Imani Pages 251-276
    The higher education system, as an ideological and ethical reference, has a crucial and decisive role in empowering societies in different economic, social and cultural spheres. The need for such a critical role is to have good managers and managers. Therefore, the main concern of the higher education system in the third millennium is to identify, select and apply efficient, empowered and effective managers. Therefore, the present research aims at designing a comprehensive model of talent and For this purpose, in the first step, the primary factors that compose the model are the extensive review of theoretical literature (through systematic review) and interviews with experts (academic professors in the field of management as well as senior managers of the university and higher education institutions) that are targeted and The judgments were selected and identified with the content analysis approach and the Delphi technique in the form of 91 components. Then, using the Delphi technique, 15 sub-components were determined and finalized. In the next step, the Structural-Interpretative Modeling (ISM) method was used to establish a relationship between dimensions and provide a structural model for them.. Finally, expert opinions and analysis, a comprehensive model of talent and successor in five levels (the first level includes structure and process components, key posts, competency model, second level including performance compensation, assessment, education and education , Anti-Semitism, Capability Evaluation, Cultural Adaptation, Third Level Leadership, Reserve Treasury, Level Four, Participatory Motivation, and Level Five, Determining the Multi-Dimensional Job Pathway and Recruitment) was introduced for the higher education system.
    Introduction Human resources today are the most important factor in the success of organizations. In this regard, one of the factors that gives the organization's human resources superior to its competitors is the ability of employees (Asmaili and Amiri, 2016) and the main reason for increasing organizational performance, while creating Continuous competitive advantage is also important in increasing productivity (Ardestani and Varzeshkar, 2016). With the intensification of national and international competitions between universities and higher educational institutions, global rankings, today, the outlook for higher education has varied greatly from the past, with competitive pressures and international growth affecting many universities around the world. , Including our country, have sought to find and implement globalization strategies (Filippo, Casani & Sanz-Casado, 2015: 185).
    Among the criteria that cause the main difference of this research with other researches and in some ways they can be called as indicators of innovation and knowledge of research are: comprehensiveness of the model and taking into account all the dimensions and components affecting the process. Talent and successor Unlike other models that have often been considered dimensionally, the special focus of the model on dimensions and components of the suitability model, which has not been addressed in previous research either on this topic or in much A partial mention has been made, focusing on the value orientation of the human resources of the academic community in society Persian and Islamic universities and third and fourth generation universities and confirmation of the value dimensions in the model which provided the basis for a native proportional model. The research was based on the country's strategic and developmental plans and the documents of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology With a futuristic approach. The most important aspect of the distinction and significant contribution of this research, the components of the succession treasury, is the participatory motivation of this model, which has not been considered in the previous studies, or is not considered in isolation, in the previous studies.
    Materials and Methods This research is descriptive in terms of purpose and in terms of applied results. In this research, which is carried out using mixed (qualitative and qualitative-quantitative) methods, the effective factors of the process of talent and succession in the higher education system are identified and are stratified by structural interpretation modeling.
    Noblity and Hir (1988) argue that beyond this is a kind of qualitative study that extracts information and findings from other related studies with similar topics and provides a systematic approach to researchers by combining different qualitative research into the discovery of the subjects and metaphors of Hadid And fundamentally (Balouch and Rastegar, 2015).
    Discussion and Results In this research, with a comprehensive review of literature on the field of talent and reintegration inside and outside the country, 119 elements of the establishment of the system of nomination and nomination, using the content analysis (directional and analytic) and semi-structured interviews extracted The Delphi technique has been used by experts using the expert panel methodology, because it is considering introducing components that are in line with the specific conditions of universities and higher education institutions.
    After reviewing, combining and eliminating the same components, 92 main components related to the research topic were identified using the Kendall coordinate coefficient and Friedman method from a total of 92 components, based on the panel's viewpoint and based on the average (based on the basis of the average 35 items were identified and in the second stage, 35 questionnaires (35 items) were designed and reassigned to the panel of colleagues, based on the basis of the average score: 1 5, mean: 17/4, and again, the variables that received a score less than the average were also eliminated, and finally 15 components as the author
    Conclusion The role, importance and nature of universities and institutions of higher education are not limited to equipping and upgrading the level of scientific and practical expertise of students, but also in various fields of economic, political, religious, social life skills and so on. Management levels in higher education institutions by providing opportunities for participation, autonomy for educational groups, strengthening the field of creativity, strengthening the reward system, welcoming new ideas, providing conditions for the realization of new plans and adopting supportive methods, the field of contributions And increase individual and organizational innovations. That in turn It can have many effects on national and international scenes. On the other hand, one of the most important resources of each organization, which can provide a significant competitive advantage while maintaining a continuous competitive advantage, is the main source of value creation for the organization, its human resources. Hence, universities and institutions of higher education should focus on the quality of human resources in order to maintain, maintain and improve the performance of the organization and perform the tasks assigned to them, and with a proper and targeted planning process to identify, attract and promote creative, entrepreneurial and civilian human resources. Therefore, by studying the systematic literature of literature, as well as processes and models of talent and substitution, semi-structured interviews, Delphi technique, Kendall coefficient and Friedman test, 15 components are the main components of the talent and succession system and 3 components As a causative factor, the establishment of a model has been identified and agreed upon and consisted of causal factors (talent crisis (evolving workforce), strategic goals, responsiveness and flexibility), underlying factors (evolution leadership, structures, and processes). Cultural competence), modeling competency (futuristic cognition, identifying strategic positions, Key competencies), talent (capacity assessment, substitution treasury, need assessment, external identification and absorption), empowerment and development (compilation of a formal multidimensional career path, education and training, a systematic evaluation system) and maintenance ( System of compensation for performance, participatory motivation and outlook and the results) and then, using structural interpretative equations, prioritized and ranked, and a model is proposed to strengthen the quantitative and qualitative human resources of universities and higher education institutions.
    Keywords: Talent, Succession Planning, excellent education system, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM)